SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinaga

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Proceedings of UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

2016 18 - 19 March 2016 Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir Srinagar, 190 006, J & K

ISBN: 978-93-82288-88-6 Sponsored by: University Grants Commission (UGC) under its Special Assistance Program (SAP) No: F.3-29/2012(SAP-II) (2013-2018)

SEEDS-2016 Proceedings of 2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security 18-19 March, 2016

SEEDS-2016 18 & 19 March, 2016

ISBN: 978-93-82288-88-6 Publisher: University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006, J&K, India. Publication Date: 18 March, 2016 Editor: Dr. Mohamad Tariq Banday Copyright Notice: © All rights are reserved by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006, J&K, India.

University of Kashmir

Highlights: Eight Keynote Addresses, One Expert Lecture and SeventyFour Presentations on 18 and 19 March, 2016 Submission of Abstracts, Keynotes/ Speaker Proposals, CRC Submissions, Registration, etc. were Online iii

Author List S. No.

Name of Author

S. No.

Name of Author

1

Aabid Hussain

33

Haider Mehraj

2

Aadil Masood Wani

34

Heeba Din

3

Aadil Tahir Shora

35

Hilal Ahmad Khanday

4

Aaliya Ahmed

36

Imran Nazir Beigh

5

Abid Rahh

37

Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi

6

Abrar Maqbool Shah

38

Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon

7

Afaq Alam Khan

39

Jai Preet Kour Wazir

8

Aijaz Badyari

40

Javaid A. Sheikh

9

Ajay Kaushik

41

Javaid Iqbal

10

Ajaz Hussain Mir

42

Javeed Iqbal Reshi

11

Akash Ahmad Bhat

43

Kaiser J. Giri

12

Arashid Ahmed

44

Karabi Biswas

13

Arfat Firdous

45

Khalil Ahmed

14

Ashaq Hussain Dar

46

M. B. Srinivas

15

Asif Iqba Kawossa

47

M. Mustafa

16

Ayaz Hassan Moon

48

M. Rafiq Beigh

17

Beenish Habib

49

M. Sarosh Umar

18

Benish Ali Bhat

50

M. Tariq Banday

19

Brajesh Kumar Kaushik

51

Maleeha Shabeer Koul

20

D.K. Jain

52

Malik Zahra Khalid

21

Daya Gupta

53

Maroof Ahad

22

Ekram Khan

54

Mehboob ul Amin

23

Faheem Syeed Masoodi

55

Mohammad Rafiq Dar

24

Farhana Ahad

56

Mohammad Zaid Zaz

25

Farhat Roohi

57

Mohd Altaf Sofi

26

Farooq A. Khanday

58

Mudasir Raja

27

Farooq Aadil

59

Mujtaba Ashraf Qureshi

28

Fozia Hameed Wani

60

Muneer Ahmad Dar

29

G. Mohiudin Bhat

61

Musavir Ahmed

30

Ghulam Nabi Dar

62

Muzafar Ahmad Shah

31

Gousiya Hussain Pandow

63

Muzaffar Ahmad Dar

32

H. K. Lohia

64

Nadim Akhtar Khan

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S. No.

