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International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 24, 2017, pp.-4292-4295. Available online at http://www.bioinfopublication.org/jouarchive.php?opt=&jouid=BPJ0000217

Review Article ADVANCES IN PRE AND POST HARVEST TREATMENTS FOR EXTENDING SHELF LIFE OF STONE FRUITS: A REVIEW PANDE KAMAL K.1, NAUTIYAL PANKAJ2*, DIMRI D.C.3 AND BHATT S.S.4 1,3,4Department of

Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263145, Uttarakhand, India Krishi Vigyan Kendra, VPKAS, Chinyalisaur, 249196, Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India *Corresponding Author: [email protected] 2ICAR-

Received: April 12, 2017; Revised: May 01, 2017; Accepted: May 02, 2017; Published: May 24, 2017 Abstract- Stone fruits belonging to the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae face severe post harvest losses due to their short shelf life. Though the shelf life of the stone fruits is influenced by cultural practices, harvesting methods, precautions and storage conditions but it can also be e xtended by different pre and post harvest treatments. Research work on pre and post harvest treatments for extending shelf life of stone fruits is being done through various approaches that need to be assembled at one place. Therefore, in this article recent approaches and their efficacy is being presented. Keywords- Pre and post harvest treatments, Physiological loss in weight, Fruit firmness Citation: Pande Kamal K., et al., (2017) Advances in Pre and Post Harvest Treatments for Extending Shelf Life of Stone Fruits: A Review. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, ISSN: 0975-3710 & E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 9, Issue 24, pp.-4292-4295. Copyright: Copyright©2017 Pande Kamal K., et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Academic Editor / Reviewer: Satish Kumar, Nidhi Sharma Introduction Botanically stone fruit is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin; and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside. But in horticultural terms stone fruits are the fruit crops belonging to the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae [1].Peach, Plum, Apricot, Nectarines and Cherry are commercially important stone fruits. In India two important stone fruits, peach and plums are grown in an area of 18.10 thousand ha and 23.15 thousand ha with the production of 93.53 thousand MT and 75.85 thousand MT respectively (NHB, 2014). But due to the postharvest losses like in most of other fruits and vegetables a large amount of stone fruits gets wasted. Post harvest losses of fruits are of major concern due to their perishable nature. More than 50 percent post harvest losses in fruits and vegetables were reported in developing countries while in industrialized countries they are around 35% [2] [Fig1].

Fig-1 Estimates of losses Post harvest Loss Challenges Discussion Paper, of Office of Agriculture, Biotechnology, and Textile Trade Affairs Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs U.S. Department of State in its India chapter emphasize the lack of proper storage facilities, proper handling, transportation, pre- and postharvest treatment and processing for deterioration of horticultural produce in India. Moreover, most of the

pre and post harvest treatment are ready to use and less capital intensive. Therefore, in the coming text the recent advances on different pre and post harvest treatment in stone fruits for extending their shelf life along with their mode of action will be discussed. But prior understanding regarding factors affecting shelf life of stone fruits is imperative. Five important factors viz., respiration, transpiration, ethylene production, physiological disorders and pathological breakdown are the major factors associated with the shelf life of stone fruits. In addition to these, some physiological disorders (Mealliness, Internal Browning, Internal Redding, Pitting, Splitting, and Pedicle Browning) and postharvest diseases (Brown Rot, Anthracnose, Rhizopus Rot, Gray Mould, Sour Rot and Alternaria Rot) are responsible for postharvest damage. Fruit firmness is the major characteristic of shelf life of stone fruits. Lu et al. (2008) found that fruit firmness of different peach cultivars decreased gradually accompanied with increasing amounts of ethylene production. Majority of stone fruits also have the same climacteric pattern except cherry which is considered as non climacteric by some workers and as post climacteric by others [3]. Though the shelf life of the stone fruits is influenced by cultural practices, harvesting methods, precautions and storage conditions but it can also be extended by different pre and post harvest treatments. Advances in different approaches and options have made in recent past for both pre and post harvest treatments. This includes use of nutrients, PGRs, polyamines, pre cooling, thermal treatments, coatings and irradiation. All these approaches are being presented in the coming text under the separate heads of pre harvest treatments and post harvest treatments: Pre harvest treatments A. Nutrients: Among the nutrients calcium has the major role in maintaining shelf life of stone fruits. Because calcium stabilizes the plant cell wall and protects it from cell wall degrading enzymes [4]. Calcium also improves fruit resistance to brown rot [5].Studies were conducted on the effect of different concentrations of

