sanitation sanitation

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SANITATION INNOVATIONS education • research • capacity development grant OPP1029019 | grant OPP1157500

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This publication provides an overview of the main outputs so far of the two grants made by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to IHE Delft Institute for Water Education in the period 2011 until 2022.

Published by: IHE Delft Institute for Water Education Westvest 7 2611 AX Delft PO Box 3015 2601 DA Delft The Netherlands T: +31 (0) 15 2151 776 F: +31 (0) 15 2151 776 E: [email protected] I: First published: 2018 Printed by: Prints&Proms This publication has been developed and made available under the grant Stimulating Local Innovation on Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia (OPP1029019) and the grant Accelerating the Impact of Education and Training on Non-sewered Sanitation (OPP1157500) funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The content is available for free unlimited access and use, consistent with BMGF’s commitment to ensuring open access to information and knowledge. Therefore, sharing (to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapting (transforming, and building upon the material for any purpose) is allowed, provided appropriate credit is given to the author(s). Although care has been taken to ensure the integrity and quality of these materials and information, no responsibility is assumed by the author(s) or IHE Delft for any damage to property or persons as a result of use of these materials and/or the information contained herein. Koninklijke Bibliotheek Depot van Nederlandse Publicaties A catalogue record for this book is available from the Royal Library in Den Haag, The Netherlands Prepared by: Creation: Frank Rijsberman Roshan Shrestha IHE Delft Institute for Water Education (IHE Delft) Damir Brdjanovic Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Jan Herman Koster Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Editor: Damir Brdjanovic Makerere University Institute of Environmental and Natural Resources (MUIENR) Graphic design: Peter Stroo University of Cape Town (UCT) English editor: Claire Taylor Universidad del Valle (UNIVALLE) Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (eawag) University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN) Unity Knowledge LLP Environmental and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI) Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Kathmandu University ISBN: 9789073445345

Table of contents Major achievements Overview of achievements from the two grants so far

Patentable outputs Short description of innovative technologies and concepts developed in the project

Partners in action Summary of 11 short-term actions carried out in 2017/18

PhD program

Summary of 20 PhD research projects carried out at eight partner universities in the period 2012-2018

MSc program Summary of 58 MSc research projects executed at four universities in the period 2011-2018

Grant OPP1029019: ‘Stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in subSaharan Africa and South-East Asia (SaniUP)’ (2011-2019)

This grant has two principal objectives: (i) to stimulate local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor through research, and (ii) to strengthen the sanitation sector in developing countries through education and training. The direct beneficiaries of the project are individuals and organizations from developing countries involved in the project that are instrumental in stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the ultimate recipients of the project outcomes - the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. The 8-year project (2011-2019) is being executed in cooperation with IHE Delft’s global partnership, particularly with distinguished partners from developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South America involved in the past (and present) capacity-building and research activities implemented by the Institute, and who have a sound track record in education and research on pro-poor sanitation. These are namely the: (i) Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand; (ii) Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil; (iii) Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia; (iv) International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), Burkina Faso; (v) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana; (vi) Makerere University Institute of Environmental and Natural Resources (MUIENR), Uganda; and (vii) University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa, as well as one associated partner organization (Universidad del Valle, Colombia), and a number of external sub-contracting parties and individuals.

The project contains five components: (i) the Doctoral program and PhD scholarships; (ii) Masters education and MSc scholarships; (iii) two new online training courses; (iv) new Graduate Professional Diploma Program and scholarships; and (v) online courses and scholarships, and it targets more than 600 direct individual beneficiaries.

The research part of the project is clustered around five thematic areas on the pro-urban poor sanitation: (i) smart sanitation provision for slums and informal settlements; (ii) emergency sanitation following natural and anthropologic disasters; (iii) resource-oriented decentralized sanitation; (iv) low-cost wastewater collection and treatment; and (v) faecal sludge management.

Expected outputs of the project are: 20 competent researchers and 20 PhD degrees, 20 PhD theses, up to 60 educated professionals and 60 MSc degrees, up to 60 MSc theses, at least 50 papers, up to 8 experimental lab- and/or pilot-scale setups in place, up to 8 upgrades of partners’ organization laboratories, up to 4 patent prospects, establishment of ‘The Best Sanitary Engineerng MSc Thesis Award’, development of 2 new online courses, 3 new book titles published, establishment of the new online Graduate Professional Diploma Program in Sanitation and Sanitary engineering, at least 15 trained professionals and 15 Professional diplomas, launch of the new and innovative online Master in Sanitary Engineering, and at least 500 sanitation professionals trained through individual online courses. Outcomes of the project can be summarized as: (i) research capacity and facilities of partner institutions enhanced; (ii) international academic network on propoor sanitation established; (iii) practical applications of innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in place; (iv) proposal for the business spin-offs developed; (v) human resources capacity increased in the sanitation sector; and (vi) increased access by professionals from developing countries to education and training.

Grant OPP1157500: Accelerating the Impact of Education and Training on Non-sewered Sanitation (2016-2022)

IHE Delft and partners received the support of the BMGF in establishing and implementing the new MSc Program in Sanitation. It is a new and unique, internationally recognized, fully accredited program designed for completion in 12 months. This elite program with scholarships for top talents at IHE is Delft-based with thesis work abroad, while at the same time the program (or parts of it) are delivered by several partner universities in Asia, Africa and Latin America. State-ofthe-art content will be developed and provided by the world’s top experts from both academia and practice. This demand-driven and practice-oriented program will yield graduates with fundamental understanding and the knowledge and skills necessary for creating impact. Their generic skill development will be embedded from the start under individual coaching and tailor-made guidance. Preparatory online courses and entry interviews are included. In addition, all the courses will be turned into elearning mode, in order to facilitate the establishment and parallel delivery of the Graduate Professional Diploma Program (GPDP) in Sanitation which will also be adopted by several partner universities. A dedicated laboratory for Faecal Sludge Analysis will be constructed in Delft as the only facility of such kind in Europe. All the graduates will benefit from the dedicated career development program supported by the BMGF and will become a member of the newly established Global Sanitation Learning Alliance and alumni community. The new MSc program will start in April 2018 at IHE Delft. Transfer of the program to other universities will take place in 2018 and 2019 which will result in the establishment of the Global Sanitation Campus. While developing the GPDP and new MSc, the project will accelerate the impact of online education via enhanced delivery of the existing online courses by IHE Delft and its partners. The 6-year project will deliver at IHE DElft in excess of 55 MSc graduates and will result in a self-sustaining and well-established program.

It is expected that its reach will be substantially extended by simultaneous delivery at partner universities. The project will strengthen the links with the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance and provide a platform for the presentation of alumni success stories. Five regional dissemination and networking workshops to be attended by 250 Alliance members will take place during the first two years of the project. The project is designed to achieve a rapid initial impact by expanding the reach of online courses on FSM, a short-term impact via delivery of GPDPs, and a mid-term impact by implementation of the new Master program (or part of it) at several universities and IHE Delft. In addition, a dozen or so small instant projects will be developed by partner institutions and implemented in 2018 to increase the early impact of the project.

Major achievements This section presents major outputs and outcomes of the two grants, ranging from the establishment of the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance and the Global Partnership of Laboratories for Faecal Sludge Analysis, three books and two websites, to the launch of the new Master program in Sanitation and several other exciting achievements.

Global Sanitation Learning Alliance The Global Sanitation Learning Alliance is a platform to facilitate the development and empower the dissemination of knowledge on sanitation through online education (in both self-study and instructor-led mode), faceto-face courses and tailor-made training, so that sanitation challenges can be embraced with deeper insight, advanced knowledge and greater confidence. It also provides an enabling environment with a vibrant community of professionals who have completed one or more educational or training courses offered by members of the Alliance. The Alliance offers all the course materials as open courseware.

Global Sanitation Learning Alliance

ALUMNI COMMUNITY Every scholar who has completed one or more educational or training course offered by the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance is a member of the community of alumni. Members can make use of the advantages and possibilities that the Alliance offers. To meet an alumnus or alumna with specific professional skills and experience or from a specific region or country you can search our alumni database.

Global Sanitation Learning Alliance

ALUMNI STORIES We are very interested in the valorisation of the activities carried out under the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance because it is not only the building of capacity of individuals and organizations of the sanitation sector that matters, but also the measurement, demonstration and sharing of how and to what extent they are contributing to a world where children and families can lead healthier, more productive lives. So this platform was created to allow alumni to publish their success stories from the field and to share them with others. In addition, for those alumni who have bright ideas or great initiatives that need some seed funds in order to be developed and implemented, we have good news: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has made a grant available to IHE Delft for this purpose to enable a limited number of alumni to implement their ideas. Alumni can only enter into competition for a seed fund after their story has been accepted. To learn more about how alumni can apply for these funds or submit their stories, please visit the webpage below.

New Master of Science Program in Sanitation In partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, IHE Delft has launched a new Master of Science Programme in Sanitation. It is a unique, accredited and internationally recognized programme, designed for completion in 12 months. The programme, which has scholarships available for top talent, is Delft-based, with thesis work abroad. The state-of-the-art content has been developed and provided by the world’s top experts from both academia and practice. This demand-driven and practice-orientated programme will yield graduates with fundamental understanding and knowledge, as well as the skills necessary for creating impact. The generic skill development is embedded from the start, through individual coaching and tailored guidance. Preparatory online courses and entry interviews are included. Although at MSc level, the programme has a professional orientation. It is demand-driven, delivering graduates with the qualifications required by the sanitation sector. These features are prominent in the program: (i) the linking of the taught subject matter, not only to research outcomes, but also to sanitation practice, (ii) the nature of the individual research topics of the students, and (iii) the embedding of the development of generic professional skills in the programme. As a result, graduates will possess both the fundamental understanding, as well as the knowledge and skills, necessary to create professional impact ‘on the ground’. They will be able to apply existing knowledge and theory in practice and to contribute to the further development of knowledge in sanitation, and conduct practiceorientated field research, independently or in a multidisciplinary team. All the graduates will benefit from a dedicated career development programme, supported by the Foundation and will become a member of the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance and alumni community. The new MSc programme started on 23 April 2018.

GLOBAL SANITATION CAMPUS In partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, IHE Delft launched a new Master of Science Programme in Sanitation in April 2018. While the program is currently only available at IHE Delft in the Netherlands, in the near future the programme will also be adopted by a dozen or so universities in Asia, Africa and Latin America. As soon as the program transfer takes place and becomes available at the partner institutions, it will be announced on dedicated websites.

Face-lift for the MSc specialization in Sanitary Engineering Over the past few years the knowledge and understanding of sanitation issues has advanced extensively, embracing various technological and social disciplines. Many of these advances have matured to the degree that they have become standard practice, however in the last decade we have witnessed rapid developments in the field concerning both sewage treatment processes and technology, and non-sewered sanitation and faecal sludge management. For a new generation of young scientists and engineers entering the sanitation profession, the quantity, complexity and diversity of these new developments can be overwhelming, particularly in developing countries where access is not readily available to advanced-level courses. The first course on Sanitary Engineering at IHE Delft was established in 1960 and the course has been one of the pillars of education at the Institute ever since. However, because over time the course has become too full to cater for all the relevant and new developments, in partnership with the BMGF, IHE Delft has recently launched a new MSc Program in Sanitation with an interdisciplinary character, pro-poor orientation and a focus on nonsewered (semi-)urban areas. This triggered the revision and retrofit of the existing and complementary MSc specialization in Sanitary Engineering which focuses on urban drainage and sewerage, and sewage and sludge treatment and reuse. Upon completion of this renewed sanitary engineering curriculum, the modern approach to the design, engineering and operation of sewerage systems and sewage works - be it activated sludge, biofilm technology or natural systems - can be embraced with deeper insight, more advanced knowledge and greater confidence. The new 12-month MSc program in Sanitation and the renewed 18month MSc specialization in Sanitary Engineering will start on 23 April and 15 October 2018, respectively.

The Best Sanitation MSc Thesis Award In order to add a level of prestige to the scholarships funded under this project, ‘The Best Sanitary Engineering MSc Thesis Award’ was established to be awarded to an IHE Delft scholar whose thesis is judged by the jury using a prescribed set of criteria, the most important of which is (beside the academic quality) the contribution of the student’s work to the mission of BMGF. The award takes place during the main MSc award ceremony at IHE Delft in April each year. The award includes a financial contribution that is used by the student to stay for up to two months longer either in Delft or in the host/home country in order to prepare a technical or scientific paper related to his/her thesis work, and to attend a major international water conference. During the project five such awards have been given so far, namely:

2012 │ Ms. Bently Liliana Ramirez-Higareda (Columbia) 2013 │ Mr. Zeeshan Bilal (Pakistan) 2014 │ Mr. Grover Hector Mamani Casilla (Bolivia) 2015 │ Ms. Mona Youssef Moawad Soliman (Egypt) 2016 │ Mr. Marcos Amos Zindoga (Mozambique)

Starting from April 2019, the award will be continued under the new name ‘The Best Sanitation MSc Thesis Award’ as part of the new MSc in Sanitation at IHE Delft.

Global Partnership of Laboratories for Faecal Sludge Analysis Unlike for wastewater, specialized laboratories for faecal sludge analysis are scarce. In addition, due to the lack of standard methods for sampling and analysis of faecal sludge, standard methods from other fields, such as water, wastewater and soil science are usually applied. Therefore, experts on faecal sludge analysis have recently established the Global Partnership of Laboratories for Faecal Sludge Analysis to address these challenges and provide a basis towards standardised methods for characterisation and quantification of faecal sludge from onsite sanitation technologies, including sampling techniques as well as health and safety procedures for faecal sludge handling. The Partnership also delivers face-to-face courses and training, and aims at improved communication between sanitation practitioners, a comparative faecal sludge database, and improved confidence in the methods and obtained results. Faecal Sludge (FS) characterization and experimentation is an emerging area in the field of sanitation. Laboratories equipped with facilities for FS analysis have entered into a partnership with the goal of standardizing methods of FS characterization and delivering training courses for both students and sanitation professionals. The new FS laboratory at IHE Delft will be used for basic and advanced training so that trainees can improve their skills and embark on practical FS work with increased confidence.

New Laboratory for Faecal Sludge Analysis at IHE Delft To support the recently launched Master of Science Program in Sanitary Engineering, IHE Delft plans to construct a new laboratory for faecal sludge analysis and experimentation, the first of such kind in Europe. The lab will be used for study practicums and also for MSc research. While maximum use will be made of the existing equipment, the necessary analytical and experimental technology will be purchased with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Having this lab in place will allow IHE Delft to join the newly established Partnership of Laboratories for Faecal Sludge Analysis. Besides being used for the course and research of IHE Delft students, the laboratory will offer external non-certified services to third parties which includes analytical work as well as tailor-made group training. This lab will offer various physical, chemical and microbiological faecal sludge-specific methods and analysis.

