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Nov 18, 2017 - Citation: Niranjana Prabhu K. J., et al., (2017) Screening of Turmeric Cultivars for Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, 2017, pp.-4876-4879. Available online at http://www.bioinfopublication.org/jouarchive.php?opt=&jouid=BPJ0000217

Research Article SCREENING OF TURMERIC CULTIVARS FOR RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (Meloidogyne incognita) NIRANJANA PRABHU K. J.1*, KANTHARAJU V. 1, THAMMAIAH N. 2, MAHESH Y.S. 3 AND PUSHPA T. N.1 1Kittur

Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, 591218, University of Horticultural Sciences, Udyanagiri, Bagalkot, 587104, Karnataka of Horticulture, Mysore, 571130, University of Horticultural Sciences, Udyanagiri, Bagalkot, 587104, Karnataka 3College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Udyanagiri, Bagalkot, 587104, Karnataka *Corresponding Author: [email protected] 2College

Received: July 29, 2017; Revised: November 11, 2017; Accepted: November 12, 2017; Published: November 18, 2017 Abstract- A pot experiment was conducted to identify the resistant source to root-knot nematode, M. incognita. A total of eighteen cultivars viz., Prabha, Roma, Rajapuri, CLI-21, Allepey, CLI-325, CLI-327, Cudappa, Co-2, Pule Swaroop, Bidar Local, GSR-2, Salem, Suroma, Co-1, Tekkurpet, Prathibha and Krishna were screened against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Among the eighteen cultivars screened, none of the cultivars were found resistant to root-knot nematode, M. incognita. The cultivars Cudappa & CLI-325 were found to be moderately resistant with gall index of 3. The Salem &Suroma varieties were found highly susceptible to root-knot nematode with the gall index of 5. The other remaining varieties viz., Prabha, Roma, Rajapuri, CLI-21, Allepey, CLI-327, Co-2, Pule Swaroop, Bidar Local, GSR-2, Co-1, Tekkurpet, Prathibha and Krishna were found to be susceptible to root-knot nematode, M. incognita with the gall index of 4. Keywords-Turmeric, Screening, Meloidogyne incognita. Resistance, Susceptible. Citation: Niranjana Prabhu K. J., et al., (2017) Screening of Turmeric Cultivars for Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, ISSN: 0975-3710 & E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, pp.-4876-4879. Copyright: Copyright©2017 Niranjana Prabhu K. J., et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction Turmeric is a high value export oriented important commercial crop among the spices. Among the major biotic constraints of turmeric, diseases play an important role and it is severely affected by soil borne and foliar diseases viz., rhizome root, root-knot nematode, leaf blotch and leaf spot diseases. The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is a major problem, which causes galls or knots in the rhizomes and causes considerable yield loses. Screening of turmeric varieties against root-knot nematode, M. incognita helps to know the resistant source. Growing of resistant varieties provides ideal, environmentally safe, economic and effective method to maintain nematode population below economical damaging level. Materials and Methods Apot experiment was conducted with eighteen turmeric cultivars [Table-1] planted in earthen pots filled with sterilized soil. Forty-five days after planting the nematodes were inoculated at the rate of 6000 nematodes per 3000 g soil (two nematodes per gram of soil), into four holes made in the soil around the base of each plant. Regular watering and weeding were followed. Three replications were maintained for each variety. The plants were carefully removed after completion of nematode life cycle. Susceptible, tolerant and resistant types from the screened germplasm was recorded based on the root-knot index of 0 to 5 scales [1]. Termination of the experiment Plants of all the replications were terminated at 180 days after inoculation of nematodes and recorded observations on characters of host and nematode.

Observations recorded on host: Plant height (cm), number of leaves, root length (cm), fresh and dry shoot weight (g), fresh and dry rhizome weight (g), root length (cm). Observations recorded on nematode: Number of galls per root system, soil nematode population, root-knot index. The number of galls per plant was counted and the root- knot indexing was done as detailed below [1]. Root-knot Index for Meloidogyneincognita Grade 0 1 2 3 4 5

Description No galls 1 to 2 galls/ root system 3 to 10 galls/ root system 11 to 30 galls/ root system 31 to 100 galls/ root system >100 galls/ root system

Reaction Immune Highly resistant Resistant Moderately resistant Susceptible Highly susceptible

Result The data on the effect of M. incognita on growth and development of eighteen turmeric varieties is presented below. Growth and yield parameters The change in plant growth parameters of different turmeric varieties due to infection of M. incognita were shown in [Table-1&2], [Fig-1, 2 & 3]. With respect to number of leaves at harvest, the minimum number of leaves was recorded in variety Roma (6.67) followed by Alleppey (7.00), CO-1(7.00), Prabha (7.33), Salem (7.33), CLI-21 (8.00), Rajapuri (8.33), CO-2(8.67) and GSR-2 (8.67).