Name of Author

S. No.

Name of Author

65

Naseer Iqbal Bhat

98

Shakeel Ahmad Bhat

66

Nasir Ali Kanth

99

Sheikh Shueb

67

Nasir Nabi Hurrah

100

Sibtain Hafiz

68

Nasrullah Nabi

101

Sidrat Tasawoor Kanth

69

Nazir Ahmad Dar

102

Suhaib Ahmed

70

Nazir Ahmed Loan

103

Sumeer Gul

71

Owais Ahmed

104

Swaleha Syed

72

Q. P. Rana

105

Syed Asima Refayi

73

Qamar Parvez Rana

106

Syed Ishfaq Manzoor

74

Rafi Ahmad Khan

107

Syed Masaid Zaman

75

Ramesh Gaonkar

108

Syed Nisar Bukhari

76

Raunaq Nayar

109

Syed Umira Riyaz

77

Rashid Ashraf Malik

110

Tarana Afrin Chandal

78

Ravi Teja

111

Tariq Rashid Jan

79

Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi

112

Taseem Nazir

80

Riyaz Ahmad Bhat

113

Taufat Hussain

81

Rosy Jan

114

Tawheed Jan Shah

82

Rumaan Bashir

115

Umar Sidiq

83

Rumiya Rashid

116

Ummer Iqbal Khan

84

S. Indu

117

Uniba Maqbool Qurashi

85

S.M.K. Quadri

118

Uzma Bhat

86

Saba Amin

119

Vipan Kakkar

87

Sahar Gul

120

Zainab Noor

88

Saima Bashir

121

Zakir Hussain Rather

89

Saima Mehraj

122

Zubair Ahmad Bangi

90

Sakeena Akhtar

91

Salma Farooq

92

Sameer Sidiq Sofi

93

Sanjay Sood

94

Saurav Gupta

95

Shabir A. Bhat

96

Shabir A. Parah

97

Shafiya Afzal Sheikh

iv

University of Kashmir

Preface The “2016 National seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security”, (SEEDS-2016) with the financial support of University Grants Commission of India organized by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology had the aim to promote and motivate younger generation to take up contemporary research in varied fields of Electronics. It promoted an academic forum by bringing together scholars, academicians and experts in various specialized fields of Electronics Engineering. The current century has witnessed tremendous achievements in the discipline of Electronics and Computer Engineering which are continuing rapidly and are reflected in all forms around us. Be it satellite and Fibre Communication, Health Care, Smart Cities and Homes, Instrumentation, Automation, Remote Sensing, Space Exploration, Communication, Biotechnology, Disaster Management, Networking, Information Security, Consumer Electronics, etc. the world is witnessing revolution after revolution. I am pleased to learn the manner in which SEEDS-2016 proceeded. The organizers have put in sheer hard work and determination in making the seminar successful. The Seminar was attended by learned scholars from the premier institutions of the country who delivered keynote lectures and presented their respective research findings and achievements falling within the ambit of Electronics and Computer Engineering. The sessions were well organized that provided every scholar ample time to present his or her idea before the learned audience. The sessions witnessed healthy discussions on the prospectus, challenges and issues faced in the field. The seminar provided an exceptional opportunity for young scholars to learn and get motivated from the reputed scientists working in the field. International standards of academic publications have been strictly adhered while preparing the book of abstracts. I am hopeful that it will motivate younger generation of scholars to pursue research in Electronics and its allied subjects and earn respectable reputation globally. I wish the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology a great success and promise all kinds of support in its future academic endeavours.

Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi (Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Kashmir) Chief Patron, SEEDS-2016

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Editor’s Note The contemporary advances in the discipline of Electronics have made a remarkable impact on all facets of Life. Since the invention of Transistor, the development and integration of electronic devices is rapidly progressing towards building complex circuits and systems. The high accuracy, density and speed, ease of operations, reduced costs, wide tunability and flexible programmability of Electronic components, devices and systems has made their use widespread. The vast expansion of its applications has made the discipline of Electronics not only challenging but fascinating as well. Electronic storage is fast replacing other types of storage medias owing to advancements in microelectronics especially its high packaging density and low power consumption. Electronic systems are used to produce/read information, store it, encrypt it, transmit it, receive it at remote locations, decrypt it and subsequently use it for desired purposes. As more and more sensitive data is transmitted, concerns about its authentication, integrity, confidentiality and privacy are addressed through detection of bugs in hardware and software and their prevention by development of secure and efficient procedures and protocols. The “2016 National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems, and Information Security” (SEEDS-2016) with financial support from University Grants Commission of India under its Special Assistance Program is second in the series that has been organized to provide an opportunity to academicians, professionals, scholars, and students to get infused with recent developments and challenges in electronic devices, systems and information security. These proceedings contain abstracts of one expert lecture, eight keynote addresses, and seventy-four oral presentations on equal number of topics contributed by 122 authors. The current seminar and its proceedings would have not been possible without support of University Grants Commission of India, the invited speakers, the presenters, the participants, the scholars, the students, and the faculty members of the Department. I thank them all. I thank advisory committee members for their valuable guidance and support during every phase of the seminar. I thank members of the review panel who read each abstract carefully and provided detailed comment on each of them. I also thank various administrative units of the University who have extended their cooperation and support that has made the current seminar and the proceedings possible. I am thankful to the organizing committee members who worked very hard towards successful organization of the event despite several odds. I am confident that the delivery of keynotes and presentations shall not only provide avenue to share knowledge among delegates and participants, make networks, and develop a community of researchers but also will motivate our younger generation to take up research and development in diverse domains of Electronics.

Dr. M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir

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Organization Chief Patron: Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi, Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Kashmir.