ISBN: 9781780409115

Methods for Faecal Sludge Analysis

A major gap in developing appropriate and adequate faecal sludge treatment and monitoring techniques is the ability to understand the characteristics of faecal sludge, its quantification and the correlation to the source population. Faecal sludge is highly variable, but as standard methods for sampling and analysis do not exist, results are not comparable and hence the actual variability is not yet fully understood. Due to the lack of standard methods for sampling and analysing faecal sludge, standard methods from other fields such as water, wastewater and soil science are usually applied. However, these methods are not necessarily the most suitable for faecal sludge, and have not been specifically adapted for that purpose. Characteristics of faecal sludge are typically different from these other matrices by orders of magnitude. The methods for faecal sludge sampling are also greatly complicated by the wide range of technologies in each local context, and the heterogeneity within systems. Another gap in the existing knowledge is how to quantify faecal sludge on a city-wide scale, or a scale relevant for the design of treatment technologies. Moreover, the lack of standardisation complicates the transfer of knowledge and data between different regions and institutions as the results are not comparable. This illustrates the urgent need to establish common methods and procedures for faecal sludge characterisation and quantification. The book Methods for Faecal Sludge Analysis addresses these challenges and provides a basis towards standardised methods for the characterisation and quantification of faecal sludge from onsite sanitation technologies, including sampling techniques and health and safety procedures for faecal sludge handling. It also aims at improved communication between sanitation practitioners, a comparative faecal sludge database, and improved confidence in the methods and obtained results. The book is beneficial for researchers, laboratory technicians, academics, students and sanitation practitioners. The book will be available at the end of 2018.

Graduate Professional Diploma Program (GPDP) The Graduate Professional Diploma Programme (GPDP) was established in 2015 at IHE Delft with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The GPDP disseminates sanitation and sanitary engineering knowledge to professionals without the means, time or interest to pursue an MSc degree in this field, or with an MSc degree in a related field and a wish to specialize professionally. At the moment the only GPDP is hosted by IHE Delft, however it is likely that more similar GPDPs will be launched by other universities in the near future. Since 2015 more than 150 participants from sixty countries have enrolled in the program and 30 have so far earned diploma. The programme consists of a sequence of four or five online courses, regular short courses, or a combination. The number of ECTS points varies from 3 to 6 per course. The minimum study load for obtaining a diploma is 20 ECTS, which equals a workload of 560 hours. The online courses can be followed parttime, without interrupting a day-time career. In order to ensure that the programme fits the personal circumstances of the applicant, courses will be selected and a personal study plan will be designed in collaboration with a study advisor. The total duration of the programme depends on this study plan, with a minimum of 1.5 and a maximum of 4.5 years. All the graduates will benefit from a dedicated career development programme, supported by the Foundation and will become a member of the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance and alumni community. Following the popularity of the first GPDP, more have been developed at IHE Delft and others will become available at partner institutions.

Online Courses on Sanitation and Sanitary Engineering Besides the two online courses which have been developed under the first grant (Faecal sludge management and Experimental methods in wastewater treatment), a dozen of other online courses were offered to sanitation professionals to elevate their professional and academic skills via enrolment in one or more certified online courses that in some cases led to the award of the Graduate Professional Diploma Program (GPDP) diploma. So far more than 600 professionals have been trained by IHE Delft and an additional 500 have obtained an online course certificate at one or more of our partner institutions.


Online Course Series on

Experimental Methods in Wastewater Treatment

Experimental laboratory methods and techniques have matured to the degree that they have been accepted as reliable tools in wastewater treatment research and practice. For sector professionals, especially the new generation of young scientists and engineers entering the wastewater treatment profession, the quantity, complexity and diversity of these methods can be overwhelming and, for many, the access to advanced-level laboratory courses in wastewater treatment is not readily available. Moreover, the information on innovative experimental methods is scattered across scientific literature. These online courses seek to address these deficiencies. They assemble and integrate the innovative experimental methods developed by research groups and practitioners around the world and broadly applied in wastewater treatment research and practice. The syllabus is designed to fit the needs of undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, laboratory staff, plant operators, consultants, and other sector professionals. The series include seven courses and a textbook and are of open access. Beside the online mode, courses can be followed at the premises of IHE Delft or as part of a tailormade group course provided by IHE Delft and/or partner universities. All the course materials are open access and can be downloaded from a dedicated website (link provided in the bottom right corner).

ISBN: 9781780404745

Experimental Methods in Wastewater Treatment Over the past twenty years, the knowledge and understanding of wastewater treatment has advanced extensively and moved away from empirically-based approaches to a fundamentally-based first-principles approach embracing chemistry, microbiology, and physical and bioprocess engineering, often involving experimental laboratory work and techniques. Many of these experimental methods and techniques have matured to the degree that they have been accepted as reliable tools in wastewater treatment research and practice. For sector professionals, especially the new generation of young scientists and engineers entering the wastewater treatment profession, the quantity, complexity and diversity of these new developments can be overwhelming, particularly in developing countries where access to advanced-level laboratory courses in wastewater treatment is not readily available. In addition, information on innovative experimental methods is scattered across scientific literature and only partially available in the form of textbooks or guidelines. This book seeks to address these deficiencies. It assembles and integrates the innovative experimental methods developed by research groups and practitioners around the world and broadly applied in wastewater treatment research and practice. The book Experimental Methods in Wastewater Treatment forms part of the internet-based curriculum in sanitary engineering at IHE Delft and, as such, may also be used together with video recordings of methods and approaches performed and narrated by the authors, including guidelines on best experimental practices. The book is written for undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, laboratory staff, plant operators, consultants, and other sector professionals. The book is currently available in English, Croatian and Spanish while Russian, Hindi, Tamil and Marathi editions are coming soon. An eBook version has already been downloaded more than 50,000 times by students, academics and sector professionals.

Online Course on Faecal Sludge Management In partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), IHE Delft Institute for Water Education (IHE Delft) has initiated a distance learning course on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). The course was developed by six academic institutions and launched in 2015, resulting after a period of a few months in 372 professionals who obtained a certificate of completion. This was the first time that multiple partner institutions had developed and launched a course together on this topic. In the meantime more partners have joined the delivery pool.

ISBN: 9781780404721

Faecal Sludge Management Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. Financial resources are often lacking, and onsite sanitation systems tend to be regarded as temporary solutions until sewer-based systems can be implemented. However, the reality is that onsite sanitation is here to stay, either as an intermediate or permanent standalone solution, or in combination with sewer-based systems. The appropriate and adequate management of faecal sludge deriving from onsite technologies is imperative for the protection of human and environmental health. This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning. It addresses the planning and organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge and treatment options, to the final enduse or disposal of treated sludge. In addition to providing fundamentals and an overview of technologies, the book goes into details of operational, institutional and financial aspects, and provides guidance on how to plan a city-level faecal sludge management project with the involvement of all the stakeholders. The book is currently available in English and Spanish while French, Russian, Hindi, Tamil and Marathi editions are coming soon. An eBook version has already been downloaded more than 5,000 times by students, academics and sector professionals.

200+ PUBLICATIONS In total so far the SaniUP project has resulted in 20 PhD dissertations, 58 MSc theses, more than 50 scientific papers (ISI), more than 70 conference papers and 3 textbooks translated to several languages. They can all be accessed through the dedicated SaniUP project website.

Global Sanitation Learning Alliance Website In partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, IHE Delft has developed and launched the Global Sanitation Learning Alliance – an internetbased platform to facilitate the development and to empower the dissemination of knowledge on sanitation through online education (in both self-study and instructor-led mode), face-to-face courses and tailor-made training, so that sanitation challenges can be embraced with deeper insight, advanced knowledge and greater confidence. It also provides an enabling environment with a vibrant community of professionals who have completed one or more educational or training courses offered by members of the Alliance. The Alliance offers all the course materials as open courseware that can be accessed on this website.

SaniUP Project Website The SaniUP project (‘Stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia’) aims to stimulate local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor through research and to strengthen the sanitation sector in developing countries through education and training. This website presents the project staff and compiles more than 150 documents generated by them, including PhD and MSc theses, scientific publications, research videos and interviews.

Patentable outputs The first grant included a major applied research component involving 20 PhD researchers and 5 post-doc fellows. Being high on the project agenda, the need for pro-poor sanitation innovations has yielded several patentable outputs which have been developed and tested at the level of functional prototypes. Some of these were presented at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair in Seattle and Chennai. Most of the prototypes are currently being further developed and tested using follow-up funds provided by third parties.

eSOS Concept The innovative eSOS (emergency Sanitation Operation System) concept is designed to provide a sustainable, innovative, holistic and affordable sanitation solution for emergencies before, during and after disasters. eSOS not only reinvents the (emergency) toilet and treatment facilities, but also uses existing information and communication technology to bring innovation and potential cost savings to the entire sanitation operation and management chain, and most importantly, it is expected to improve the quality of life of people in need. Several components of the eSOS concept such as the eSOS Smart Toilet, eSOS Monitor, Sanitation Business Model Evaluator and Shit Killer have passed the experimental application and are currently under further development at a pilot level with the ultimate goal of entering into commercial exploitation in the near future. Bringing these technologies up to this readiness level (RTL 9 as described by NASA) will enable eSOS’s transfer from a concept to real-life application.

eSOS Smart Toilet® In disaster areas where many people live together in poor conditions, diseases are lurking. Sanitation plays an important role – a hole in the ground or overflowing emergency toilets are breeding grounds for bacteria and viruses. If the flow of waste is better managed, the risk will be reduced and the quality of life will improve considerably. To address this issue IHE Delft and partners have envisioned an award-winning eSOS Smart Toilet, one that is not only hygienic, safe and affordable, but also serves as a source of information about the situation in the area where it is located. The experimental version of the eSOS toilet was successfully tested in the Philippines for functionality and acceptance. This lightweight, easy-tomaintain toilet is equipped with sensors that collect the relevant data using specially designed monitoring software. Based on this information, the operation and maintenance of toilets can be significantly improved making the entire sanitation chain more sustainable. A prototype of the eSOS Smart Toilet is currently being developed and will be tested in Nairobi, Kenya.

eSOS Monitor and Business Evaluator The eSOS Monitor and Sanitation Business Model Evaluator are a two-in-one tool for the operational management of the sanitation chain and for the evaluation of different sanitation business models and associated costs, respectively. The eSOS Monitor is an operational software tool to manage the entire sanitation chain in actual circumstances and real situations. It has been successfully tested in tough field conditions in the Philippines. The Sanitation Business Model Evaluator is a decision support tool that can be applied to both actual cases and also for future options (e.g. choice of sanitation systems and business model). It has been tested in a case study in Thailand. The eSOS Monitor is part of the award-winning innovation eSOS Smart Toilet and is at the heart of the novel eSOS concept of IHE Delft. Shortly after launch of the eSOS Monitor, its software features were adopted by several toilet manufacturers worldwide (e.g. India) and are already in use in real life situations.

The Shit Killer® Solutions for effective and sustainable faecal sludge management (FSM) represent a significant global need. Tremendous amounts of faecal sludge are produced globally on a daily basis from onsite sanitation: 2.7 billion people worldwide are served by onsite sanitation technologies and that number is expected to grow to 5 billion by 2030. FSM presents a global challenge. A new technological concept for sterilization and dehydration of excreta (faeces and urine) has been developed by IHE Delft and Tehnobiro d.o.o. The technology makes use of microwave generators that are part of a specially designed unit that can convert pathogenic human waste into clean water and inert dry fertilizer. The concept has been successfully tested in the Netherlands and Kenya and a pilot demonstration unit that is currently under construction will be applied in Jordan.

Solar Septic Tank

The solar septic tank is a modified conventional septic tank with solar-heated water. Operating the septic tank at temperatures higher than ambient conditions enhances pathogen die-off and produces better quality septic tank effluent, as well as reducing sludge accumulation by 50 %. The reduced accumulated sludge production lengthens the desludging period and saves costs in sludge management. The reduced sludge volume would minimize the pollution problems caused by unsanitary disposal of sludge practices in developing countries. The solar septic tank is designed to be used by up to 610 people (1-2 families) and offers the added benefit of turning waste into fuel and water that is reusable in agriculture. The solar septic tank system, which involves an advanced biochemical process, consists of three main components (i) a solar water heating device, (ii) a heat transfer pump and equipment and (iii) a modified septic tank. In order to increase the temperature inside the solar septic tank, hot water generated by the solar heating device is circulated through the heat transfer equipment by a pump. Currently, two solar septic tank units are in operation at the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, and one unit is installed and being monitored at the worker residence area, the Santavee factory, Samutphakarn Province, Thailand.

Partners in action

To accelerate the impact of the second grant, a so-called ‘Short term actions 2017/18’ package has been created with the aim of supplementing the main focus of the grant: the new Master in Sanitation at IHE Delft, with a number of smaller educational and training activities that will take place in the first two years of the project and create an instant impact on the ground. This section presents the activities currently contracted with partners from Africa and Asia which will reach more than 1,000 sanitation professionals in a very short period of time.

Instructor-led short course in nonsewered sanitation (Burkina Faso and Cameroon)

Obsolete policies and regulations caused by the lack of specific skills in the stakeholders, ranging from the decision-makers to the technicians, often limit the performance and sustainability of implemented non-sewered sanitationrelated facilities in developing countries (specifically in sub-Saharan Africa). A capacity strengthening of the different actors involved is urgently needed. We aim to organize an introductory 5-day short course in non-sewered sanitation (in French “Assainissement Non Collectif en Afrique SubSaharienne”) to enable the participants to understand the new issues and challenges in non-sewered sanitation and adopt the necessary tools for good management of non-sewered sanitation in sub-Saharan African cities. This short course will include theoretical knowledge coupled with a field visit and sharing experiences. It has already been organized in Burkina Faso targeting West-African countries and is also planned to be organized in Cameroon targeting Central/East/Southern African countries. These training courses are targeted at municipal water and sanitation services officers as they are the ones who can rapidly and effectively drive changes and improvement in “sanitation behavior” and influence new regulations. The officers are continuously in contact with non-sewered sanitation stakeholders where they meet with peers and work with decision-makers, consulting or construction companies, and NGOs. In addition, they are the link between the central administration, technical partners or donors, the facility builders and operators, and the end-users. Moreover, they are the ones who are dealing with real-life sanitation issues every day. At least 30 professionals will enhance their knowledge on non-sewered sanitation and will become familiar with innovative approaches to non-sewered sanitation planning, design and implementation at municipal level.