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, 2017 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Screening of Turmeric Cultivars for Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) However, the highest number of leaves was observed in variety CLI-325 and CLI327 (12.33) followed by Cudappa (11.33), Bidar Local (12.00), Suroma (12.33), Tekkurpet (11.67) and Prathibha (10.67).

followed by Prabha (19.70 g) and Salem (19.77 g). Yield parameters The change in yield parameters of different turmeric varieties due to infection of M. incognita is shown in [Table-2]. The lowest fresh weight of rhizome yield was recorded in the variety Prabha (165.00 g) followed by Krishna (166.67 g), Salem (169.00 g), Rajapuri (169.33) and CLI-21 (180.00). The highest fresh weight of rhizome was observed in variety Cudappa (305.33 g) followed by CO-2 (291.00 g), Tekkurpet (235.00 g). Table-1 Reaction of root-knot nematode, M. incognita on plant growth parameters of different turmeric varieties. Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18

Cultivar

Plant height (cm) 29.00 32.00 30.67 32.33 30.67 32.67 32.67 36.00 34.00

180 DAI 45.00 46.67 51.00 50.00 54.33 48.00 63.33 69.33 57.33

Root length (cm) 16.33 17.67 21.33 21.67 19.67 20.67 17.67 22.00 22.00

20.67

32.67

50.00

19.00

21.00 20.33 22.00 21.00 20.33 19.67 20.00 21.67

32.00 29.67 31.00 32.00 30.67 30.67 31.00 31.00 1.15 3.29

53.00 53.00 43.00 43.67 44.33 50.33 56.33 45.67 1.71 4.91

21.67 18.33 21.00 23.00 20.33 21.00 21.33 24.33 1.55 4.45

No. of leaves

45 DAI

90 DAI

7.33 6.67 8.33 8.00 7.00 12.33 12.33 11.33 8.67

19.67 20.33 21.33 20.67 20.67 21.33 22.67 22.00 22.00

9.67 12.00 8.67 7.33 12.33 7.00 11.67 10.67 8.67 0.77 2.20

Prabha Roma Rajapuri CLI-21 Allepey CLI-325 CLI-327 Cudappa Co-2 Pule Swaroop Bidar Local GSR-2 Salem Suroma Co-1 Tekkurpet Prathibha Krishna S.Em± CD @ 5%

NS

*DAI- days after inoculation

Table-2 Reaction of root-knot nematode, M. incognita on growth and yield parameters of turmeric varieties. Treatment

At 90 days after inoculation (DAI), the maximum plant height (36.00 cm) was recorded in variety Cudappa followed by CO-2 (34.00 cm), CLI-325 (32.67 cm), CLI-327 (32.67 cm), Pule Swaroop (32.67 cm), CLI-21 (32.33 cm). The minimum plant height was recorded by Prabha (29.00 cm) and GSR-2 (29.69). At 180 DAI, the highest plant height was recorded in the variety Cudappa (69.33 cm) followed by CLI-327 (63.33), CO-2 (57.33). The lowest plant height was seen in variety Salem (43.00 cm) followed by Suroma (43.67), CO-1 (44.33), Prabha (45.00), Krishna (45.67) and Roma (46.67). The maximum root length was observed in the variety Krishna (24.33 cm) followed by Suroma (23.00 cm) and least was observed in Prabha (16.33 cm). The lowest fresh weight of shoot was observed in variety GSR-2 (92.67 g) followed by Prabha (94.33 g). However, the highest fresh weight of shoot was recorded in variety Cudappa (126.67 g) followed by Bidar Local (122.67 g), CLI325 (121.67g) and CO-2 (119.33g). The highest dry weight of shoot was observed in variety Cudappa (25.17 g) followed by CLI-325 (24.33 g) and lowest was observed in variety Krishna (19.5 g)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18

Cultivar

Prabha Roma Rajapuri CLI-21 Allepey CLI-325 CLI-327 Cudappa Co-2 Pule Swaroop Bidar Local GSR-2 Salem Suroma Co-1 Tekkurpet Prathibha Krishna S.Em± CD @ 5%

Shoot wight (g) Fresh Dry 94.33 19.70 104.00 21.10 109.33 22.00 104.33 20.70 108.33 22.00 121.67 24.33 112.33 22.00 126.67 25.17 119.33 23.63 114.00 20.83 122.67 23.77 92.67 19.23 101.67 19.77 105.67 22.17 112.67 22.27 106.00 22.83 104.67 22.17 98.33 19.50 3.94 0.67 11.29 1.92

Rhizome weight (g) Fresh Dry 165.00 31.33 195.00 39.16 169.33 33.43 180.00 33.43 207.67 36.00 197.67 39.36 207.67 40.80 305.33 60.66 291.00 57.50 203.33 40.66 203.67 40.56 177.33 36.16 169.00 33.76 195.00 39.16 210.33 41.83 235.00 46.83 208.00 41.53 166.67 34.00 7.17 1.18 20.57 3.37