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Advances in Pre and Post Harvest Treatments for Extending Shelf Life of Stone Fruits: A Review CaCl2 along with varying spray frequencies on shelf life characteristics of peach cv. Shan-e-Punjab [6]. Their findings showed that three sprays of CaCl2 @1.5% maintained the shelf life for longest period and minimum Physiological Weight Loss was noticed in this treatment when the fruits were packed in one Kg CFB boxes in layers and subsequently placed in cold store (temperature 00C and RH 85-90%). The reason behind this positive result was that the calcium applications is effective in terms of membrane functionality and integrity maintenance, with lower losses of phospholipids and proteins and reduced ion leakage which could be responsible for the lower weight loss. The higher sensory quality rating of calcium chloride treated fruits at the end of storage might be due to the retardation of ripening and softening processes of fruit that led to the development of better juiciness, texture, flavour and sweetness. The effect of pre harvest spray of different sources (CaCl2 and CaNo3) and concentration of calcium on high chill peach cv. Silver King at Kullu (Himanchal Pradesh) was studied [7]. They found spray of CaCl2 @ 1% at 20 days before harvest gave maximum fruit firmness and overall acceptability till 9 days of storage at ambient temperature that is mean max of 24.8 o C and mean min of 17.2 o C. Effect of calcium pretreatments were also realized on reducing post harvest decay of sweet cherry [8]. Work on the biochemical aspect of calcium treatments on peach cv. Andross was done [9]. The findings showed that the calcium pretreatments significantly increased the calcium level in fruit peel and flesh. The same treatments significantly decreased the activity of cell wall degrading PG enzyme; consequently the tissue firmness was maintained. For all these three parameters CaCl2 was found superior to calcium chelate. B. PGRs and Chemicals: Pre harvest sprays of PGRs and chemicals have also being tried to extend the shelf life of stone fruits. Their mode of functioning is generally inhibition of ethylene production that is responsible for cascading reactions of ripening including cell wall loosening. Pre harvest treatment of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on peach cv. Redheaven reduced ethylene production and higher fruit firmness could be maintained during storage as compared to control [10]. Similar pattern was also reported by using GA3 as pre harvest treatment [11]. They also observed less incidences of flesh browning in fruits of pretreated plants. C. Polyamines: Polyamines are ant senescence agents and their level changes with various development and ripening processes. The concentration of polyamines decreases during ethylene production and senescence processes. Ethylene and polyamines share a common precursor s-adenosyl methionine (SAM) for their biosynthesis. But ethylene is stimulatory and polyamine inhibitory for ripening. Exogenous polyamines application inhibits ethylene production. Therefore, it is possible to regulate and control ethylene evolution by exogenous application of polyamine.In a studywith thirteen treatments including Putrescinea polyamine on peach cv. Shan- e Panjab showed that [email protected],2,3 mmol/l(T7, T8 and T9)when applied 10 days before flowering was very effective in reducing physiological loss in weight (PLW) [Fig-2], spoilage percentage [Fig-3] and maintaining sensory quality [Fig4] under cold storage conditions [12]. The other treatments were T1 Putrescine 1 mmol/L (20 DBH), T2 Putrescine 2 mmol/L (20 DBH), T3 Putrescine 3 mmol/L (20 DBH), T4 Ca(NO3)2 (0.5%) (20 DBH), T5 Ca(NO3)2 (1.0%) (20 DBH), T6 Ca(NO3)2 (2.0%) (20 DBH), T10 Ca(NO3)2 (0.5%) (10 DBH), T11 Ca(NO3)2(1.0%) (10 DBH), T12 Ca(NO3)2 (2.0%) (10 DBH) and T13 Control.

Fig-2 Effect of pre-harvest treatments on physiological loss in weight (PLW) of peach fruits under cold storage

Fig-3 Effect of pre-harvest treatments on spoilage % of peach fruits under cold storage