Patron: Prof. Mohamad Ashraf Wani, Dean Academic Affairs, University of Kashmir. Patron: Prof. Sheikh Javeed Ahmad, Dean Research, University of Kashmir. Convener: Prof. G. M. Bhat, Dean Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir.

Organizer: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Coordinator, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Advisory Committee: Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi, Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Kashmir. Prof. Mohamad Ashraf Wani, Dean Academic Affairs, University of Kashmir. Prof. Sheikh Javeed Ahmad, Dean Research, University of Kashmir. Prof. Musadiq Amin Sahaf, Registrar, University of Kashmir. Prof. G. M. Bhat, Dean, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology. Prof. Nisar Ahmad Rather, Dean, Physical and Material Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Prof. M. Ashraf Wani, Dean Faculty of Engineering, and Head, Department of Computer Science, University of Kashmir. Prof. S. Peerzada, Head, Department of Mathematics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Prof. Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Head, Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Prof. Anwar Hassan, Head, Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Er. Maroof Naieem Qadri, Director, IT&SS, University of Kashmir. Prof. Ajaz Hussan Mir, Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NIT, Srinagar. Er. A. H. Moon, Director, NIELIT, Srinagar. Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Coordinator, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Basharat Ahmad Want, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Majid Zaman Baba, Scientist B, IT&SS, Deputy Controller, University of Kashmir.

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Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Shabir Ahmad Parah, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Tariq Rashid Jan, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Musavir Ahmad, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Nadeem Akhtar Khan, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Library Science, University of Kashmir. Mrs. Farhat Roohi, Scientist B, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Members of Program Committees: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Coordinator, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Shabir Ahmad Parah, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Mrs. Farhat Roohi, Scientist B, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Members of Finance Committees: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Coordinator, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Basharat Ahmad Want, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Tariq Rashid Jan, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Nadeem Akhtar Khan, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Library Science, University of Kashmir.

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University of Kashmir

Members of Organizing Committees: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, (Coordinator UGC-SAP), (General and Program Chair) Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, (Finance Chair) Dr. Shabir Ahmad Parah, (Publicity Chair) Dr. Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, (Hospitality Chair) Mrs. Farhat Roohi, (Registration Chair) Mr. Nisar Ahmad Paray (Accommodation Chair) Mrs. Muzamil Hassan (Staff Member) Mr. Azad Ahmad Shah (Staff Member) Mr. Mohamad Rafiq Beigh (Staff Member) Ms. Shafiya Afzal Sheikh (Research Scholar) Mr. Javeed Iqbal Reshi (Research Scholar) Mr. Nasir Ali Kanth (Research Scholar) Mr. Mohammad Rafiq Dar (Research Scholar) Ms. Uzma (Research Scholar) Ms. Saima Mehraj (Research Scholar) Mr. Adil Tahir (Research Scholar) Mr. Ashaq Hussain Dar (Research Scholar) Ms. Tawheed Jan (Research Scholar) Ms. S. Umira R. Qadri (Research Scholar) Mr. Farooq Aadil Rather (Research Scholar) Mr. Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi (Research Scholar) Mr. Jahangir Ahmad (Research Scholar) Mr. Mehboob ul Amin (Research Scholar) Mr. Imran Nazir Beigh (Research Scholar) Ms. Sakeena Akhtar (Research Scholar) Ms. Asma Nazir Naqash (Research Scholar) Ms. Jaipreet Kour Wazir (Research Scholar) Ms. Farhana Ahad (Research Scholar) Mr. Nazir Ahmad (Research Scholar) Mr. Zubair Ahmad Bangi (Research Scholar) Mr. Nasir Nabi Hurrah (Research Scholar)

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Expert Lecture and Keynotes 1. Advances in Microprocessor/ Microcontroller Technology and its Impact on Engineering Curricula, Prof. Ramesh Gaonkar. Professor of Electrical Engineering Technology at Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York.

(Pg. 19). 2. Does a Picture is Still Worth a Thousand Words? Prof. Ekram Khan, Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

(Pg. 21). 3. Career in Cyber Forensics, Mr. H. K. Lohia, IPS – 1992, IGP, Technical Service, Jammu and Kashmir Police, Police Headquarters, Gulshan Ground, Jammu. (Pg. 23). 4. Fractional Order Element: A New Player in Electronic Circuits and Systems, Dr. Karabi Biswas, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. (Pg. 25). 5. VLSI Architecture for Real Time Image Processing, Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik, Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. (Pg. 27). 6. Implantable Medical Devices: SoC Trends and Future Scope, Dr. Vipan Kakkar, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu & Kashmir. (Pg. 29). 7. AR Model Based Personal Identification using Ear Biometrics, Prof. Ajaz Hussain Mir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India. (Pg. 31). 8. Technology Innovation and Incubation: Scope, Opportunities and Challenges in J&K State, Prof. G. Mohiuddin Bhat, Dean Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. (Pg. 33). 9. Carbon Nanotube based On-Chip Interconnects, Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik, Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. (Pg. 35).