FSM Toolbox training (Thailand)

There are various challenges in initiating an effective plan and implementation strategy in FSM. The FSM Toolbox has been established as a one-stop database platform for effective implementation of FSM projects. The FSM situation in Thailand is less developed than in developed nations and the language barrier also makes it difficult to transfer the available knowledge for further development of FSM. Therefore, giving training in the FSM Toolbox to Thai practitioners (in the Thai language) will provide a better understanding of the necessary steps that are needed throughout the FSM planning process. The training course will be based on presentations, case study videos, and group activities to develop a hypothetical case. The training is targeted at 25 Thai government officers – (i) Policy and decision makers from the national and local government sector; (ii) Government authorities or managers involved in FSM or sanitation projects and (iii) Other government sanitation professionals (staff and/or operators) who are involved in sanitation planning and operation at local and national levels. The training course will raise awareness among Thai officers and will allow them to understand the FSM situation in their context by incorporating this multi-aspect assessment system. This training will enhance the capability of decision makers. With the existing infrastructure and local government's commitment towards faecal sludge management, this training course is a call to restore the interest started in 2005 and to identify possible interventions required to mitigate the current FSM situation. This would also set a good example for other Southeast Asian countries to learn from Thailand.

Program on non-sewered sanitation and FSM (India)

In order to meet the objectives of this policy and to create a 'critical mass of change champions', ASCI proposes to introduce a certification program in non-sewered sanitation for practitioners from some of the Indian states. Governments in these states are keen to make these policies operational and have solicited support in building urban local bodies (ULBs) capacity. In order to suitably address the requirements of sanitation practitioners, there is a need to develop a customized certification program, which will include materials suitable for practitioners involved in the planning, execution, and monitoring of activities relating to non-sewered sanitation. The target group for the certification program is (i) commissioners (city managers) and mayors (elected representatives and policymakers) of ULBs who will have a 2-day face-to-face training program, and (ii) municipal engineers (technical teams) and sanitary inspectors (field implementers) who will have a 3-day faceto-face training program. The program will be delivered to mayors, commissioners, municipal engineers and sanitary inspectors across 110 ULBs in Andhra Pradesh and 72 ULBs in Telangana. This program will create at least 782 change champions for promoting non-sewer options. It will enable the holistic delivery of sustainable and equitable sanitation solutions for FSM by accelerating the impact of education and training in nonsewered sanitation in both the Telugu-speaking states and will potentially impact 30 million people in 182 urban areas in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Further, ASCI proposes rolling out the certification program to five states (Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand) by not only collaborating with urban training institutions and BMGF grantees in these states but also conducting programs to train trainers. ASCI will also introduce this program at Lal Bahadur Shastry Academy for Administration (LBSSNA), a premier institute for training state and city administrators, for high-level impact. Additionally, 125 resource personnel through the trainer training courses and 150 administrators through the LBS academy would be directly impacted.

Workshop on novel sanitation (India)

A number of new technologies for decentralised wastewater treatment are currently being investigated and tested. In this changing context, it is essential that not only academic people but also professionals and students gain knowledge and develop an understanding of these technologies and keep pace with recent developments. Therefore, a workshop focusing on the use of emerging wastewater treatment technologies used in decentralized treatment systems will be organised, where participants will examine the potential of emerging treatment processes including the use of novel sanitation approaches such as Terra Preta Sanitation, bio augmentation techniques, constructed wetlands, anaerobic digestion, and physical/chemical/electrochemical processes. An interactive workshop took place in December 2017 bearing in mind the needs of academics, professionals (engineers) as well as Masters students. Key to this workshop was an examination of how conventional and emerging treatment processes can be utilized to create customized strategies to address specific wastewater treatment challenges. The workshop participants got the opportunity to work collectively with the presenters to examine how emerging treatment technologies can be used to find cost-effective solutions to relevant realworld issues. A visit to a city wastewater treatment plant, a faecal sludge management facility and a solid waste management plant was organised to give field exposure and practical know-how. In total 97 professionals have enhanced and updated their knowledge on novel sanitation approaches, electrochemistry for environmental applications and had an exposure to practical field applications. Their enhanced knowledge will contribute to sustainable interventions in future applications.

Workbook on FSM (Switzerland)

Faecal sludge management (FSM) is a rapidly growing sector, and as a result it is difficult to keep all the appropriate engineering design guidelines up to date. Therefore, a flexible form of information sharing is needed in order to include all the new developments. Until the FSM textbook (Strande et al., 2014) is ready for an update, the latest developments can be added to the FSM Workbook. This requires a lower level of reliable operating experience for case studies and of innovation examples, and a more thorough level for design recommendations. This regularly updated information can then be incorporated into subsequent editions of the FSM textbook. While the objective of the FSM textbook is to provide comprehensive and fundamental information relevant to FSM, the FSM Workbook will provide a pedagogical tool to support learning from the FSM textbook. Objectives of the FSM Workbook include providing:

§ A learning tool that can be used in the university-level classroom, as well as adult professional training workshops for practitioners; § Examples of design calculations for professionals working in the sector; § A more flexible way to keep the FSM textbook materials up-to-date in the intervals between publishing new editions.

Each topic will have a short text introduction, key figures and graphics, updated case study examples, and exercises to work through to learn how to apply the topic. This project aims to create a template and summarize all the information updates that have become available since the writing of the FSM textbook. After this has been established, the FSM Workbook will be updated regularly (every 2 months), and will be available for downloading via various websites.

Training the trainers in MOOC development (Burkina Faso)

Online learning is developing very fast globally, and with new technologies and different formats continually becoming available for the delivery of online courses, self-study Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are increasingly popular. Although 2iE has several years of experience in elearning education, there is a need to refresh and enhance the knowledge of staff involved in the development and delivery of online courses with the latest technologies in the field. We plan to conduct a 5-day state-of-the-art training course for trainers in non-sewered sanitation-related online course development and implementation, focused on MOOC development. The training course will be implemented with assistance from Eawag, which has extensive experience in developing MOOCs. The training course has been targeted at 2iE online-course developers, coordinators and technicians - five staff from the 2iE department in charge of online education, five lecturers from the Department of Water and Sanitation (directly involved in the development and delivery of sanitation-related courses) and five lecturers from the Department of Engineering Science and Techniques and the Center of Human and Social Sciences (involved in the delivery of courses in basic science for engineers, statistics, research methodologies, GIS, project management, etc.). At least 15 highly qualified professionals in the development and delivery of online learning courses in non-sewered sanitation will enhance their knowledge on state-of-the-art MOOCs and online course production which will be imparted to many other professionals working in this field over the coming years.

Case study on FSM (Myanmar)

When initiating FSM, the main challenges that most municipalities encounter are: how, where and when to start? What procedures and methodology to follow? Where to get the right resources? And many more. Most sanitation practitioners and municipalities usually choose and build a treatment plant as the solution. A video case study will be developed that shows a systematic and integrated approach to be developed for FSM in Yangon city, which will be based on the findings and activities in the city. This case study will demonstrate Yangon’s municipalities and their FSM reform, ultimately providing learners with the opportunity to understand the FSM case of Yangon and also to transform their perspectives on what steps are needed in initiating and planning an FSM project. The video will consist of interviews as well as video of the local FSM situation in Yangon City. It will enable the audience to (i) be able to choose the appropriate tools needed for assessing the needs of FSM and identifying the FSM projects; (ii) be familiar with the methodology and indicators of the tools; (iii) identify the problem of FSM in urban areas; and (iv) recognize the benefit of participation by multi-stakeholders in the data collection and assessment plan. This is the sequence of work flow to conduct a needs assessment with the selective tools. The video will also be added to the series of case studies as a part of the online FSM course. The target group is sanitation professionals from practice (municipalities, urban sanitation planners, city governments/authorities, consultants) as well as academics (students, online course participants). The video will be of open access and is expected to have no less than 500 views in under a year. The practitioners from the Southeast Asian region can apply the results directly to their cases, as most Southeast Asian countries share similar FSM situations. This case study will be an example to Myanmar's government bodies on how to implement the planning of FSM projects, helping to identify needs and built capacity. It will provide an incentive for practitioners to stick to their sanitation goals and improve when/if necessary. Similarly, it will help enhance the involvement of participants in Yangon's city by showcasing the integrative, participatory need assessment and planning approaches, the application of FSM tools and the sequence of work flow etc.

Training courses on non-sewered sanitation (Nepal)

The progress made by the water, sanitation and hygiene sector (WASH) in Nepal can be attributed to the enabling environment, which has encouraged further effective and meaningful contributions towards achieving the country’s commitment to SDGs by 2030. A few examples of these actions that will enable safe urban sanitation are the sanitation guidelines (one of its indicators is dedicated to FSM), the institutional framework for FSM and the wastewater management policy. However, as these are relatively new, there is still a lack of knowledge of and capacity in these elements, and hence these actions aim to increase awareness, enhance knowledge and build the capacity of the WASH sector practitioners and professionals in the discourse of managing faecal sludge and wastewater using a non-sewered approach in a way that is efficient in terms of cost, energy and O&M. The action is targeting government officials, local body officials, sector stakeholders and actors from society and academic institutions. Orientation programs and workshops will be conducted to increase awareness, particularly of the newly elected local body officials and actors, and a training/short course is planned to enhance the knowledge and capacity of professionals in the sector. Approximately 120 government officials including officials from local municipalities will be made aware of urban sanitation, primarily on non-sewered sanitation systems, and approximately 40 practitioners and professionals from government agencies and society will be trained on non-sewered sanitation (DEWATS and FSM) with a focus on the planning, designing, and implementation of DEWATS and FSTP by organizing two short courses. The promotion of such activities will produce adequately skilled manpower, ultimately helping the country’s WASH sector in meeting its SDG commitments by 2030.

Program on nonsewered sanitation (Nepal)

Nepal is predominantly a non-sewered country. The demand and need for proper management of non-sewered sanitation is increasing but at the same time the non-sewered sanitation professionals in the country have limited knowledge and capacity. There are no academic institutions/universities in the country offering courses focusing on non-sewered sanitation. To address this challenge, Kathmandu University (KU) aims to establish itself as a central hub for knowledge dissemination and technology implementation in non-sewered sanitation in Nepal. To begin with, Kathmandu University plans to (i) enhance the capacity of faculty members; (ii) develop innovative ideas and new programs, and (iii) run a short course on non-sewered sanitation. A study visit to the FSM plant in Devanahali, Karnataka, India is planned to give exposure to, and enhance the capacity of, the university faculty members who will be involved in running the MSc course later at KU. Student projects in the final year undergraduate and/or graduate degree courses will be supported to develop innovative ideas in the field of non-sewered sanitation. A short course will be developed and imparted, targeting (i) technical officers/engineers from various municipalities in Nepal and (ii) young sanitation professionals (working in various private companies, NGOs, etc). As the local government elections have recently been completed after 20 years, this is the right time to collaborate with local government authorities in accelerating the increase in knowledge, promotion and impact of non-sewered sanitation. At least 12 academics/students will gain a specialized knowledge on non-sewered sanitation, which will support the creation of many professionals in the field of non-sewered sanitation. At least 25 officers/professionals will acquire an increased knowledge and enhanced capacity on non-sewered sanitation, contributing to the sustainable promotion of non-sewered sanitation in Nepal.

Video case studies in the field of FSM (South Africa)

In January 2016 a global consortium of academic institutes started with the delivery of an online course in Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). A key learning element of these courses is formed by the case studies, produced by a variety of partners. The case studies offer a good insight into local situations as well as showing the practical side of the material covered in the online course. For this project, the Pollution Research Group of the University of Kwa Zulu-Natal will expand the database of case study videos with a series on the latest developments in their research area. Topics that will be covered in the case studies are: (i) Demonstrating the successful collaboration between a research institution (PRG, UKZN) and local authority (eThekwini) in Durban, which has resulted in a significant improvement in FSM in Durban; (ii) Black-soldier-fly treatment: PRG is supporting a company in running a full-scale black-soldier-fly treatment facility for dry human excreta. This is the first full-scale facility of its type in the world. The video will show the process and the business model used to implement this technology; (iii) New technologies: PRG is supporting several BMGF grantees to test prototype sanitation units and treatment systems in the field in Durban. This case study gives an overview of how the new technologies work and their potential role in providing sustainable sanitation to everyone in Durban; (iv) Social engagement: this discusses people’s opinion of new and existing sanitation technologies. The importance of social engagement in field testing of new technologies is highlighted, together with the methods used for information collection, and (v) How to set up and operate a faecal sludge laboratory: including the necessary equipment required for successful testing and storage; the administrative work necessary prior to the analysis; introduction to the use of standard operating procedures, experimental methods, quality control and standardization; and health and safety issues. All the videos will be open access.

Course on nonsewered sanitation (India)

The Indian Government and development agencies/partners have contributed to the implementation of the ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’ initiative and have increased sanitation coverage from 1% in 1981 to 47% in 2011. However, efforts to properly manage faecal sludge from non-sewered sanitation facilities barely exist or are often very limited. There is a great need for proper faecal sludge management as improper transport and disposal practices are posing a major threat to human health and the environment. One of the major reasons for this challenge is the lack of educated and skilled personnel in this sector and this profession. In order to overcome this challenge, we plan to implement several activities to help educate and train the relevant stakeholders. We plan to run (i) a 2-day short course in nonsewered sanitation and will start with ‘Faecal sludge management- sustainable solutions for developing countries’, (ii) a 3-month online course and (iii) self-paced massive open online courses (MOOCs). These activities are targeted at government officials, professionals from NGOs working in the field of sanitation, academics and civil/environmental engineering students. In addition, we plan to translate two important books (i) Faecal sludge management - Systems approach for implementation and operation and (ii) Experimental methods in wastewater treatment into three Indian languages (Hindi, Tamil and Marathi). As a result at least 200 professionals will gain enhanced knowledge on FSM, which will enable them to design and implement sustainable solutions that will ultimately benefit a large population, particularly those residing in rural and peri-urban areas. The translated books will enhance the knowledge of professionals less proficient in the English language who are directly working with the local communities.

