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International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 52, 2016, pp.-2504-2507. Available online at http://www.bioinfopublication.org/jouarchive.php?opt=&jouid=BPJ0000217

Research Article STUDIES ON BLENDING NECTAR BEVERAGE IN DIFFERENT RATIO OF LITCHI AND PINEAPPLE JUICE SINGH BALVEER*, CHAKARBORTY IVI AND MARAK DOMBEWARISA S. Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB, 741252, India. *Corresponding Author: [email protected] Received: August 23, 2016; Revised: August 30, 2016; Accepted: September 04, 2016; Published: October 30, 2016 Abstract- Studies on different combination of litchi and pineapple blended nectar were evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory characteristics and shelf life in refrigerator temperature. Some of the important findings of present nectar investigation are summarized as total soluble solids, reducing sugar and total sugar showed gradual increase in the duration of 8 months and decreased in all treatment of blended nectar at low temperature till end of storage. Highest content of TSS and total sugar were found in treatment 100% litchi juice, reducing sugar content in 100% pineapple juice after 8 months of storage. The maximum titritable acidity content was showed in treatment 75% litchi+25% pineapple (0.50 per cent) 9 months after storage as compared to other treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid and pH value in all treatments. The organoleptic test 100% litchi and 100% pineapple juice ranked maximum acceptable with highest score in colour, taste and overall acceptability after 9 months of storage. Keywords- Litchi, pineapple, ascorbic acid, total sugar, organoleptic quality Citation: Singh Balveer, et al., (2016) Studies on Blending Nectar Beverage in Different Ratio of Litchi and Pineapple Juice. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, ISSN: 0975-3710 & E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 52, pp.-2504-2507. Copyright: Copyright©2016 Singh Balveer, et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Academic Editor / Reviewer: Brijesh Kumar Singh Introduction Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), comes under to the Sapindaceae family, it is an evergreen fruit tree native to South China. The major litchi growing countries are India, China, Thailand, South Africa, Australia and USA. The sugar content ranges from 7 to 21% depending on climate and cultivars of litchi fruit. The litchi fruit is being utilized to get the different product for preservation and processing out of the season. The litchi fruit juice can be eaten directly and can be used for juice, vinegar and wine or ice creams [1,2]. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a leading member of the family Bromeliacea e[3]. India ranked sixth with a share of about 8% of the world production of pineapples. It is rich in vitamin C, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron and protein, bromelin is mostly used as a drug for the oral systemic treatment of inflammatory, blood-coagulation and some malignant diseases [4]. Kew and Queen are most important cultivars of pineapple which are mainly used for processing. Pineapple are consumed as fresh form or used for juice, jam and squash. Making of beverage products will ensure security for pineapple growers as to meet up the high demand throughout the country and the world as a whole. The annual world production of pineapple around 18 million tons, roughly 1/3 is being industrially processed, mainly by canning (30%) and to juice (4%), being 2/3 consumed as fresh fruit [5]. Therefore, studies were made to develop blended nectar from litchi cv. Bombai and pineapple cv. Queen. Materialsand Methods The pineapple cv. Queen free from bruises and white spots were procured from mandi of Kalyani and ripe litchi fruits were taken from Horticulture Research Station of manduri Farm of BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia in 2013-14. The fresh three pineapple fruit replicated three times was subjected to chemical analysis and ten litchi fruits of replicated three times for chemical analysis. Thereafter fruit were peeled to extract the juice and litchi juice was collected after peeling excluding all the seed. Nectar was then prepared according to following flow- chart [Fig-1].