The highest dry weight of rhizome was recorded in the variety Cudappa (60.66 g) followed by CO-2 (57.50 g) and Tekkurpet (46.83.00 g). Lowest dry weight of rhizome was recorded in variety Prabha (31.33 g) followed by Rajapuri (33.43 g) and CLI-321 (33.43 g). Nematode parameters Number of galls and gall index

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, 2017 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Niranjana Prabhu K. J., Kantharaju V., Thammaiah N., Mahesh Y.S. and Pushpa T. N. Number of galls and gall index in roots of different turmeric varieties due to infection of M. incognita is shown in [Table-3]. Among the eighteen varieties screened the highest number of galls per root system was recorded in the variety Salem (102.67) followed by Suroma (102.00) and Prabha (94.33). The lowest number of galls was recorded in the variety Cudappa (28.67) followed by CLI-327 (29.00). The varieties Salem and Suroma showed a gall index of 5 and remaining varieties recorded the gall index of 4. Except the variety CLI-327 and Cudappa showed a gall index of 3.

Number of egg mass and egg mass index The highest number of egg masses per root system was recorded in the variety Prabha (62.33) followed by Salem (60.33) and CLI-325 (59.33). The lowest number of egg masses per root system was recorded in variety Cudappa (27.67) followed by CLI-327 (29.00). The Cudappa and CLI-327 varieties were having the egg mass index of 3 and all other varieties showed the egg mass index of 4.

Table-3 Reaction of root-knot nematode, M. incognita on number of galls, gall index, egg masses, egg mass index and host reaction of different turmeri c varieties. Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18

Cultivar

Prabha Roma Rajapuri CLI-21 Allepey CLI-325 CLI-327 Cudappa Co-2 Pule Swaroop Bidar Local GSR-2 Salem Suroma Co-1 Tekkurpet Prathibha Krishna S.Em± CD @ 5%

No. of galls/ root system

Root gall index

94.33 83.33 85.33 65.33 67.00 86.00 29.00 28.67 78.00

4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4

No.of egg masses/ root system 62.33 53.67 43.00 53.67 55.33 59.33 29.00 27.67 50.00

81.00

4

80.67 52.33 102.67 102.00 61.67 72.00 50.67 47.00 3.49 10.01

4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 -

Nematode population in soil (200 cc soil) Among the eighteen varieties screened, the lowest population of M. incognita was recorded from the rhizosphere of the variety Cudappa (1499.00) followed by CLI325 (1656.67) and CO-2 (1664.33). The higher nematode population was observed in variety Roma (2638.67) followed by Prabha (2089.33), Suroma (2034.33), Co-1 (2027.00) and Tekkurpet (2024.67). Host reaction Among the eighteen varieties screened none of the varieties were found resistant to M. incognita, however the variety Cudappa and CLI-325 varieties were found to be moderately resistant with gall index of 3 and Salem & Suroma were found highly susceptible with the gall index of 5 and all other varieties were susceptible with the gall index of 4. Discussion The results on the effect of M. incognita on growth, yields and nematode parameters of eighteen turmeric varieties after nematode inoculation are discussed below. Growth and yield parameters of varieties With respect to number of leaves at harvest the highest number of leaves was observed in the variety CLI-325 and CLI_327 (12.33) followed by Cudappa (11.33), Bidar Local (12.00), Suroma (12.33), Tekkurpet (11.67) and Prathibha (10.67). At 90 days after inoculation (DAI), the maximum plant height (36.00 cm) was recorded in variety Cudappa, followed by CO-2 (34.00 cm), CLI-325 (32.67 cm), CLI-327 (32.67 cm), Pule Swaroop (32.67 cm), CLI-21 (32.33 cm). The minimum plant height was recorded by Prabha (29.00 cm) and GSR-2 (29.69). At 180 DAI, the highest plant height was recorded in the variety Cudappa (69.33

Egg mass index

Soil nematode population

Host reaction

4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4

2089.33 2638.67 1938.67 1961.33 1970.00 1656.67 1797.67 1499.00 1664.33

Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Moderately resistant Moderately resistant Susceptible