Workshops and Training Courses on FSM (India)

Rapid urbanization and increasing rural-urban migration are contributing to increasing urban poor settlements in India. Unsanitary conditions in these settlements, which result in poor health and a high infant and child mortality rate, are one of the biggest challenges for urban local bodies/municipalities. It has been realized that traditional sanitary practices of wastewater management are not going to reach and solve this challenge. Therefore, FSM, particularly in urban areas with low-income settlements, is getting more attention and urban local bodies/municipalities are adopting FSM into their planning and implementation. However, knowledge on FSM is limited to only a few stakeholders in the state of Rajasthan in India. In order to improve the unsanitary conditions in Rajasthan, CDD has signed a MoU with the State Government of Rajasthan to help plan and implement FSM in 100 urban local bodies/municipalities. As part of this bigger ambition, we plan to implement several activities to help sensitize and train the relevant stakeholders including students/academics from engineering institutions in Rajasthan. We plan to organize (i) one-day workshops for government officials from 100 towns (with whom CDD has a MoU for assisting with implementing FSM) spread across nine districts in the state of Rajasthan; (ii) nine half-day workshops targeted at the students and academics of 10 engineering Institutions in the capital city of Jaipur and (iii) one three-day training course on FSM targeted at various stakeholders from the towns and cities that have progressed in their sanitation planning and have incorporated FSM in their city sanitation plans. At least 650 stakeholders primarily working in the urban local bodies/municipalities and academics will have increased awareness and will gain enhanced knowledge on FSM, which will sensitize and enable them to design and implement sustainable solutions in FSM.

PhD program In total 20 PhD fellows from 12 countries have received a full research scholarship to study at 8 universities in SubSaharan Africa (2iE – Burkina Faso, UCT – South Africa, MUIENR – Uganda and KNUST – Kumasi), South-East Asia (ITB – Indonesia and AIT - Thailand), Latin America (UFMG – Brazil), and IHE Delft (The Netherlands). Each institution has had not less than two and not more than three PhD fellows. The research part of the project is clustered around five thematic areas on pro-urban poor sanitation: (i) smart sanitation provision for slums and informal settlements; (ii) emergency sanitation following natural and anthropologic disasters; (iii) resourceoriented decentralized sanitation; (iv) low-cost wastewater collection and treatment; and (v) faecal sludge management. To support the research, funds have been made available to purchase necessary laboratory and experimental equipment. Incentives have been awarded to four patentable outputs and eight practical applications have resulted from these PhD studies. At the time of writing this publication, 14 PhD fellows have completed their study and received a doctoral degree while the others are currently in the final stage of completion.


Wastewater Treatment Systems for Dry-warm Climates (Burkina Faso)

Moumouni, D.A. et al. (2016) Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a baffled pond with attached growth: treating anaerobic effluent under Sahelian climate. Environmental Technology, 37(9):1054-1064.

Over recent decades there has been renewed interest in optimizing and innovating wastewater treatment technologies (WTTs) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, poor city-dwellers need low-cost, reliable WTTs that allow for the safe reuse of the effluent in the water-scarce context. This research focuses on the design and test of two options for domestic wastewater treatment in the warm, dry subSaharan Africa climate of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The first option consisted of two-stage high-rate Anaerobic Reactors followed by a Baffled Pond (AR-BP) with recycled plastic media as a medium for attached growth. The second option included the same two-stage high-rate Anaerobic Reactors but followed them with wet-dry Sand Filters (ARSF). The research was conducted on a pilot scale, by applying a design flow of 1 m3/d, which was later increased to 1.5 m3/d. After two years of operation: • Significant differences in mean COD, BOD5 and TSS removal efficiencies were achieved in both systems: 79, 81 and 72%, respectively, for AR-BP and 84, 88 and 88 %, respectively, for AR-SF; • The introduction of three vertical baffles increased the hydraulic retention time and decreased the dead volume in the BP. Thus, the hydrodynamics and the performance of the pond were improved, and the costs and the amount of land that is required were reduced; • It was also found that high pathogen removal efficiencies were achieved in both the treatment options with 6 and 5 log units for AR-BP and AR-SF, respectively; • The AR-SF option presented a high rate of nitrification, while the BP was more efficient in removing ammonia nitrogen (84 %) and E. coli (6 log units); • The two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors (R1 and R2) produced a significant amount of biogas, with 9.7 L/m2 per day of biogas and a methane content of 54 %; • Very low sludge yields were recorded in R1, R2, and BP (0.0006, 0.0002 and 0.0014 m3/cap. yr, respectively), thus reducing the cost of its extraction and management. The next step will focus on developing a prototype and testing it in a real situation as a semi-centralised system combined with simplified sewerage technology. Instead of using a fixed system, the idea is that the prototype would be prefabricated plastic, adjustable and portable and it could be applied in residential areas, small-scale communities, and emergency situations as well.

Moumouni Diafarou Ali Burkina Faso

‘The two treatment options can be recommended

as alternative low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for African cities, with the final effluent being used for restricted irrigation in periurban agriculture.’


Greywater Treatment by Vermifiltration (Burkina Faso)

To evaluate the potential of vermifiltration technology in treating concentrated greywater generated from urban poor, experiments were conducted from March 2013 to July 2015 in the 2iE foundation, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. From the experiments conducted, the following important results were obtained: • •

• • Adugna, A. et al. (2015) Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated greywater for urban poor. Environmental Technology, 36(21):2763-2769. Adugna, A. et al. (2014) Greywater treatment by vermifiltration for sub-Saharan urban poor. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 4(4):625-632.

• •

• •

This technology has the ability to treat pollutants in a single facility at household level; In all the experiments, average removal efficiencies of > 90% for BOD5 and TSS, 80-90% for COD, 60-70% for NH4, 40-50% for NO3, 50-60% for NO2 and PO4, and 1-4 log units for coliforms were achieved; The locally available earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae, tolerated a temperature of 41.5 °C inside the filter. Fine sawdust can be used as a substitute for sand in vermifilters; The vermifilters used odor-free potential organic matter and earthworms that could be harvested every 6-8 months. The vermifilters no longer supported the earthworms’ growth after several months of operation; Major removal of pollutants was achieved by the sawdust layer (top layer with 30 cm depth) for most parameters. Higher numbers of bacteria were found in the vermifilter compared to the control unit, which may be associated with the presence of earthworms; The sawdust vermifilter performed slightly better compared to the cow dung vermifilter; Microbial communities are working with earthworms in pollutant removal as fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes were identified in samples of filter materials at different depths; There were pH differences in the filter materials along the depth which might be caused by the chemical accumulation or precipitation, and the earthworms and microbial activities; The bacterial distribution in the vermifilters and the control unit were higher at the top compared to the bottom.

The results are encouraging but need to be tested at household level by scaling up the prototype.

Amare Tirunah Adugna Burkina Faso

‘Vermifiltration technology constructed from locally available materials and using locally available earthworms is a feasible option to treat concentrated greywater generated from urban poor.’

Business Model for Faecal Sludge Transport (Thailand and Vietnam)

This research generated the innovative business model of faecal sludge collection and transport services (FSCTS) and proposed appropriate business solutions to support the business decision-making process. The nine business components and two external components make up part of this model. Service performance indicators include, but are not limited to, five indicators: financial results, customer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility, an environmental code of conduct and service efficiency. The ownership status of a service organization affects the operating cost and profit of FSCTS. In Thailand and Vietnam, all the surveyed private services have positive financial results while public services have negative results. Privatization is a trend to secure a profit for FSCTS. This business model is proposed as one of the applicable benchmarking tools for service providers to examine their current business and service models. When service providers have not organized their services with a well-defined model, they can refer to our proposed business models. When service providers have their own business model concept, they can use our proposed business model to compare to and develop their business. Field testing in Vietnam indicated that four possible solutions could be applied and prototyped there, including improved transport vehicles, the logistics planning tool, a cooperative model for Vietnam market, and environmental–friendly branding, as a business solution to make FSCTS more reliable, profitable and environmentally friendly.


Ta Hung Anh Thailand

‘Our business model is proposed as one of the applicable benchmarking tools for service providers to evaluate their current business and service practices.’

Improving Pit Latrine Performance and Life Span (Uganda)

Nakagiri et al. (2017) Assessing ambient and internal environmental conditions of pit latrines in urban slums of Kampala, Uganda: Effect on performance. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. Nakagiri et al. (2016) Are pit latrines in urban areas of SubSaharan Africa performing? A review of usage, filling, insects and odour nuisances. BMC Public Health, 16(1):1-16. Nakagiri et al. (2015) Performance of pit latrines in urban poor areas: A case of Kampala, Uganda. Habitat International, 49:529-537.

Anne Nakagiri


The performance of pit latrines was investigated in 9 different slums of Kampala, Uganda. 130 pit latrines were assessed to determine the status of pit latrine structures, and their influence on performance. 42 pit latrines were investigated to establish the relationship between pit environmental conditions and their performance. Additionally, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (IMOs) in improving the performance of pit latrines. The results from the different studies on the performance of pit latrines presented the following findings; § 51% of the latrines were full and 15% overflowing, 39% had a strong malodorous smell with a few flies in 80% of the latrines. 43% of the latrines were dirty. 89% of users wanted to improve their pit latrines. The ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines did not perform (smell, flies) better than simple pit latrines. § Predictors of pit filling were signs of rain or storm water entry (β = 34.6), flooding (β = 5.3), and cleaning time (β = 5.0). Cleanliness (β = 97.6), stance length (β = 1.0), superstructure material (β = 0.01), use by households only (β = 0.01) and cleaning before/after use (β = 0.02) were predictors of smell. The presence of flies was related to superstructure material (β = 70.6). § An assessment of the environmental conditions found low wind speeds (0-0.6m/s), pit temperature (21 to 30.7 oC), pH (5.0 - 11.8) and ORP (-247 to 65.9mV). § Pit content was anoxic (ORP < + 50mV) pits, in the acid formation range (ORP -199 to -51mV). Smelling pit latrines and flies were within the acid formation ORP range. There was a significant association (G=0.797, p=0.014) between ORP and smell in only clean latrines, implying changes in pit environment would affect only smell. § Following the laboratory, degradation experiments of faecal matter and IMOs, only faecal matter load affected mass reduction (indicator of filling). Ammonia concentration (indictor of smell) was affected by faecal matter load, IMO application and interaction of IMOs. Maximum IMO3 application was 1,300 g at a faecal load of 16,000 g, implying application twice a week.

‘Pit latrine performance (filling, smell and insects) is influenced by a number of factors, including the status (design, construction, operation and maintenance), and environmental conditions.’

Integrated Sewage Treatment Technology for Developing Countries (Brazil)

Dias, D. et al. (2017) Upgrading and evaluation of a simple pond system for small communities with simple interventions to reduce land requirements and increase performance. Water Practice and Technology, 12(1):1-11. Dias, D. et al. (2017) A review of bacterial indicator disinfection mechanisms in waste stabilisation ponds. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 1-23. Dias, D. et al. (2017) Solar radiation (PAR, UV-A, UV-B) penetration in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate. Water Science and Technology. Dias, D. et al. (2017). Vertical profiling and modelling of Escherichia coli decay in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate. Environmental Technology, 1-11. Dias, D. et al. (2016). Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small to medium size communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series. Environmental Technology, 1-13. Plus 4 more papers.

Daniel Filipe Cristelo Dias Brazil

A natural wastewater treatment line was implemented to treat raw sewage in Brazil, using a total area of 1.5 m2/cap., while maintaining high removal efficiencies for the major constituents. In order to reduce the required area, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, a pond without baffles followed by another shallow pond with baffles, was proposed. A rock filter with three decreasing grain sizes was also incorporated into the system after the ponds in series to remove the remaining particulate organic matter from the ponds, while avoiding clogging because of the decreasing grain size. The system was designed to treat sewage from 250 inhabitants. During the 2 years and 3 months of operation, the following conclusions were reached: • High overall organic matter removal (BOD = 93%, COD = 79% and SS = 87%), limited TKN (55%) and ammonia-N (43%) removal, and excellent removal of total coliforms (5.9 log units) and E. coli (6.1 log units) at low treatment time (6.7 days ); • The final effluent complied (100%) with all three standards (BOD, COD, SS) set by the Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 135/40 for discharging stabilisation pond effluent; • This suggests that this system can be used not only in developing countries, but that it is also suitable for developed countries with warm climate. The final effluent qualified for two different practices of unrestricted irrigation and three practices of restricted irrigation following WHO (2006) guidelines. Unrestricted irrigation: suitable for irrigation of non-root salad crops (e.g. lettuce, cabbage) and vegetables eaten uncooked; and drip irrigation of high-growing crops (such as fruit trees, olives). Restricted irrigation: labor-intensive restricted irrigation; restricted irrigation using highly mechanised agricultural practices (e.g. tractors, automatic sprinklers, etc.); subsurface irrigation via the soil absorption system.

‘A combined solution of a UASB reactor, two maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter operating in series to produce an effluent compatible with different discharge conditions and irrigation practices with a retention time of less than seven days.’

Wetlands for Septic Sludge and Sewage Treatment (Brazil)

Andrade, C.F. et al. (2017) Treatment of septic tank sludge in a vertical flow constructed wetland system. Engenharia Agrícola, 37(4):811-819. Manjate, E. et al. (2015) First stage of the French vertical flow constructed wetland system: Experiment with the reduction of surface area and number of units. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 5(1):50-55. Calderon-Vallejo, L. F. et al. (2015) Performance of a system with full-and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil. Water Science and Technology, 71 (12):1751-1759.

The research facility at UFMG is comprised of a typical first stage of the French system of vertical wetlands, built according to the specifications and recommendations of CEMAGREF/Irstea. Initially, the system was built to treat only domestic sewage for approximately 100 population equivalents but lately the system has also started treating septic tank sludge. The units were planted with Tifton 85 (Cynodon ssp). Each of the three units was 3.1 m wide and 9.4 m long, leading to a total area of 87 m² (approximately 0.9 m²/capita). During the monitoring period only 2/3 of the area (two units) was taken by the traditional first stage of the French system to treat domestic sewage, while the third unit was dedicated to septic tank sludge. Each sewage unit was fed for 7 days and rested for 7 days. Trucks transporting septic tank sludge discharged each week onto the sludge unit and then the percolate was sent to the post-treatment unit. Different operational conditions of the system treating septic tank sludge were implemented, including retention of the percolate for 7 days and for 14 days respectively. After three years of operation using vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) for domestic sewage and septic sludge treatment, the following aspects can be concluded: § Satisfactory organic matter and total suspended solids removal (BOD = 93%, COD = 79% and TSS = 87%); § Good TKN (63%) and ammonia-N (49%) removal; § The presence of the plants Cynodon dactylon pers prevented the VFCW from clogging; § The utilization of only the first stage of the French/CEMAGREF systems shows a large potential whenever simple systems are required for the treatment of raw domestic sewage in developing countries and regions with a warm climate; § Treating septic tank sludge with retention of the percolate for 7 days in the sludge unit followed by sending the percolate for retention during 7 days in the posttreatment unit was found as the best alternative, leading to global median removal efficiencies of 90% for BOD, 94% for COD, 68% for TS, 80% for TVS, 68% for ammonia-N, 87% for TKN and 99.98% for E. coli; § The dewatering of the accumulated sludge worked well, producing a top sludge with 55% of dry solids and a TVS/TS ratio of 60%; § The system showed to be robust in regard to different types of septic tank sludge, hydraulic loading rate and solids loading rates. ‘The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands

(VFCW) for domestic sewage and septic tank sludge treatment has shown promising results and appears to be a solution for low-cost treatment and decentralized sanitation.’