Fig-4 Effect of pre-harvest treatments on sensory quality of peach fruits under cold storage Post harvest treatments A. Pre cooling: Pre cooling is rapid removal of heat from freshly harvested fruits to slow ripening and senescence and conserve weight that reduce deterioration. There are different types of cooling options made available for pre cooling: a. Room Cooling: Produce is placed in an insulated room equipped with refrigeration unit. b. Forced air cooling: Fans are used in conjugation with a cooling room. Fastest cooling for small scale operation. c. Forced air evaporative cooling: Air is cooled with an evaporative cooler instead of refrigeration. d. Hydro cooling: Dumping produce into cold water. e. Vacuum cooling: Through vacuum produce evaporates and removes heat. Among stone fruits the beneficial effects of hydro-cooling (10C for 15 min) were realized in cherry on stem colour, surface shrivel and overall acceptability [13]. B. Thermal treatments: Thermal treatments or hot water treatments when used precisely are useful to alleviate the post harvest rotting problem caused by different organisms. Work was done on peach to find out the effect of hot water treatment (60 o C for 20 sec) on controlling brown rot in different peach cultivars [14]. The findings showed that the hot water treatment substantially reduced the incidences of brown rot in all the four cultivars of peach as compared to fruits dipped in water at room temperature and fruits not dipped in water. C. Nutrients: Among nutrients calcium has also proved its utility as post harvest treatment for extending the shelf life of stone fruits. The beneficial effect of post harvest treatment of calcium in peach cv. Early Grande were observed [15]. The observations proved that the dipping of peach fruits in 6 percent CaCl 2 solution was best for two important parameters of shelf life viz., PLW [Fig-5] and fruit firmness [Fig-6].

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Pande Kamal K., Nautiyal Pankaj, Dimri D. C. and Bhatt S.S. maximum firmness [17]. Sensory quality was also found best with this treatment. Salicylic acid (SA), also known as 2-hydroxybenzenecarboxcylic acid, is an organic acid, which functions as plant hormone by checking the effect of ethylene production as well as biosynthesis thereby restricting the ripening inmany fruits. When fruits of four peach cultivars of peach were dipped for 10 min in 400 ppm SA led to minimum physiological weight loss (PLW) [18]. E. Coatings: Edible coatings are thin layers of edible material that provide a barrier to moisture, oxygen and solute movement. Important available edible coating that can be used in fruits are as follows:

Fig-5 Effect of post harvest treatment of CaCl2 on shelf life characteristics of Peach cv. Earli Grand on physiological weight loss

Semperfresh: A mixture of sucrose esters with high proportion of short chain unsaturated fatty acids esters, sodium salt of CMC and mixed mono and diglycerides. Chitosan: A by product from crustacean shell waste, is a high molecular weight polysaccharide . Carnauba wax: It is recovered from the underside of the leaves of a Brazilian palm tree (Copernica cerifera).

Fig-6 Effect of post harvest treatment of CaCl2 on shelf life characteristics of Peach cv. Earli Grand on Fruit firmness (kg per cm2) D. PGRs and Chemicals: Under this 1 MCP is getting more popular for extending shelf life of fruits due to the specific features of this synthetic cyclic olefin which inhibits ethylene by binding irreversibly to ethylene receptors, the affinity of 1-MCP for the receptor is approximately 10 times greater than that of ethylene, it has a non- toxic mode of action, a negligible residue and is active at very low concentration. It is available as commercial preparations named “Ethylbloc” and “ Smart Fresh” powder which are stable, complex formulations which release 1MCP when dissolved in water. 1MCP was used in apricot cv. Canino and it the maximum fruit firmness and minimum decay were found with 1MCP @ 1microl/l when fruits were stored at 0 oC for 30 days and subsequently at 5oC for 5 days [Fig-7] [16].

Pro-long: A mixture of sucrose fatty acid esters, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and mono and diglycerides. Besides these coatings, Aloevera gel based edible coating has attracted the researchers due to its film-forming properties, antimicrobial actions, biodegradability, biochemical properties and biologically safe nature [19].Another innovation was done with the addition of rosehip oil to Aloe vera gel for treating stone fruits thatreduced respiration rate in all fruits, and ethylene production in the climacteric ones (peaches, plumsand nectarine) [20]. Moreover, all the parameters related with fruit ripening and quality, such as weightloss, softening, colour change and ripening index, were also delayed in treated compared with controlfruit, the effect being generally higher when rosehip oil was added to Aloe Vera. Nanocomposite and thyme oil have also successfully been tried in sweet cherry [21]. E. Irradiation: The FDA has approved two types of radiation sources for the treatments of foods; i. Gamma rays produced by Cobalt-60, Cesium- 137, X rays with max. enesrgy of 5 million electron volts (MeV) ii. Electrons with max energy of 10 MeV. The rays are directed on to the fruits, but the fruits never come into contact with source of radiation. It is also called “Cold Pasteurization” as it does not significantly increase the temp. Radiation through free radicals brings about the breakage of the genetic material of insects and microorganisms. After a short period (2-3 days), the free radicals get scavenged off or converted into harmless molecules. It also decreases the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes and ACC oxidase. Work at BARC, Srinagar, India with CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose) coatings and gamma irradiation on peach showed that 1.0% (w/v)CMC + 1.2 kGy was the best in extending the shelf life of peach [21]. Conclusion Pre and post harvest treatments are imperative to extend the shelf life of stone fruits. Through these treatments losses can be reduced. This will provide increased fruits availability to the consumers and better monetary opportunities to the farmers and suppliers. But their safe use especially in context to human health needs to be emphasized. Therefore, dissemination of standardized techniques and further innovations and refinements concerning environmental, health and economic issues for these technologies are required.