49.33

4

2004.33

Susceptible

42.33 47.33 60.33 47.33 39.33 55.00 36.67 37.00 2.34 6.71

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 -

2021.33 2016.33 2005.00 2034.33 2027.00 2024.67 1983.67 1943.33 69.67 199.83

Susceptible Susceptible Highly susceptible Highly susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible -

cm) followed by CLI-327 (63.33), CO-2 (57.33). The lowest plant height was seen in variety Salem (43.00 cm) followed by Suroma (43.67), CO-1 (44.33), Prabha (45.00), Krishna (45.67) and Roma (46.67). The maximum root length was observed in the variety Krishna (24.33 cm) followed by suroma (23.00 cm) and least was observed in Prabha (16.33 cm). The lowest fresh weight of shoot was observed in variety GSR-2 (92.67 g) followed by Prabha (94.33 g). However, the highest fresh weight of shoot was recorded in variety Cudappa (126.67 g) followed by Bidar Local (122.67 g), CLI325 (121.67g) and CO-2 (119.33g) and the highest dry weight of shoot was observed in variety Cudappa (25.17 g) followed by CLI-325 (24.33 g). Yield parameters The highest fresh weight of rhizome was observed in variety Cudappa (305.33 g) followed by CO-2 (291.00 g) and Tekkurpet (235.00 g). The lowest fresh weight of rhizome yield was recorded in the variety Prabha (165.00 g) followed by Krishna (166.67 g), Salem (169.00 g), Rajapuri (169.33) and CLI-21 (180.00). The highest dry weight of rhizome was recorded in the variety Cudappa (60.66 g) followed by CO-2 (57.50 g) and Tekkurpet (46.83.00 g). Lowest dry weight of rhizome was recorded in variety Prabha (31.33 g) followed by Rajapuri (33.43 g) and CLI-321 (33.43 g). Nematode parameters Among the eighteen varieties screened the highest number of galls was recorded in the variety Salem (102.67) followed by Suroma (102.00), Prabha (94.33). The lowest number of galls was recorded in the variety Cudappa (28.67) followed by CLI-327 (29.00). The varieties Salem and Suroma showed a gall index of 5 and remaining all other varieties with a gall index 4. The variety CLI-327 and Cudappa showed a gall index of 3. The highest number of egg mass was recorded in the variety Prabha (62.33 per

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, 2017 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Screening of Turmeric Cultivars for Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) plant) followed by Salem (60.33), CLI-325 (59.33) varieties. The lowest number of egg mass per plant was recorded in variety Cudappa (27.67) followed by CLI-327 (29.00). Cudappa and CLI-327 varieties are having egg mass index of 3 and all other varieties with egg mass index of 4. Among the eighteen varieties screened, the lowest population of M. incognita was recorded from the rhizosphere of Cudappa (1499.00) followed by CLI-325 (1656.67) and higher nematode population in variety Roma (2638.67) followed by Prabha (2089.33), Suroma (2034.33), Co-1 (2027.00) and Tekkurpet (2024.67). Among the eighteen varieties screened none of the varieties were found resistant to M. incognita, however the variety Cudappa and CLI-325 varieties were found to be moderately resistant with gall index of 3 and Salem & Suroma were found highly susceptible with the gall index of 5 and all other varieties were susceptible with the gall index of 4. Conclusion Several investigators have screened a number of turmeric lines against root-knot nematodes and reported that lines viz.,5379-1-2, 5363-6-3,Kodur, Cheyapuspa, 5335-1-7, 5335-27, Ca-17/1, Cli-124/6, Cli-339, Armoor, Duggirala, Guntur-1, Guntur-9, Rajampet, Sugandham, and Appalapadu as resistant to M. incognita [2]. The high-yielding varieties PCT-8, PCT-10, Suguna, and Sudharshana were found to be free from the infestation of M. incognita in Andhra Pradesh, India [3]. Eight turmeric accessions were found resistant to M. incognita at IISR, Calicut, Kerala State, India [4]. They identified seven root-knot nematode resistant accessions in turmeric (Accs. 35, 48, 79, 130, 142, 146 and 200) [5]. Acknowledgement / Funding: Authors are thankful to Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, 591218, University of Horticultural Sciences, Udyanagiri, Bagalkot, 587104, Karnataka Author Contributions: All author equally contributed Author statement: All authors read, agree and approved the final manuscript Ethical approval: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Conflict of Interest: None declared References [1] Taylor A.L. and Sasser N. (1978) Biology, Identification and control of RootKnot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) North Carolina State Univ., Graphics, p. 111. [2] Mani A., Naidu P. H. and Madhavachari S. (1987) Inter. Nematol. Network Newslett., 2, 11-12. [3] Rao P.S., Krishna M.R., Srinivas C., Meenakumari K. and Rao A.M. (1994) Short-duration, Indian Hortic., 39, 55–56. [4] Eapen S.J., Ramana K.V., Sasikumar S. and Johnson K.G. (1999) Proceedings of National Symposium on Rational Approaches in Nematode management for Sustainable Agriculture, Nov. 23-25, Nematological Society of India, New Delhi, pp: 142-144. [5] Prasath D., Eapen S. J. and Sasikumar B. (2016) Indian J. Agric. Sciences., 86(9), 1189–92.

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 51, 2017 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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