Elias Sete Manjate Brazil

Destruction of Helminth Eggs by Composting Drums (Ghana)

Appiah E. et al. (2016) Effect of bulking materials and mixing ratios on concentration of nutrients during composting of raw faecal sludge from peri-urban areas, Water Practice & Technology, 11(1):234-242. Appiah E. et al. (2015) Perception of peri-urban farmers on faecal sludge compost and its utilization; A case study of three peri-urban communities in Ashanti Region of Ghana, Compost Science and Utilization. Appiah E. et al. (2015). Heavy metals and microbial loads in raw faecal sludge from low income areas of Ashanti Region of Ghana, Water Practice & Technology, (10):124-132. Appiah E. et al. (2014) Faecal sludge management in low income areas: a case study of three districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 189-199.

In Ghana, faecal sludge treatment is only available in four big cities. This study therefore sought to investigate the performance of a rotary drum composter in the destruction of helminths (Ascaris and Trichuris eggs). A rotary drum composter with a volume of 75 L was used for the composting at the laboratory scale. The composter was fabricated with a plastic and galvanized metal sheet of 5 mm thickness and was batch operated. The main units of the composter are the drum (metal and plastic) and a mixer (rotating paddle/baffle). Five complete rotations of the drum were manually carried out on the first day and subsequently every three days for the first three weeks and afterwards every 10 days until the end of the composting process. Composting with the rotary drums revealed some interesting results, such as:

• The study found that all the compost feedstock (faecal sludge and shredded corn cobs) samples analyzed were infected with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs, with Ascaris being more prevalent; • The temperatures generated within the rotary drums (5462 °C) were sufficient to enable a high removal rate of Ascaris and Trichuris at the end of the composting process; • The die-off of Ascaris and Trichuris at the end of the compost process was statistically significant (p 90% and total solids correspondingly < 10%; • The carbon to nitrogen ratio of the substrates was 2:1 for human excreta and 6:1 for a combination of human excreta and cow-dung. Co-digestion of human excreta and cow-dung resulted in more biogas production than when using single substrate; • The biogas flow rate ranged from 0.24 to 0.58 m3/h while the methane content was 57-63 %; • Performance of biogas latrines is influenced by a combination of the operating conditions of temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids and carbon to nitrogen ratio of the substrate and hence their monitoring and anaerobic digestion process control to optimal conditions are key; • There was only limited reduction of E.coli by 0.86-1.6 log10, Salmonella spp. by 1.03-1.92 log10, total coliforms by 0.66-2.02 log10, Enterococcus spp. by 1.26-2.74 log10, Ascaris eggs by 0.25-0.41 log10 units.

‘The biogas latrine is an integrated waste management system that provides a sanitation solution as well as energy in the form of biogas and is suited for use in urban informal settlements.’

Peter Kipyegon Mutai


Vermifiltration for Blackwater Treatment – the Biofil Toilet (Ghana)

Owusu-Antwi, P. et al. (2017) Nutrient and microbial reduction properties in pervious composites for blackwater treatment, Management Studies, (5), 2. Owusu-Antwi, P. et al. (2015) The Potential of subsurface infiltration for the treatment of Biofil Toilet Technology effluent, Management Studies, (3) 11-12:281-299.

Biofil Toilet Technology (BTT) is a household blackwater treatment unit that has been developed to mitigate issues such as limited land space for toilet facilities, lack of access to desludge traditional toilets in complicated layouts, long haulage to huge treatment systems for final disposal of waste, and odour problems. Laboratory-scale soil columns and miniature BTTs were used for the testing. Feeds, effluent from existing BTTS and fresh faeces from households were used. Some of the key data and results indicate the following:

• From four different soil columns, laterite and sand were found to have a high efficacy for COD, BOD5, and TSS with up to 80% of all contaminants being removed at a depth of 0.3 m in the soil column. • A two to five log pathogen removal was recorded for the soil columns. • GR, SP and PKS particle sizes were uniformly graded and similar, and thus could be substituted in their use as pervious composites for separation in blackwater treatment. • The permeability of the composites was heavily influenced by their densities. • The mean pH in the effluent filtered through the composites was higher than in the influent, most likely the result of the available calcium carbonate in the cement. • The pervious composite was not consistent in terms of N removal but was for P. • SP was the only composite effective in removing E. coli. • Worms reacted to the chemical application by moving away from the point of application. • Aqueous solutions of chloroxylenol, hydrogen chloride and sodium hypochlorite exhibited paralyses and caused deaths of up to 40 % of earthworms, especially at higher concentrations of 2.0 g/100mL and 3.0 g/100mL. • The concentration of 3.0 g/100mL is statistically likely to kill 50 % of the population of worms.

The results favour the use of alternative materials to reduce the cost of production and transport for its components. They also suggest good options for effluent treatment in areas with a high water table or clayey soils. Furthermore, cleaning with household chemicals does not compromise the functionality of the BTT due to the dilution factor, unless abused.

Peter Owusu-Antwi Ghana

‘The Biofil Toilet is a novel on-site vermibiofiltration technology designed and developed in Ghana to service a wide spread of users.’

Microwave-based Sludge Treatment Technology

(Netherlands, Slovenia and Kenya)

Mawioo P. et al. (2017) A pilot-scale microwave technology for sanitization and drying. Science of the Total Environment, (601-602):1437-1448. Mawioo P. et al. (2016) Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Management (184):575-584 Mawioo P. et al. (2016) Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge. Science of the Total Environment, 548:72-81. Brdjanovic, D. et al., (2015) eSOS® - emergency Sanitation Operation System, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 5(1):156-164.

The Shit Killer is the invention of professors Brdjanovic and Mijatović and developed with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Dutch government. It is primarily designed to sanitize fresh human excreta as well as to reduce the volume of faecal sludge. The technology can also be applied for the treatment of household septic sludge and waste activated sludge from sewage treatment plants. The device is based on the novel application of microwave-based technology that can deactivate the pathogenic microorganisms by generating heat inside the reactor, and by further thermal action, can reduce the volume of treated sludge. The Shit Killer has been tested in Slovenia and Kenya with promising results: the achieved content of dry solids was more than 90% and dried sludge was practically pathogenfree. The experimental system was further optimized, scaled up to a containerized pilot of 1,000 PE capacity and tested on the treatment of fresh excreta (urine and faeces) from mobile toilets, septic tank sludge, fresh waste sludge and dewatered sludge from local municipal wastewater treatment plants. After testing in Croatia and Slovenia the containerized system will be tested in a refugee camp in Jordan. It can be mobile or stationary and is a particularly suitable solution for small towns’ sludge treatment. Its envisaged application ranges from waste sludge treatment at municipal wastewater treatment plans to sanitation provision for non-sewered areas, refugee camps and urban slums.

Peter M. Mawioo Kenya

‘The Shit Killer® is promising technology for the treatment of fresh faecal sludge, septic sludge and waste activated sludge, and particularly suitable for the onsite treatment of smaller settlements.’

Sewage Treatment for People in Swamps (Indonesia)


Swamp areas are mostly formed either as a tidal swamp because of the tidal effect of being near coastal areas, estuaries and other areas that are affected by tidal waves, or as a non-tidal inland swamp in flat areas near to lakes, rivers or other areas with no rainwater runoff. They are indicated as areas with soft soil where the soil is permanently filled with water, and are mostly affected by seasonally inundated conditions. In some South East Asian countries, many swamp areas are used as residential areas. Providing wastewater treatment systems for human settlements in swamp areas is challenging, both from technical and non-technical aspects. Therefore, this research is conducted to achieve a better understanding of the problem of providing appropriate wastewater treatment technology to fit the specific conditions of swamps and to meet the requirements of swamp communities. The selected wastewater treatment technology considered to be applied in South Sumatera was the Tripikon-S system, a modification of the septic tank system using a PVC pipe as the container. The strength of this system is related to the limited land area required, watertight material, its placement that can minimize soil-related problems, and the placement of an outlet that can prevent the backflow while there are inundated conditions. In order to enhance the performance, two modifications were made, namely: the addition of a bioball as attachment media, and the addition of a venturi-shaped chamber to get air into the system. The results show that with influent organic matter of 1,500-2,000 mg/L COD, 48 hours of retention is preferable. Under such operation, 50-62 % COD removal was achieved by the original Tripikon-S design, 64-66 % with the bioball addition, and 65-67 % with the venturi chamber. These promising results show that the modified tripikon-S system has the potential to be applied for removal of COD in the swamp communities of Indonesia. With a good understanding of the social and physical environmental conditions of river swamps and estuary swamp settlements, along with the promising laboratory results of the tripikon-S system, an integrated strategy for applying wastewater treatment infrastructure to meet the needs of swamp communities has been developed in this research, also covering construction and management strategies.

Dyah Wulandari Putri Indonesia

‘Provision of wastewater infrastructure to urban settlements in river and estuary swamp areas can be addressed with deeper insight and more confidence using the results of this research’

Function-based Indicator of Sanitation Progress (South Africa)

Case studies from three informal settlements in Cape Town, South Africa show that what matters and affects users most is if sanitation technologies fail to meet the users’ fundamental human needs for safety from physical and emotional harm (security), comfort, good ventilation, cleanliness, accessibility (day and night), consistent and adequately supported O&M, and dignity. International, national, provincial and local governments all use the WHO indicator of number-of-toiletsto-people ratio to ascertain sanitation provision progress. However, these indicators fail to consider human experiential factors such as those of Cabisa (a pseudonym), a respondent in a Cape Town informal settlement, who was raped and physically assaulted in a toilet facility that fits on the top rung of the WHO’s sanitation ladder. Yet it failed to provide a security function such as is necessary in most informal South African settlements. The study recommends a function-based indicator as an alternative (or complement) to the ineffective WHO’s technology-based indicators of progress on sanitation provision. Also presented is previously undocumented evidence of sanitation users’ experiences i.e. everyday practices, challenges and opportunities, as well as knowledge about user and settlement characteristics in three informal settlements in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Sanitation provision is a process that includes a series of interrelated principles, standards (based on a ‘limited-resources’ ideology), beliefs, practices and artifacts – all applied in a human and natural environment to create and sustain public health and improve overall human wellbeing. The most effective approach to such provision is to serve the social, health and environmental functions that are based on the users’ environment, practices and expectations. Consequently, function-based indicators of sanitation progress must complement the WHO’s indicators.

Kwame Samuel Norwixoxo South Africa

‘The extent to which those global sanitation goals have been met, especially in informal settlements, has commonly been assessed statistically using ratios such as numbers of toilets per population size. Such assessments fail to account for informal settlement residents’ expectations, how they use and manage the toilets that local authorities provide, and the reasons for the challenges faced by those authorities in maintaining such facilities.’

Equity as a Key to Sustainable Sanitation (South Africa)

Pan, S.M, et al, (2015) Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape Town: a common vision? Water SA, 41(2):222–231.

This research explored how the concepts of sustainability and equity can be applied to improve municipal sanitation services in South African informal settlements and to explore various dimensions of sustainability and equity in relation to sanitation. The dimensions of sustainability considered were: economic, social (with health highlighted), technical, environmental and institutional. The dimensions of equity defined in the research included: access, resource allocation, and perceptions. A comparative case study method using the lens of sustainability and equity was used to critique the approaches to providing sanitation services to informal settlements in three of South Africa’s largest municipalities: eThekwini (Durban), Johannesburg and Cape Town. Each municipal case study incorporated an embedded case study that was used to examine sanitation services in selected informal settlements at a program, project or settlement level. Primary data was collected using interviews and field visits. Secondary data was obtained from national and municipal records such as water and sanitation department reports, census data from Statistics South Africa, and municipal geographical information system databases. Findings from the research indicate that there is a need to better incorporate multiple stakeholders’ perspectives on what sustainable and equitable sanitation services should be like. Strengths and weaknesses of each municipality’s approach to sanitation service provision were compared and used to identify factors relating to successes or failures in sanitation service provision to informal settlements. A major conceptual gap identified in sanitation service delivery approaches is the need to emphasize equity as a core tenet of sustainability, especially in a socio-economic context of extreme inequality. The importance of equity to support sustainable sanitation service delivery in South African informal settlements was highlighted and a new perspective of different dimensions of equity in sanitation was a result of the research.

‘The South African government has taken strides to try and meet both international and domestic development goals with its Free Basic Sanitation policy, for which a national implementation strategy was developed in 2008.’

Sophia Pan

United States of America

Dewatering of Faecal Sludge from Slums (Uganda)

Semiyaga, S. et al. (2017) Dewaterability of faecal sludge and its implications on faecal sludge management in urban slums. Internal Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14:151-168. Semiyaga, S. et al. (2015) Decentralized options for faecal sludge management in urban slum areas of SSA: A review of technologies, practices and end-uses. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 104:109-119.

Technologies for decentralized management of faecal sludge (FS) are costly, and therefore reduction of volume of FS is both needed and welcome. Dewatering experiments were performed on FS obtained from latrines in three slums in Kampala (Uganda). A lot of interesting and novel data has been obtained, such as: • The dewatering rate of FS from lined pit latrines was not significantly different from that of unlined pit latrines (CST=1,122 s and 1,485 s, respectively); • The dewatering extent of FS from unlined pits (31.8 %) was higher than that from lined (18.6 % cake solids); • The dewatering extent of FS from lined pits decreased with increasing volatile solids and increased with increased sand content; • The change in particle size proportions had no effect on the dewatering extent of FS; • The application of physical conditioners (sawdust and charcoal dust) commonly found in Kampala slums improved the dewaterability of FS from lined pits; • The sawdust dosage of 75 % FS solids improved the dewatering rate and dewatering extent of FS by 14.3 and 22.9%, respectively; • Similarly, a 75 % dosage of charcoal dust improved the dewatering rate and extent by 15.8 and 35.7 %; • Also, a 50 % dosage of sawdust and charcoal dust increased the calorific value of FS by 42 and 49 %; • The FS cake structure became porous after the addition of sawdust and charcoal dust. Moreover, such porous FS is much easier to dry and compost; • The centrifugation conditions of rotational speed, time and FS volume were optimized using a laboratory centrifuge; • The rotational speed of centrifuge was a key parameter in dewatering of FS conditioned with saw- and charcoal dust; • 20 min was the maximum time for batch centrifugation, beyond which cake solids reduced; • Charcoal dust showed better results in dewatering extent (higher cake solids) than sawdust under similar centrifugation conditions. The results showed that centrifugation technology can be further explored through prototype design, manufacture and testing for potential scaling up.