Fig-7 Effect of 1-MCP on firmness (on left) and decay (on right) of 'Canino' apricots after treatment at harvest, 0°C storage for 30 days and 5 days at 20°C Other workers also reported the effectiveness of 1MCP in peach and 1000 ppb 1MCP was recorded best in maintain the shelf life by minimum loss in PLW and

Acknowledgement / Funding: Author are thankful to G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263145, Uttarakhand, India Author Contributions: All authors equally contributed

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Advances in Pre and Post Harvest Treatments for Extending Shelf Life of Stone Fruits: A Review Abbreviations: CMC -Carboxymethyl cellulose, MCP-1-Methylcyclopropene, FDA-Food and Drug Administration, USA. BARC- Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India Conflict of Interest: None declared Ethical approval: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. References [1] Hazra P., Ghosh S.K., Maity T.K., Pandit M.K. and Som M.G. (2012) Glossary of Horticulture. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. [2] Gustavsson J., Cederberg C., Sonesson U., Otterdijk R. and Meybeck A. (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent Causes and Prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome. [3] Eccher T. and Noe N. (1998) Acta Hort., 464, 501. [4] White P.J. and Broadley M.R. (2003) Ann. Bot., 92, 487– 511. [5] Conway W.S., Sams C.E. and Kelman A. (1994) Hort Science, 29, 751– 754. [6] Raja R.H.S., Bhat Z.A., Malik A.R. and Shafi R.H. (2015) Intl. J. Agric, Environ and Biotech, 8(1), 103-109. [7] Barwal V.S. and Kumar J. (2014) Adv. Appl. Res., 6(1), 53-56. [8] Vangdal E., Hovland K.L., Børve J., Sekse L. and Slimestad R. (2008) Acta Hort., 768, 143-148. [9] Manganaris G.A., Vasilakakis M., Mignani I., Diamantidis G. and Klonari K. T. (2005) Scientia Horticulturae., 107, 43–50. [10] Vizzotto G., Casatta E., Bomben C., Bregoli A.M., Sabatini E. and Costa G. (2002)Acta Hort., 592, 561-566. [11] Dagar A, Weksler A, Friedman H. and Lurie S. (2012) Scientia Horticulturae 140,125–130. [12] Kaur B. and Jawandha S. K. (2014) Prog Hort., 46(1), 41-47. [13] Manganaris G.A., Ilias I.F., Vasilakakis M. and Mignani I. (2007) International Journal of Refrigeration. 30, 1386-1392 [14] Spadoni A., Guidarelli M. Mari, M. Sanzani S.M. and Ippolito A. (2014) Heat Acta Hort., 1053, 157- 162 [15] Navjot S.K.J. and B.V.C. Mahajan (2010) Indian J. Hort., 67(3), 387-390 [16] Lurie S. and Weksler A. (2005) Acta Hort., 682, 85-90 [17] Mahajan B.V.C. and Sharma S.R. (2012) Indian J. Hort., 69(2), 263-267 [18] Attri B.L., Krishna H., Das B., Ranjan J.K., Pragya and Ahmed N. (2014) Indian J. Hort., 71(1), 92-98 [19] Misir J., Brishti F.H. and Hoque M. M. (2014) American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2 (3), 93-97. [20] Paladines D., Valero D., Valverde J.M., Mula H.D., Serrano M. and Romero D.M. (2014) Postharvest Biology and Technology, 92, 23–28. [21] Nabifarkhani N, Sharifani M., Garmakhany A.D., Moghadam E.G. and Shakeri A. (2015) Food Sci. & Nutri., 3(4), 349–354. [22] Hussain P.R., Suradkar P.P., Wani A.M. and Dar M.A. (2016) Int. J. Bio. Macromolecules, 82,114–126.

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