Blended juice (pineapple and litchi) Preparation of syrup (sugar + citric acid + water) according recipe Mixing up syrup with juice Addition of preservatives Bottling Crown corking Pasteurization (20 minutes) Cooling Labeling Storage Fig-1 Flow chart for preparation of blended nectar of pineapple and litchi juice Following six treatment of blended nectar with each treatment, three replications were tried. T1 100% litchi juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 100ppm So2 T2 100% litchi juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 0.3% black salt + 100ppm So2 T3 100% pineapple juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 100ppm So2

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 52, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Studies on Blending Nectar Beverage in Different Ratio of Litchi and Pineapple Juice T4 100% litchi juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 0.3% black salt + 100ppm So2 T5 75% litchi juice + 25% pineapple juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 100ppm So2 T6 75% litchi juice + 25% pineapple juice + 15% Sugar + 0.3% citric acid + 0.3% black salt + 100ppm So2

method described by [6] and pH reading estimated by pH meter. The organoleptic evaluation of nectar of different treatment was done according to a panel of six judges using hedonic rating scale give by [7]. Results and Discussion The initial bio-chemical parameters of blended litchi nectar were analyzed by appropriate analytical methods and the values so obtained are presented in the [Table-1]. The reading for highest and lowest bio-chemical parameters of blended litchi and pineapple nectar was observed for TSS content in 100 % litchi (15.23 oBrix) and 100 % pineapple and 100 % pineapple + black salt (15.00 oBrix) whereas ascorbic acid observed in 100 % litchi (18.98 mg/100g) and 100 % litchi + black salt (15.63 mg/100g), pH in 100 % litchi (3.51) and 100 % pineapple + black salt (3.03), total sugar in 100 % pineapple (13.34 per cent) and 75 % litchi + 25 % pineapple + black salt (10.54 per cent), reducing sugar in 100 % litchi (8.89%) and 100 % pineapple + black salt (7.14%) but titra table acidity was observed in 100 % litchi + black salt (0.19 per cent) and 100 % pineapple + black salt and 75 % litchi + 25 5 pineapple was same (0.13 per cent), respectively.

After preparation of blended nectar of litchi and pineapple, juice organoleptic evaluation was taken and then result obtained as give the [Table-1]. The nectar was taken initial chemical parameters after that chemical parameters were evaluated at monthly interval for nine months of storage. The different chemical parameters were evaluated such as total soluble solid, acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, total sugar and pH. Total Soluble Solids (T.S.S.) were estimated using a hand refractometer. The Titrable acidity was determined by titrating against 0.1 NaOH and expressed as anhydrous citric acid, the ascorbic acid (mg/100g) content of fruit was determined by using 2, 6 dichlorophenol-indophenol dye by visual titration method. Reducing sugars and total sugars content of the fruits were estimated following the standard

Table-1 Chemical characteristics of litchi nectar at initial stage Treatment

TSS (oBrix)

Acidity (%)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

15.23 15.20 15.00 15.00 15.13 15.18 0.060 NS

0.15 0.19 0.17 0.13 0.13 0.17 0.002 0.007

Ascorbic acid (mg/100g) 18.98 15.63 16.88 16.10 18.98 18.65 0.656 1.965

The TSS of litchi and pineapple blended nectar showed increasing from 15.00 to 18.98 oBrix during storage at refrigerated temperature up to 8 months [Table-2]. However, nectar prepared from treatment 100 % pineapple + black salt recorded the lowest TSS value (17.40 °Brix) whereas highest (18.98 °Brix)TSS in 100 % litchi after 8 months of storage period followed by 100 % pineapple(18.33 oBrix).

Reducing sugar (%) 8.89 7.67 8.52 7.14 7.72 7.37 0.085 0.255

Total sugar (%)

pH

13.23 10.82 13.34 12.18 11.03 10.54 0.322 0.964

3.51 3.39 3.14 3.03 3.31 3.25 0.005 0.014

Similar trend were observed in other treatments showed a gradual increase in TSS values of storage at low temperature. After 9 months of storage periods TSS are decreases in all treatments of bended nectar. An increase in total soluble solid of nectar was noticed during storage. This might be due to hydrolysis of polysaccharides into monosaccharide and oligosaccharides [8].