Swaib Semiaga Uganda

‘Dewatering faecal sludge presents an important step for resource recovery, thus incentivizing its management to bear its own cost, leading to improved public health and environmental protection in urban slums.’

Solar Septic Tank Prototype Testing (Thailand)

Koottatep, T. et al. (2014) Hydraulic evaluation and performance of on-site sanitation systems in central Thailand. Environ Eng Res.19(3):269-274. Pussayanavin, T. et al. (2014) Enhanced Sludge Reduction in Septic Tanks by Increasing Temperature, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A (2015): 50,1–9. Koottatep, T. et al. (2013) Modeling of Pathogen Inactivation in Thermal Septic Tanks, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, (4):81–88.

The solar septic tank is a modified conventional septic tank with solar-heated water. Operating the septic tank at temperatures higher than ambient conditions enhances pathogen die-off and produces better quality septic tank effluent, as well as reducing sludge accumulation by 50 %. The reduced accumulated sludge production lengthens the desludging period and saves costs in sludge management. The reduced sludge volume would minimize the pollution problems caused by unsanitary disposal of sludge practices in developing countries. The solar septic tank is designed to be used by up to 6-10 people (1-2 families) and offers the added benefit of turning waste into fuel and water that is reusable in agriculture. The solar septic tank system, which involves an advanced biochemical process, consists of three main components (i) a solar water heating device, (ii) a heat transfer pump and equipment and (iii) a modified septic tank. In order to increase the temperature inside the solar septic tank, hot water generated by the solar heating device is circulated through the heat transfer equipment by a pump. Currently, two solar septic tank units are in operation at the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, and one unit is installed and being monitored at the worker residence area, the Santavee factory, Samutphakarn Province, Thailand. The observation results show that the temperature inside the solar septic tanks can be increased up to the range of 45-50 °C (in the day time). The treatment efficiencies of organics/solids removal and E. coli inactivation were found to be about 70-90 % and 4-5 log reduction, respectively. Biogas production was 10-20 and methane gas was 70-80 L/d.

Tatchai Pussanayavin Thailand

‘Solar thermal energy in the septic tank is considered an effective sanitation method for deactivating pathogens, converting organic wastes into methane biogas and alleviating the environmental concerns associated with faecal sludge handling.’

Framework for Improving Emergency Sanitation Products (Indonesia and the Philippines)


Thye Y.P. et al. (2015) Understanding how people innovate for emergency sanitation: A case study of a local NGO. Water Practice and Technology, 10(4):704-710.

Unfortunately, the sanitation products that are currently used during emergencies are unable to achieve proper sanitation or to prevent disease. The innovation of products to find and scale solutions to emergency sanitation is of vital importance, but with little understanding of the process, the emergency sanitation sector is unable to identify whether and how the product development process should be improved. Interviews and surveys with customers, suppliers, and product developers, as well as case studies in Indonesia and the Philippines that involved end users, have been carried out to provide a detailed understanding of the process of developing an emergency sanitation product. By analysing the context, characteristics and role of end users, support provided to suppliers and product developers, barriers and enabling factors through the product development process, the findings suggest that there are many areas for improving product development in the emergency sanitation sector. For example, one critical area for improvement is inadequate design requirements. A problem analysis of the research findings found that inadequate design requirements is caused by three factors: (1) overlooking aspects of the solution; (2) poor understanding of design requirements by suppliers and product developers, and; (3) poor definition of design requirements. The consequence is that ideas that are generated from these inadequate design requirements may not successfully progress to an end product or fail during implementation. This is because the ideas only address part of the problem or do not reflect the actual needs and constraints of the stakeholders. Activities that can be implemented to overcome these problems include fostering interaction between stakeholders, building knowledge and skills through training and proper data collection, leveraging the expertise and skills of qualified persons, and utilising relevant tools. The necessary funding and resources must be made available to implement these activities. Overall, this research represents a first analysis of the product development process in the emergency sanitation sector. The findings offer a basis for decision makers to improve innovation in the emergency sanitation sector. From the analysis, decision makers will be able to analyse and choose from the alternative solutions to develop programs and projects to improve product development in the emergency sanitation sector.

products are developed highlights critical barriers to product development in the sector, and offers insights into how innovation could be improved.’

Thye Yoke Pean Singapore

‘In-depth research into how emergency sanitation

MSc program In the first grant, 58 scholarships were made available for students from 23 countries in three Master specializations in Sanitary Engineering, namely, IHE Delft (The Netherlands), UNIVALLE (Colombia) and KNUST (Ghana), and the Master program in Urban Water Engineering and Management at AIT (Thailand). All the scholarships in the first grant have been utilized, and all the MSc graduates from the period 2012-2017 are presented in this section. The second grant entails 55 scholarships for the new Master program in Sanitation at IHE Delft in the Netherlands which is to be launched in April 2018. The first 15 graduates of this program are expected in the spring 2019.

Adane \ Sewhunegne Molla Ethiopia Class 2011-2013

Assessment of subsurface infiltration for the treatment of vermibed effluent from Biofil toilets (Ghana) In this study, I assessed effluent from a Biofil toilet under laboratory-based soil columns simulating Ghanaian environmental conditions to see the performance of different soil types in removing potential contaminants. I characterized and installed four different soil columns - sandy soil, clay soil, loamy soil and red lateritic soil and I also used a multi-layer sand filter (MLSF) to see the possibility of developing a compact treatment system. My results showed that the Biofil digester is successful in reducing various contaminants. With respect to organic matter removal, sandy soil and red lateritic soil columns are able to produce quality effluent well below the maximum Ghanaian EPA guideline values.

Angela Andrea Salinas Villafañe Bolivia Class 2011-2013

Simultaneous denitrification and methanogenesis in a UASB reactor (The Netherlands) The results of these experimental assessments clearly highlight the potentials of combing anaerobic treatment of high strength domestic wastewaters with denitrification processes in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) system. This contributes to promote the coupling of UASB reactors with novel nitrogen removal technologies as a SHARON or ANAMMOX systems for the combined removal of carbon and nitrogen from wastewater streams in a cost-effective manner for developing countries involving lower carbon requirements, smaller footprint and a cost reduction with regard to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes.

Ashish Shrestha Nepal Class 2011-2013

Impact of climate change on urban flooding in Bangkok (Thailand) Urban drainage infrastructure is susceptible to extreme events now and in the future. In my research I analysed the performance of urban drainage under the changing rainfall conditions due to climate change. I used a stochastic weather generator to project future climate conditions and then derived design storms. This information was then used to assess the performance of the system, using a coupled modelling approach with Mike Urban tools. My results showed that there will be an increase in the flood volume, flooded area and flood duration for future scenarios in comparison with the current conditions. The velocity and water depth remain the main hazard for the exposed population. Taking urban growth into account, this issue needs to be studied urgently.

Mloelya Paul Tanzania Class 2011-2013

Decision support system (DSS) for the selection of sanitation technologies in emergency situations (The Netherlands) To prevent the outbreak of diseases in refugee camps the provision of proper emergency sanitation technologies is required. The aim of my research was to develop a computer-based DSS to assist decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology in emergencies. I developed a conceptual framework that integrates all the technological sanitation solutions based on the sanitation chain concept. Based on information provided by the user, my system carries out a first screen of technologies. It then conducts a multi-criteria analysis to determine the best combination of technologies for the described emergency. I built this DSS using the userfriendly visual basic application (VBA) in Microsoft Excel.

Zeeshan Bilal Pakistan Class 2011-2013

A novel aeration system for MBR wastewater treatment for emergency sanitation (The Netherlands) After disasters, the provision of adequate sanitation is essential to avoid the spread of diseases. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology can be an attractive option as a sanitation technology. However, aeration is the limiting factor due to higher energy costs at the higher solids content observed in faecal sludge. The innovative super saturated dissolved oxygen (SDOX) injection system was assessed to supply dissolved oxygen to a MBR. The SDOX technology allowed to treat wastewater with solids contents of up to 30 g/L, being a promising technology to supply dissolved oxygen in MBR systems operated at high biomass concentrations (in the range of 30 g/L and even higher)

Herath Mudiyanselage Udayakantha Hertah Sri Lanka Class 2012-2014

Management and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems – an analysis of success factors (Nepal) For my research I travelled to Nala, a small town in Nepal, where I studied the local DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system). I analysed its performance and compared it with its design values. I went there in the coldest period of the year, and found an underperformance of the system particularly with respect to ammonia due to the temperature. As ammonia is toxic to the aquatic environment this is serious. We therefore identified as one lesson learnt that minimum temperature is a key factor in the design of a DEWATS. For optimal management of a decentralized system, it is essential to have good local leadership and high public participation in the neighbourhood.

Happymore Mbiza Zimbabwe Class 2012-2014

Comparing the performance of activated sludge systems in tropical climates (Thailand and Zimbabwe) In many cases the performance of activated sludge processes in regions with a warm climate has been less than satisfactory. This can be attributed partially to the lack of financial means for proper operation, but in many cases the problem is due to the fact that inadequate design criteria are used. This is because they are adapted from those developed in regions with a colder climate. My study focused on modeling the activated sludge process in Harare and Bangkok to evaluate treatment efficiencies and compare it with design documents. I discovered that the system in Bangkok works well but in Harare the design needs to be improved to accommodate the different climate conditions.

Audax Rweyemamu Tanzania Class 2012-2014

Microwave treatment of faecal sludge (FS) in emergency situations (ES) (The Netherlands) The high fill-up rates of excreta containment facilities in ES without the proper provision of a suitable FS treatment solution creates an ideal scenario for the outbreak of diseases in the context of ES. My research evaluated a microwave (MW) treatment technology for FS treatment. I irradiated microwave energy in black water and activated sludge samples. The results demonstrated a great potential for the MW technology to inactivate pathogens in a short contact time (low energy consumption), and to reduce the sludge volume (water removal) by up to 80% at longer contact times (higher energy consumption). My results indicated an excellent MW irradiation potential for the treatment of FS in ES.

Grover Hector Mamani Casilla Bolivia Class 2012-2014

Sludge treatment wetland as a post treatment for toilet-linked biogas plants (India) In the same setting in India as my colleague Apurva Sahu, I looked at an alternative treatment for slurry from toilet-linked household-sized biodigesters. I used compact constructed wetland systems, i.e. gravel and soil in an oil drum planted with different reeds for enhanced nutrient removal. A load of around 100 kg TS/m2.year proved to be optimal for the proper moisture content of the biosolids. I discovered that this plant system not only works effectively to reduce the pathogen content of the slurry but the plants can also be harvested and used as fodder

Justina Ndinelao Mwalinao Haihambo Zambia Class 2012-2014

Selection of appropriate sanitation technologies for flood-prone and high-water table areas in Bangladesh (Bangladesh) Bangladesh experiences frequent floods with different magnitudes and intensities; for my research I visited the area in October 2013. After each flood, the number of people defecating in the open and falling sick increases. Latrines are the preferred sanitation option for their ease of construction, wide acceptance and (perceived) low costs. Yet, they are also the most prone to damage during floods. Therefore, my study aimed at selecting more suitable sanitation technologies for these areas. A decision support tool was used that was developed by a PhD student from the SaniUP project at IHE Delft (Fiona Zakaria). I discovered that while technically UD(D)T, biodegradable bags, and raised and floating latrines are options, in fact the choices depend on additional factors.

Happiness Ngwanamoseka Nobela South Africa Class 2012-2014

Sanitizing faecal sludge with lime in an emergency sanitation context (Malawi) I investigated the effect of lime on the microbiological quality (using the indicators Escherichia coli, total coliforms and Salmonella) of faecal sludge and on smell reduction prior to disposal into the environment. Lime stabilization is a low-cost process that is easy to apply. My study established a relationship between pH and lime dosage, indicating that effective treatment is achieved by increasing the pH of the treated sludge to ≥ 12 and maintaining this pH for at least two hours. My research established the lime dosages required to reach the minimum recommended standards set by WHO for microbiological quality of the sludge before disposal. This will guarantee public health in an emergency context.

Saneshaw Abate Kabede Ethiopia Class 2012-2014

Optimal design of urban stormwater drainage systems under uncertainty (Thailand) In my research I developed a methodology to produce an optimum design for urban stormwater drainage systems. This addresses uncertainties in the input parameters due to different drivers in the design (mainly climate change, urbanization and variability of the land cover within each sub catchment). I proposed a multi-objective optimization approach which I applied to a case study area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. I used two objective functions for the optimization, minimizing flooding and intervention cost. The experiments I conducted showed that if uncertainties were not included then the found solutions under-performed but were less costly. On the other hand, the experiments including uncertainties resulted in more costly designs but better performance and were capable of handling additional flows due to uncertainties.

Godfrey Peterson Baguma Uganda Class 2012-2014

Pathogen removal in a low-cost Anammox downflow hanging sponge reactor (The Netherlands) The Anammox Down-Flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) system can provide a possible low-cost solution for removal of residual constituents in the effluent of anaerobic treatment systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen removal potential of the Anammox DHS reactor treating a synthetic treated effluent from an anaerobic system. The Anammox DHS reactor showed a satisfactory performance for nitrogen removal. However, the pathogen removal potential for the Anammox DHS reactor was less than 1 log10, suggesting the need for further treatment before discharge to water bodies.

Yonas Gebretsadik Hados Ethiopia Class 2012-2014

Modeling the co-treatment of faecal sludge in an Imhoff tank (Ethiopia) I studied the feasibility of co-treatment of faecal sludge from pit latrines and septic tanks from Adama, Ethiopia, in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using modeling. I conducted simulations that took into account the dynamic behavior of the wastewater generation. My results gave the maximum number of tanks or sludge load that can be co-treated without exceeding the effluent standards. In addition, I discovered that the cotreatment of faecal sludge can enhance methane production. The output of my research can be used as an approach for the possible co-treatment of faecal sludge.

Dennis Hanjalika Malambo Zambia Class 2012-2014

Sanitizing faecal sludge using lactic acid bacteria (The Netherlands) In my research I studied the sanitizing effect of lactic acid and other metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LABs) on human excreta, by exploring the pre-conditions required (such as sugar and inoculum) and the suitability of Yakult, a probiotic milk product, as the microbial. I selected molasses as the sugar additive for the promotion of the LAF process and Escherichia coli as the indicator organism. My results show the potential of the Lactic Acid Fermentation (LAF) process in the treatment of faecal sludge in both emergency situations and also as a treatment option for onsite sanitation facilities such as pit latrines.