Table-2 Changes in Total soluble solids (oBrix) contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 15.43 15.45 15.23 15.00 15.17 15.23 0.053 0.158

2 Months 15.58 15.68 15.43 15.00 15.23 15.43 0.040 0.121

3 Months 15.83 16.08 15.58 15.23 15.55 15.58 0.042 0.126

Total soluble solid (per cent) 4 Months 5 Months 6 Months 16.25 16.83 17.60 16.58 16.83 17.13 15.68 16.08 16.63 15.43 15.58 16.20 16.08 16.48 16.80 15.83 16.75 17.00 0.031 0.026 0.014 0.092 0.077 0.043

It was apparent from the [Table-3] that acid content of the blended nectar showed a gradual decreasing in storage duration up to 9 months at refrigerated temperature. The titrable acidity decreased up to 9 months of the refrigerated storage from 0.13 to 0.50 per cent. The high amount of acid content was observed in 75 % litchi + 25 % pineapple juice(0.50 per cent) followed by 100 % litchi + black salt and 100 % pineapple + black salt (0.46 per cent) and was lowest in 100

7 Months 17.98 17.03 17.48 16.85 16.98 17.13 0.035 0.104

8 Months 18.98 18.05 18.33 17.40 17.55 17.90 0.032 0.097

9 Months 18.00 17.00 17.43 16.38 17.03 17.00 0.024 0.073

% litchi (0.41 per cent) after 9 months of storage. But the titrable acidity per cent was non-significant at 4 months of storage. The titrable acidity were increase as a function of storage might be due to the degradation of sugars into carbonyl groups or it could also be due to the fermentation of the drinks which might have occurred as reported by[9].

Table-3 Changes in total acidity (per cent) contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 0.13 0.19 0.16 0.13 0.13 0.16 0.001 0.004

2 Months 0.13 0.20 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.002 0.007

3 Months 0.16 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.007 0.020

4 Months 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.19 0.009 NS

Acidity (per cent) 5 Months 6 Months 0.27 0.28 0.21 0.32 0.25 0.26 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.38 0.22 0.35 0.009 0.012 0.026 0.035

7 Months 0.37 0.43 0.38 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.013 0.038

8 Months 0.41 0.44 0.44 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.002 0.006

9 Months 0.41 0.46 0.44 0.46 0.50 0.45 0.006 0.017

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Singh Balveer, Chakarborty Ivi and Marak Dombewarisa S. Data presented in [Table-4] show that the pH value was decrease of blended nectar during the storage period at low temperature. This decrease in pH is related to the increase of total acidity values. The pH value decreased from 3.01 to 2.43. The pH content was significantly higher in 100 % litchi (2.85) than 100 %

litchi + black salt (2.84) and 75 %, litchi and 25 % pineapple (2.72) after 9 months of storage. The lowest pH value was found in 100 % pineapple + black salt (2.43) after 9 months in storage at refrigerated temperature. The pH values after 90 days of storage are decreased stored at 5°C under refrigerated storage conditions [10].

Table-4 Changes in pH contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 3.51 3.38 3.13 3.01 3.31 3.24 0.006 0.019

2 Months 3.24 3.23 2.87 2.87 3.12 3.04 0.003 0.008

3 Months 3.22 3.18 2.87 2.76 3.06 2.98 0.022 0.065

pH 5 Months 3.16 3.14 2.80 2.73 3.02 2.97 0.027 0.082

4 Months 3.20 3.14 2.85 2.75 3.05 2.98 0.015 0.044

[Table-5], represents the data regarding nutritional characteristics of the preparations. Ascorbic acid decreased significantly with increase in the storage duration throughout the observation period. The ascorbic acid decreased up to 9 month of the refrigerated storage from 15.63 mg/100g to 10.25 mg/100g. The treatment 100 % litchi and 100 % pineapple recorded the highest ascorbic acid value (12.38 mg/100g) and lowest (10.25 mg/100g) in 100 % litchi +black salt, 9 months after storage period. Similar trend were recorded in other treatments

6 Months 3.10 3.11 2.74 2.58 2.86 2.81 0.017 0.051

7 Months 2.88 2.85 2.53 2.45 2.73 2.70 0.002 0.007

8 Months 2.85 2.84 2.53 2.43 2.73 2.70 0.002 0.007

9 Months 2.85 2.84 2.52 2.43 2.72 2.70 0.003 0.008

showed a gradual decrease in ascorbic acid values after 9 months of storage at refrigerated temperature. Decrease in ascorbic acid content might be attributed to the increase in tannin [11, 12]. The result of litchi blended nectar indicated that, the ascorbic acid content in refrigerated temperatures decreased due to the fact that ascorbic acid being sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and easily oxidized in presence of oxygen by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic catalyst [13].