Andrew Ahumuza Uganda Class 2012-2014

Faecal sludge management in flood prone and high-water table areas. What can Bangladesh and Uganda learn from each other? (Bangladesh and Uganda) Together with my classmate Justina Haihambo I travelled to Dhaka, Bangladesh to study faecal sludge management and toilet systems for floodprone areas. We attended stakeholder meetings to see how floods are managed with respect to sanitation in lower income and rural areas. I then compared the situation with a similar one in Uganda, where we also have low-income flood-prone areas. My findings were that although floods and a high-water table greatly affect FSM, other mainly non-technical constraints also play a major role. A number of strategies were proposed (policy formulation, proper service delivery, and support for business development). It was found that urban areas can learn about FSM from rural settings, irrespective of the country.

Charles Gisima Werema Tanzania Class 2012-2014

Flood hazard assessment and associated impacts on public health: Case Study of the Msimbazi River in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) Hazardous events related to floods and pollution are growing worldwide. In my study, I assessed the flood hazard and associated waterborne diseases caused by faecal coliform pathogens dispersed during flood events in Dar es Salaam. The selected case study is a flood-prone area with poor sanitation facilities. For public health I used Escherichia coli as indicator organisms. For hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion models I used MIKE11 to estimate both flood hazard and E. coli concentration dispersion. My results show that the population downstream and in all the areas located within 500m of the river bank are more exposed to flood hazard and waterborne diseases.

Eric Ntamukunzi Rwanda Class 2012-2014

Kinetics and modeling of conventional septic systems treating black water (Thailand) The conventional septic tank system is in use as a standard technology to treat/stabilize black water and household wastewater. My research focused on understanding the dynamic behavior of conventional septic tanks for optimizing the existing processes and to extend their potential application in designing, monitoring and control requirements using lab-scale experiments and household black water. I used the values that I obtained as inputs for determination of the kinetic coefficients to build a mathematical model which can predict the behavior of the system.

Thomas Lugeiyamu Balthazar Tanzania Class 2012-2014

Climate-compatible wetland-based sanitation for sustainable cities in Dar es Salaam and Mombasa (Tanzania and Kenya) In my research I proposed a climate-compatible process design for wetlandbased sanitation for sustainable cities. My study found that there were two existing constructed wetlands and although they performed well for the secondary treatment of domestic wastewater with respect to organic matter, there were major problems regarding blockages and overloading. I recommend the strengthening of public participation in the management of this infrastructure at local level to improve the operation of the system. Therefore additional institutional capacity for wastewater-related operations needs to be put in place.

Lakachew Yihunie Alemneh Ethiopia Class 2012-2014

Assessment of the robustness of the Biofil Toilet Technology (Ghana) The aim of my study was to assess the robustness of the Biofil Toilet Technology (BTT) to bactericidal chemical constituents in blackwater. The BTT works based on vermicomposting (worms) under aerobic conditions with solid-liquid separation and bio-filtration as the main treatment processes. My study assumed that extensive use of bactericidal household chemicals for cleaning of toilets and bathrooms may affect the activity of the earthworms and hence it was necessary to test the resistance of earthworms towards such chemicals for optimization of the technology. I discovered that increased concentrations of the tested chemicals increases toxicity for earthworms which results in some mortality, body weight loss and low removal of contaminants.

Apurva Sahu India Class 2012-2014

Enhanced pathogen die-off in slurry from household-size toilet-linked anaerobic digesters (India) In less urbanized areas in India, households with cattle may build subsidized anaerobic digesters for manure management. To optimize sanitation, household toilets may be connected as well. However, this may lead to elevated pathogen levels in the slurry leaving the digesters. For my study I looked at the potential of lime and urea to inactivate pathogens during slurry drying. Lime inactivates pathogens within 2-3 hours whereas urea needs 3-4 days; however, as urea is heavily subsidized in India, urea is more cost-effective. Also, slurry treated with urea is better applicable as a soil conditioner. I therefore discovered that post treatment with urea is a good method to sanitize slurry from toilet-linked household biodigesters.

Isaac S-lase Kuwornu Ghana Class 2012-2014

Assessing the performance of the filtering unit of the Biofil toilet system (Ghana) My study looked at the potential of the filtration component of the Biofil Toilet Technology (BTT) in the treatment of blackwater. I constructed laboratory-scale models of the digester using wood, and also pervious concrete slabs (used as filtering membranes) were moulded in the lab. I assessed coconut fibre and three different pervious concrete slabs for their roles in removing contaminants from blackwater. My results suggest that none of the elements of the filtering unit are able to reduce the maximum parameters defined in the approved Ghanaian EPA guidelines. For costsaving measures, I recommend either shredded PET (plastic) or palm kernel shells as coarse aggregate to be used in moulding the filtering membranes.

Solomon N. Noi-Adzeman Ghana Class 2012-2014

Investigating microbial risks and impacts of public toilets on the environment (Ghana) In this study I examined the health dangers associated with shared sanitation facilities by assessing the association between the microbial levels of contamination of public toilets and their physical conditions. The five different types of public toilets (Acqua-privy, K.V.I.P, pour flash, flush toilet and Enviroloo) monitored for the study were all found to be contaminated with pathogens far above WHO standards. Exposure to these pathogens is a potential public health risk to the large numbers of people who depend on public toilets especially in Ghana and the responsible authorities should strive to provide improved sanitation facilities.

Charles Mpho Makghata South Africa Class 2012-2014

Supersaturated aeration technology for the treatment of blackwater in emergency settings (The Netherlands) The outbreak of disasters results in the destruction of infrastructure and the displacement of people to emergency camps. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is considered a technically feasible alternative; containerized/movable MBRs (low footprint) can be easily deployed and installed at the site. However, these systems are not able to cope with the high oxygen demand of such concentrated blackwater waste. Therefore, my research explored the treatment performance of an innovative supersaturated aeration technology for the provision of dissolved oxygen to low footprint MBRs for the treatment of blackwater in emergency settings. I showed that this supersaturated system can effectively deliver enough dissolved oxygen in these conditions to treat concentrated black water.

Ellis Lloyd Andrew Tembo Malawi Class 2012-2014

Low-cost membrane systems for treatment of polluted canal water (Thailand) This study investigated the performance of a Down-flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) and a Woven Fiber Microfiltration (WFM) systems to treat polluted canal wastewater in Thailand. The treated effluent of the DHS system met reuse standards at the different operating conditions tested whereas the removal efficiencies of the WFM were lower than those of the DHS reactor, and did not meet reuse standards. This study suggests that DHS systems can be a low-cost suitable alternatives to treat polluted canal water for developing countries.

Juan Camilo Polania Siculaba Colombia Class 2013-2015

Methodology for health impact assessment during pluvial flooding: Case study of Bangkok (Thailand) Previous studies have tried to link the risk to people from waterborne diseases during flooding events. However, there is no clear method on how to approach this relation dynamically in space and time. In my study I focused on the development of a new methodology to determine the likelihood and magnitude of waterborne risk infections during pluvial flooding. Firstly, I applied the hydrodynamic advection-dispersion modelling technique using MIKE to estimate the concentration of pathogens. Secondly, I proposed a new concept of dynamic vulnerability, by counting the number of people at a certain time of the day walking on the streets. My study produced public health risk maps regarding waterborne infections for different precipitation scenarios, by combining the simulated concentration of pathogens in flooding waters and the number of pedestrians exposed during the flooding event.

Krishna Ram Yendyo Nepal Class 2013-2015

Evaluating the cess-to-fit model for enhancing the treatment capability of traditional cesspit systems (Thailand) My study investigated the performance of three different support media (PVC pall rings, plastic tubes and plastic strips) and to find out the optimum operational conditions for the reactors in terms of organic matter removal in cess-to-fit models in real site and lab conditions. Unlike traditional cesspool systems, the cess-to-fit consists of a closed container equipped inside with support media for microbial growth, a biogas pipe and a hydraulic mixing mechanism to reduce the negative environmental impacts. I discovered that even though cess-to-fit systems are more effective than traditional cesspools, further modifications are needed as the support media are less reliable in the removal of nutrient from blackwater.

Joel Hindowa Kamanda Sierra Leone Class 2013-2015

Wetland ecological engineering for surface water and landscape improvement: Case study of the AIT ecocampus development (Thailand) The application of ecological engineering measures to enhance the quality of polluted water bodies in urban areas can offer multiple benefits at minimal cost. For this research, I monitored two ponds at the AIT campus; both ponds were polluted to varying degrees. I analyzed different surface coverage of water lilies (wetland mesocosms) to optimize vegetation coverage for water quality improvement. To verify the removal effect, I used a pilot-scale vegetated pond. My results show that a surface coverage of 60% or higher yields maximum pollutant removal efficiencies. I also did a comparative study of E. coli die-off in algae cultures. My results show positive results and higher die-off rates for green algae, which is important for public health issues in surface water.

Carlos Mauricio Barreto Carvajal Colombia Class 2013-2015

Pilot MBR system for sanitation provision in emergencies (The Netherlands) In my study I operated a pilot membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with a hydraulic treatment capacity of approximately 1 m³/d at high sludge concentrations using an alternative source of oxygen supply (Speece cone system). My goal was to overcome the oxygen transfer limitations exhibited by conventional bubble diffuser systems. The results that I obtained showed that the existing limitations for achieving a lower footprint on MBRs can be overcome. My research shows that operating MBR systems at such high sludge concentrations will allow the development of innovative MBR systems such as compact and mobile MBRs to be used in an emergency sanitation context.

Sandra Isabel Torres Zambrano Colombia Class 2013-2015

Development of excreta disposal protocol emergency response after a flooding event (Colombia) In my study I developed a protocol for excreta management when a flood event takes place in the municipalities of Cali, Jamundí and La Victoria, which are frequently affected by flood. I identified the activities and stakeholders involved in the excreta management for the preparedness, immediate and stabilization phases of the emergency response. Hence, my protocol proves the necessity of an effective preparedness of the stakeholders including the community, and it also shows that this stage is the base for the correct implementation of the different technologies during the immediate and stabilization phases and in addition how coordination is vital to achieving a sustainable excreta management response.

Antoinette Ama Agboado Ghana Class 2013-2015

Faecal sludge management in the Ho Municipality (Ghana) My study aimed to improve FSM practices across the value chain in a Ghanaian municipality. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach that combined community interviews with observations of municipal practices, I found that problematic containment, transport and treatment behaviors has resulted in environmental pollution. The data indicated that up to 1 in 6 of community respondents defecate openly due to lack of toilet access. Additionally, the municipality dump the majority of untreated sludge in fields despite there being two designated disposal sites. These problematic behaviors are linked to inadequate municipal funding. To address these shortcomings, my study proposed an environmental and economic model to sustainably support FSM across the value chain.

Esther Kemunto Momanyi Uganda Class 2013-2015

Enhancing sludge hygienisation in anaerobic digestion of UDDT faeces (Kenya) For my research I teamed up with Joy Riungu, PhD student in the SaniUP project, and carried out my work at the premises of Sanergy in Kenya. I worked with the dried faeces of their Fresh Life toilets, and studied the pathogen inactivation due to exposure to volatile fatty acids. It was shown that when the dried faeces is treated anaerobically under specific circumstances (low pH, temperature of 35 degrees Celsius and a high fatty acid concentration), a big reduction in pathogens can be achieved. My results will flow back into the larger PhD research, leading to a better reactor design for excreta treatment in informal settlements.

Sangeetha Vani Pradeep India Class 2013-2015

Hydrothermal carbonization of faecal sludge (Thailand) My results proved that hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is possible for faecal sludge (FS), although the energy content of hydrochar produced is quite low when compared to other biomass. Therefore, I added external biomass to the FS to investigate its effects on the energy content for different mixing ratios. I found that all the biomasses helped to increase the energy content. I also determined the characteristics of the produced hydrochar. The biomass addition significantly enhanced the carbon content. Moreover, the emission of CO2 from HTC was extremely low when compared with other technologies. My results show that the energy content of the faecal sludge and the economic potential can be increased by adding external biomass.

Alba Ines Alzate Colombia Class 2013-2015

Biogas biodesulfurization by biotrickling filters under anoxic conditions (Colombia) Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most common sulfur compound present in biogas. In this study, the removal of H2S from biogas generated in a full-scale high rate anaerobic reactor, treating wastewater from a yeast industry, was tested in two pilot scale biotrickling filters (BTFs). The removal efficiencies of the two BTFs depended on the activities of the dominant microbial populations present (mostly of nitrate reducer sulfate oxidizing microorganisms (NR-SOB)): Thiobacillus thioparus, Thiobacillus denitrificans and Thiobacillus delicates. The satisfactory results strongly support the practical applicability of using BTFs, under anoxic conditions, to remove H2S from biogas.

Michael Dornu Amewuda Ghana Class 2013-2015

Performance assessment of a two-stage aerobic rotating biological contactor (Ghana) In Ghana, most industries discharge their effluents into water bodies either totally untreated or only partially treated. In view of this, I assessed the performance of the Cargill Cocoa’s two-stage aerobic Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) wastewater treatment unit. My study examined the effects of the disc rotational speed and the hydraulic retention time on the performance of the RBC. My results showed that none of the RBC disc speeds and hydraulic retention time were able to reduce the maximum parameters defined in the approved Ghanaian environmental guidelines. In order to meet the guidelines, I concluded that a tertiary treatment should be introduced to the wastewater treatment scheme.

Emmanuel Kwame Ackah Ghana Class 2013-2015

Assessing the suitability of faecal sludge as a building material (Ghana) In this study I investigated the suitability of lime-stabilized sludge as a clay supplement in brick building material. Following lime treatment and a chemical composition analysis, I found that the sludge was safe to handle and its chemical composition resembled limestone. Hand-molded sludgeclay bricks manufactured with one fifth sludge met the British Standard Specifications for Clay Bricks’ compressive strength, water absorption and shrinkage parameters. My findings suggest that sludge can feasibly be repurposed as an alternative building material. Such a use has the dual potential of reducing treatment plants’ waste products and improving environmental outcomes.

Alimamy Kolipha Kamara Sierra Leone Class 2014-2016

Assessing viral and bacteriological contamination of groundwater in peri-urban communities (Ghana) My study investigated the presence of two enteric viruses (rotavirus and adenovirus) and the presence and concentration of faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli) in 46 dug wells and 12 boreholes in a peri-urban Ghanaian community. Sample testing indicated the presence of rotavirus at one dug well, but adenoviruses at both wells and boreholes. E. coli was also detected in all the dug wells and nearly all the boreholes. An assessment of the influence of environmental sanitation on bacteriological groundwater quality indicated a significantly higher influence on dug wells and relatively low influence on boreholes. I concluded that disinfection was necessary – especially for dug wells – to use groundwater safely as a drinking source.

Cremilda Eliseu Sitole Mozambique Class 2014-2016

Sponge-bed trickling filters for autotrophic nitrogen removal (The Netherlands) Anammox processes have been strongly recommended as alternative costeffective technologies for nutrient removal due to their efficiency and reduction in cost-energy during wastewater treatment. However, they are mostly available in high-income countries. In this study, the Anammox process was implemented in low-cost sponge bed trickling filters (SBTF) filled with polyurethane cubes. The SBTF reached removal rates of up to 1.1 ± 0.3 kg-N/m3.d with total nitrogen removal efficiencies of up to 90%. STBF systems are promising technologies that could be applied to treat diluted anaerobically wastewater pre-treated in anaerobic systems contributing to make Anammox processes also available for developing countries.

Rodrigo Manuel López Ávila México Class 2014-2016

Analyzing operational strategies in the performance of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) (Brazil) The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) for septic sludge treatment has shown promising results, especially in tropical countries. Therefore in my study I aimed to analyze the performance of three different operational strategies in a full-scale VFCW of two stages and the economic post-treatment alternatives needed to be addressed in order to obtain acceptable effluent qualities. My results showed that, generally, the system works well and achieves good removal rates but the pathogenic quality of the accumulated sludge layer during the operational stage does not meet the final disposal and agricultural reuse regulations and therefore requires further treatment.

Lina Maria Olaya Ortiz Colombia Class 2014-2016

Evaluation of a continuous microbial fuel cell system treating municipal wastewater (Colombia) Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are bio-electrochemical devices that convert and harvest the energy available in bio-convertible substrates such as wastewater by using microorganisms. MFCs are capable of removing contaminants while simultaneously producing electricity. My research aimed at evaluating the performance of a pilot-scale MFC-fed domestic wastewater. The system was inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic septic tank, and domestic wastewater was fed to the system at a flow rate of 50 L d-1. My study proves that this technology is not only effective at removing contaminants but also produces significant quantities of electricity.

Analía Menendez Fagalde Uruguay Class 2014-2016

Ozonation and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration for the treatment of antimicrobial wastewater (Uruguay) Pharmaceutical companies generate wastewater that contains small concentrations of pharmaceutical residues. These “emerging” contaminants, if not properly treated, accumulate in the water basins; these compounds exhibit both ecological and human health effects. My research evaluated a wastewater treatment technology based on ozone oxidation and BAC filtration for the removal of these contaminants. I assessed the removal by determining the residual toxicity of the treated effluent. The system was fed wastewater from a local pharmaceutical industry. I achieved a complete removal of the effluent toxicity, which indicates promising results for the implementation of the proposed technology in the pharmaceutical sector in Uruguay.

Giovanna Uruguay Class 2014-2016

Influence of supersaturated oxygen on membrane fouling and azithromycin removal in an MBR (Croatia) In my research I compared the effect of aeration using supersaturated oxygen (SDOX) with bubble diffusers on biological performance (COD, nitrate and phosphorous in the effluent), sludge characteristics, azithromycin removal and membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The effect of SDOX on sludge characteristics showed a significant decrease in particle size, without increasing the membrane fouling. The SDOX did not increase the biological performance when compared to bubble aeration. The SDOX negatively affected the overall removal efficiency of azithromycin. More study is necessary to understand the mechanisms playing a role in the case of aeration with supersaturated oxygen.

Nicolas Cunha Apatie Uruguay Class 2014-2016

Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) (Uruguay) Meat processing is one of the most important industries in Uruguay, but also one of the most significant polluters of the water courses. Most of the slaughterhouses use outdated and ineffective wastewater treatment technologies. My research evaluated the performance of a state-of-the-art technology for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. I placed a pilot MBR at a slaughterhouse plant in Uruguay. The MBR system performed as expected, removing organic matter, solids, and nitrogen to below local and international standards. The implementation of this technology in the meat processing sector in Uruguay will considerably alleviate the pollution of the river basins; in addition, it may bring opportunities for water reuse.

Oscar Guillermo Zinola Garcia Uruguay Class 2014-2016

Dairy farm waste valorization by a lowcost wastewater treatment technology (Uruguay) The profitability of anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste can be increased by co-digesting other residues with a higher biogas production capacity such as glycerol (by-product from biodiesel production). I developed a treatment system that is fed with a mixture of cow manure and crude glycerol. The effluent that is produced complies with the local standard for wastewater discharge and in addition, an 87% increase is obtained in the biogas production when feeding glycerol. The result of my research is a low-cost solution for small dairy farms that complies with the standards, and in addition produces biogas that can be converted into energy.

Marcos Amos Zindoga Mozambique Class 2014-2016

Effectiveness of additives in sanitization of faecal sludge in emergency situations (Kenya) My research tested the effect of promising chemical additives (Ikati and soda) and other additives in enhancing the reduction of volatile solids concentration and E. coli removal. This is especially important in emergencies when pit latrines fill up rapidly. Moreover, I also evaluated the effect of additives on odor, fly attraction and volume reduction as well as the application protocols of biological additives. My results showed that Ikati and soda are able to rapidly sanitize faecal sludge, and they are likely to achieve stabilization and volume reduction. In addition, I found no evidence to support the claim that biological additives can speed up the degradation rate of faecal sludge, thus extending the life of pit latrines.

Carlos Alfredo Martínez Lanza Honduras Class 2015-2017

A feasibility analysis of innovative water sources (Cuba) In this study, an economic feasibility analysis of the use of innovative alternative water sources was conducted in Cuba. Overall, the assessment of the different alternatives and scenarios showed interesting economic, social and environmental benefits. There could be enough freshwater saved by the use of seawater for toilet flushing to cover a water shortage period of up to 3 months, if this practice was implemented. Regarding the reuse of wastewater, the cost of the treated water could be highly attractive to reduce freshwater consumption with a potential to produce and replace the whole volumes of freshwater required for non-potable uses.

Moses Nyakana Uganda Class 2015-2017

Alternative pre-treatment techniques for waste activated sludge (The Netherlands) Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) presents a sustainable and cost-efficient way of dealing with excess sludge generated by conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems since it leads to the generation of methane while also facilitating the recovery of resources and sludge reduction. In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pre-treatment of WAS enhanced hydrolysis and acidogenesis by up to 54%, leading to a significant generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), mostly propionate and acetate. These findings could lead to the development of alternative pre-treatment techniques to maximize resource recovery and their valorization in wastewater treatment plants.

Viviane Virgolim Brazil Class 2015-2017

Linking technology to planning and management in decentralized sanitation practices (Brazil) In my research I investigated factors that affect the development, delivery and uptake of decentralized sanitation in informal settlements in Brasília. Applying a mixed-method approach that included semi-structured interviews with key informants and a household survey, I found that tenure insecurity has resulted in informal households remaining unconnected to the municipality’s centralized network. Consequently, informal settlement residents are relying on decentralized technologies to meet their sanitation needs, but coverage remains limited due to lack of municipal interest to support the increased development, delivery and uptake of alternative systems. I concluded that decentralized sanitation could be a feasible alternative for informal settlements in Brazil with the right governmental support, legal and regulatory framework and institutional arrangements

Joseph Mathew India Class 2015-2017

Phosphorus removal using algae bacterial in a photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR) (The Netherlands) My thesis deals with how to recover/recycle phosphorus in the mixed liquor of PSBR via precipitation in the form of calcium phosphate. This requires a high pH which in turn may affect the nitrifying biomass in the PSBR. My study investigated the effect of pH increase on nitrifying biomass by setting up two reactors, with controlled and uncontrolled conditions. My results show that nitrification took place in both sets of conditions. At a later stage algae grew and increased the pH, enabling the precipitation of phosphorus. My study demonstrates that biologically and chemically-induced phosphorus removal/recovery can be achieved in a reactor without affecting the nitrification process.

Carolina Bettinelli Tavidián Uruguay Class 2015-2017

The removal of E. coli in AGS and AS wastewater treatment (The Netherlands) Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a new wastewater treatment technology that has a smaller footprint and needs less pumping energy than a traditional activated sludge (AS) system. In view of public health effects due to effluent discharge containing pathogens, my study compared the removal of a pathogen indicator, Escherichia coli, in two laboratory-scale reactors: AGS and AS. The reactors were started up with similar seed sludge, and fed with the same synthetic wastewater containing E. coli, and were operated for four months. The log removal of E. coli for the AGS reactor was on average 2.5; for the AS reactor it was negligible. The information that my study has produced will be used to establish the post treatment required for safe water discharge.

Sarah Dominguez Ciejanowiecki Uruguay Class 2015-2017

Evaluating a full-scale anaerobic municipal wastewater treatment plant (Uruguay) The majority of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Uruguay are based on the aerobic activated sludge process. However, one of the most recent municipal WWTPs was designed as an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. The plant was designed for a maximum capacity of 344,000 person equivalent. However, since the WWTP was commissioned, it has not been performing effectively. Therefore, the aim of my research was to evaluate the overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant. I conducted several sampling campaigns at the plant facilities and I proposed corrective actions to improve the plant performance to the local wastewater company authorities and plant operators.

Carlos Miguel Torrado Cuellar Uruguay Class 2015-2017

Mercury removal by bio-sorption using agricultural residues as adsorbents (Colombia) My research aimed at evaluating the performance of a low-cost wastewater treatment technology for the removal of mercury from gold mining wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a fixed-bed reactor filled with an adsorbent material obtained from agricultural waste. I evaluated both coconut shells and coffee husks as the adsorbent material. The fixed bed reactor exhibited a very promising performance regarding mercury removal. With both types of adsorbent material, the treated effluent quality complies with the national permissible limit of 0.002 mg/L of mercury. However, I discovered that coconut shells are effective for longer than coffee husks in removing mercury from effluents from the gold mining industry.

Lucas Martinez Arocena Uruguay Class 2015-2017

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy farm waste with native cyanobacteria (Uruguay) Eutrophication has become the major environmental issue in Uruguay. Cyanobacteria blooms have become more frequent and intense than ever before. Dairy farms have been identified as the main contributors to eutrophication in the south of Uruguay. My research aimed at evaluating the potential of co-digesting harvested native cyanobacteria with dairy farm waste. I conducted evaluations to determine the biogas production (energy) of different mixtures of dairy farm waste/cyanobacteria. The results of my study show that native cyanobacteria exhibited similar biogas production to the dairy farm waste. Therefore, anaerobic co-digestion of dairy farm waste with natural-occurring cyanobacteria can be proposed as an alternative for simultaneously alleviating the pollution from dairy farms while harvesting the cyanobacteria from polluted water courses.

Mercedes Visca Palermo Uruguay Class 2015-2017

Implications of the presence of emerging pollutants in Uruguay (Uruguay) Emerging pollutants (EP) are compounds ubiquitous in water at very small concentrations. Toxic effects of these compounds after medium and longterm exposure at low doses may include immune dysfunction, carcinogenesis, endocrine disruption, and growth disorder. My research reviewed studies on emerging pollutants in water, focusing on the sources of EP, the classes of EP, the occurrence of EP in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and the removal efficiencies of EP achieved by different unit operations in WWTPs. In addition, my review included an environmental risk assessment of emerging contaminants in a sensitive river basin in Uruguay, one of the major sources of drinking water for the Uruguayan population, and this will be used to select the most appropriate technology for targeting and removing specific sets of emerging contaminants with similar chemical structures.

David Berger Arambarri Uruguay Class 2016-2018

Optimizing the performance of a fullscale anaerobic digester treating enhanced primary municipal sludge (Uruguay) A municipal wastewater treatment plant located in the most famous tourist area in Uruguay, Punta del Este, is failing to operate its anaerobic digesters: odor complaints have been reported, little biogas is being produced, and retention times higher than 90 days are needed that exceed the designed digester volume provision at the site. The aim of my research was to evaluate the possible causes for failure, focusing on the potential toxic effects of the chemicals being used for the coagulation/flocculation process. I have confirmed that these chemicals are toxic to the biomass that is in the digesters and this is preventing the system from operating properly.

Maria Lucia Poppolo Uruguay Class 2016-2018

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) evaluation for wastewater treatment/reuse in the tourist sector (Uruguay) Water resources in Uruguay have been deteriorating due to uncontrolled agro-industrial activities and untreated wastewater disposal. This has severely affected attractive natural regions which are important for the development of the tourism industry in Uruguay, one of the main drivers of the Uruguayan economy. The aim of my research was to evaluate the economic performance of a state-of-the-art wastewater treatment technology, MBR, for the treatment/reuse of wastewater at a resort located in a tourist area in Uruguay. I also established that the quality of the treated wastewater is acceptable for reuse irrigating the resort’s golf course.

Maria Victoria Barcala Paolillo Uruguay Class 2016-2018

Phosphorous (P) recovery for its reuse as a fertilizer (Uruguay) Twenty percent of the total P present in the water courses in Uruguay comes from point sources of pollution. P can be recovered alleviating the negative eutrophication impact, while generating resources by its potential use as a fertilizer. P can be precipitated either as struvite or as calcium phosphate. The aim of my research was to explore possibilities for P recovery from point sources in Uruguay. First, I conducted a characterization of key/selected potential effluents and then I determined the optimal dosage for P precipitation, followed by a qualitative analysis of the precipitate. I am currently carrying out a financial evaluation to determine the feasibility of the proposed activity.

Bernice Asamoah Ghana Class 2012-2014

Disinfection of greywater from communal toilets using UVA enhanced with titanium oxide after pretreatment in a slow sand filter (The Netherlands) My research was carried out to support the development of TU Delft’s Reinventing the Toilet Challenge project (a public sanitation system for informal settlements processing waste onsite at an omni-gasification plant). It focused on the treatment of greywater from handwashing, anal cleansing, cleaning the facility and flushing water, in order to enable recycling on location. I combined sand filtration with exposure to titanium oxide and UV light, followed with pathogen inactivation at different temperatures. At 40 degrees Celsius, the combined treatment works sufficiently for water that will not be stored before use; if storage of the wash water is foreseen, more intensive treatment is needed.

Contact Prof. Damir Brdjanovic, PhD [email protected] IHE Delft Institute for Water Education PO Box 3015 2601 DA Delft The Netherlands