Table-5 Changes in ascorbic acid (mg/100g.) contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 18.65 15.63 16.50 16.03 17.50 17.50 0.399 1.196

2 Months 17.50 14.38 16.50 15.88 16.88 16.88 0.503 1.507

3 Months 16.30 13.50 16.30 15.63 16.13 16.30 0.317 0.948

Ascorbic Acid (mg/100g.) 5 Months 6 Months 15.68 15.63 13.20 12.20 15.63 15.53 13.75 13.65 15.53 13.20 16.20 16.13 0.451 0.451 1.349 1.349

4 Months 16.10 13.35 16.20 14.03 15.63 16.25 0.520 1.558

The data presented in the [Table-6] showed the changes in reducing sugar content of blended nectar during storage at low temperature. Like TSS and total sugar content of litchi nectar, reducing sugar also showed a gradual increasing trend with increase in the duration of 8 months of storage at low temperature. The

7 Months 13.13 10.50 13.35 13.35 12.70 15.53 0.420 1.257

8 Months 12.50 10.35 12.50 12.38 12.38 12.38 0.285 0.854

9 Months 12.38 10.25 12.38 12.25 12.38 12.38 0.132 0.395

maximum amount of reducing sugar content was found 100 % pineapple (10.26%) followed by 100 % litchi (10.13%) after 8 months of storage and till end of storage are decreased in all treatment of blended nectar.

Table-6 Changes in reducing sugar (per cent) contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 8.97 7.98 8.96 8.03 8.05 8.42 0.077 0.230

2 Months 9.26 8.13 8.98 8.05 8.13 8.45 0.087 0.260

3 Months 9.32 8.41 9.39 8.27 8.54 9.14 0.088 0.264

4 Months 9.64 9.06 9.62 8.82 8.99 9.28 0.099 0.296

Reducing Sugar (per cent) 5 Months 6 Months 9.67 10.02 9.25 9.58 10.11 10.42 9.23 9.69 9.64 9.77 9.42 9.85 0.125 0.103 0.373 0.307

Data pertaining to total sugar content of blended nectar have recorded in increasing trend with increase in the duration of storage in refrigerated temperature up to 8 months [Table-7]. The total sugar content of 100 % pineapple(16.67 per cent) and 100 % litchi (16.03 per cent) was significantly higher followed by 100 % litchi + black salt (15.80 per cent) and 75 % litchi + 25 % pineapple + black salt treatment had minimum content of total sugar (15.03 per cent) at end of the storage period. The total sugar content was decreased during 9 months of storage period at refrigerated temperature. An increase in total sugar and reducing sugar may be due to inversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose under the acidic condition [14]. The results from [Table-8] showed that the blended nectar thus prepared as well as nectar from individual fruit was quite acceptable till the end of the storage period. Among the treatments, 100 % pineapple treatment had highest score for

7 Months 10.43 9.92 10.51 9.76 10.21 10.13 0.093 0.280

8 Months 11.25 10.34 11.39 10.22 10.97 10.86 0.107 0.321

9 Months 10.13 9.43 10.26 8.17 8.89 9.89 0.167 0.501

colour, aroma and taste (8.31, 8.75 and 8.33) at refrigerator temperature, respectively, while 75 % litchi + 25 % pineapple + black salt had lowest score for aroma (6.16) and taste (7.00) at refrigerator temperatures, respectively. The maximum overall acceptability score was found in 100 % pineapple (8.46) followed by 100 % litchi (8.22) at refrigerated temperature. The sensory score for 75 % litchi + 25 % pineapple + black salt (6.71) was significantly lower compared to other treatments in overall months of storage at control condition but it was acceptable at end of the storage period. Results of organoleptic evaluation indicated that aroma, colour and organoleptic (bitterness) score of juice blends, decreased with advancement of storage period. Similar findings were also observed by [15].

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 52, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Studies on Blending Nectar Beverage in Different Ratio of Litchi and Pineapple Juice Table-7 Changes in Total sugar (per cent) contents of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5 %

1 Month 13.23 10.96 13.35 12.18 11.03 10.54 0.330 0.989

2 Months 13.33 13.34 13.57 12.71 12.92 11.31 0.242 0.725

3 Months 13.34 14.05 13.92 13.35 14.05 12.18 0.268 0.801

4 Months 13.34 14.16 14.29 13.35 14.29 13.35 0.159 0.477

Total sugar (per cent) 5 Months 6 Months 13.36 13.57 14.29 15.24 15.24 15.31 13.81 14.96 14.29 14.29 13.57 14.16 0.225 0.162 0.674 0.486

7 Months 14.16 15.39 15.31 15.24 15.24 14.96 0.126 0.377

8 Months 16.03 15.80 16.67 15.71 15.33 15.05 0.297 0.888

9 Months 12.71 11.60 10.54 10.39 11.60 10.67 0.176 0.527

Table-8 Effect of different treatment on sensory quality of blended nectar during storage at refrigerator temperature Months T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SE(m) CD at 5%

Colour 8.25 7.85 8.31 7.00 6.56 6.98 0.059 0.175

Aroma 8.36 7.16 8.75 7.83 6.88 6.16 0.035 0.103

Conclusion The Total Soluble Solids, reducing sugar and total sugar content of blended nectar have recorded increased up to 8 months while decreased during 9 months of storage period in refrigerated temperature. In blended nectar the organoleptic test T3 and T1 (100% pineapple juice and 100% litchi) ranked as maximum acceptable with highest score in colour, taste and overall acceptability after 9 months of storage. More no. of fruits and standardization of recipe for nectar preparation can also be studied.

Organoleptic quality Taste 8.05 7.13 8.33 7.47 7.08 7.00 0.068 0.203

Overall Acceptability 8.22 7.38 8.46 7.43 6.84 6.71 0.184 0.575

processing Post Harvest Technology, 6(2), 168-171.

Conflict of Interest: None declared References [1] Kumar S., Mishra B.B., Saxena S., Bandyopadhyay N., More V., Wadhawan S., Hajare S. N., Gautam S. and Sharma A. (2012) Food Chemistry, 131, 1223-1232. [2] Huang X.M., Yuan W.Q., Wang C., Li J.G., Huang H.B., Shi L. and Jinhua Y. (2004) Journal Horticulture Science Biotechnology, 79, 897-905. [3] Morton J.F. (1987) Fruits of warm climates. Miami printing press, Miami. pp. 18-28. [4] Tochi B.N., Zhang W., Ying X. and Wenbin Z. (2008) Pakistan Journal Nutrition, 7(4), 513-520. [5] Reinhardt A. and Rodriguez L.V. (2009) Acta Horticulture, 822, 323-328. [6] Rangnana S. (2000) Handbook of Analysis and Quality control for Fruit and Vegetable Products. Tata Mc Graw- Hill Publish. Co. Ltd., p. 1103. [7] Amerine M.A., Pangborn R.M. and Roessler E.B. (1965) Principles of sensory evaluation of food. Academic Press, Landon. [8] Bhardwaj R.L. and Mukherjee S. (2012) Journal Nutrition Food Sciences, 2(6), 1-7. [9] Jacobs K.K., Wong L.S. and Janet E.G. (1993) Postharvest Biology Technology, 3, 111-119. [10] Yadav A., Goyal S.S.K. and Chandra S. (2014) Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology, 2(3), 27-33. [11] Jain S.P., Tripathi V.K., Ram H.B. and Singh S. (1983) Indian Food Pack., 37(6), 85-90. [12] Tandon K., Worobo R.W., Churey J.J. and Padilla-Zakour O.I. (2003) Journal Food Processing Preservation, 27, 21-35. [13] Nayak P., Tandon D.K. and Bhatt D.K. (2012) Inernationat. Journal Nutrition Metabollism, 4(7), 100-106 [14] Elbandy M.A., Abed S.M., Gad S.S.A. and Abdel-FadeelM.G. (2014) World Journal of Dairy & Food Science, 9(2), 191-203. [15] Salvi S.P., Pawar S.N. and Zote V.K. (2015) International journal International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 52, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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