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Presentations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18

Security Challenges for the Public Cloud, Rashid Ashraf Malik (Pg. 37) Innovative Breakthroughs in Electronics: Marketer’s Space, Owais Ahmed (Pg. 38) A Study of the Applications of Machine Learning, Maleeha Shabeer Koul (Pg. 39) Tensor Network Theory: From Geometrization of the Brain to ADS\CFT Correspondence, Mohammad Zaid Zaz (Pg. 40) A Novel Classification for Script Identification in Document Images, Rumaan Bashir, S.M.K. Quadri (Pg. 41) Quantum Cryptography: Future for Information Security, Nasrullah Nabi, Tarana Afrin Chandal (Pg. 42) Relevance of CIA Triad in Strengthening MIS of Tourism Organization, Uniba Maqbool Qurashi, Abrar Maqbool Shah (Pg. 43) Detection and Segmentation of Main Components in Heart Sounds, Sidrat Tasawoor Kanth, M. B. Srinivas (Pg. 44) Automatic Green House Controlling and Monitoring System, Rumiya Rashid, Zainab Noor (Pg. 45) Knowing RISE: A Robust Image Search Engine, Sumeer Gul, Aabid Hussain, Sheikh Shueb (Pg. 46) An NHPP Software Reliability Growth Model, Javaid Iqbal (Pg. 47) An App to Log Location Mining Apps in Android Appliances, Nazir Ahmad Dar, Afaq Alam Khan (Pg. 48) Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Biogeography based Optimization Approach, Ajay Kaushik, Ravi Teja, Raunaq Nayar, S. Indu, Daya Gupta (Pg. 49) Air Pollution Modelling of Srinagar City using Landsat Images Appliances, Maroof Ahad, Sibtain Hafiz, Aijaz Badyari, Abid Rahh (Pg. 50) The Computerized Communication and World Wide Web, Muzafar Ahmad Shah, Shabir A. Bhat (Pg. 51) A Study of Security and Privacy Issues in E-learning Platforms, Fozia Hameed Wani, Rafi Ahmad Khan (Pg. 52) Nearby Block based Shoulder-Surfing-Resistant Graphical Password Scheme, Swaleha Syed, M. Sarosh Umar (Pg. 53) Speech Signal Compression and Transmission using Daubechies Wavelets in a Space Time Block Coded Co-operative MIMO-OFDM Systems, Sakeena Akhtar, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 54)

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19 20

21

22 23 24 25

26 27 28 29 30 31

32 33 34 35

16

The Internet of Things: Challenges, Issues and Solutions to Information Security, Mudasir Raja (Pg. 55) On the Design and Realization of Adaptive Noise Canceller based on Multirate Filter Techniques, Javaid A. Sheikh, Jai Preet Kour Wazir, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 56) Study of Various Multiple Access Extensions of OFDM for 4G Broadband Wireless Communication Systems, Uzma, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 57) An Insight Analysis of Recent Trends in Stream Cipher Design, Faheem Syeed Masoodi, Gousiya Hussain Pandow (Pg. 58) Analysis and Design of Security Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network, Ayaz Hassan Moon, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 59) Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Ayaz Hassan Moon, Ummer Iqbal Khan (Pg. 60) Robust Watermarking for General and Medical Images in Pixel Domain, Nazir Ahmed Loan, Shabir A. Parah, Javaid A. Sheikh, Nasir Nabi Hurrah, Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon (Pg. 61) Comparative Characteristic Analysis and Study of QCA Inverters, Zubair Ahmad Bangi, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 62) Study of Universal Gates in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata, Syed Umira Riyaz, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 63) Security Comparison of Android and IOS, Muneer Ahmad Dar, Syed Nisar Hussain Bukhari (Pg. 64) Cyber Law & Crimes: An Understanding through IT ACT 2000, Heeba Din, Sahar Gul (Pg. 65) A Review of Various MOSFET Fabrication Techniques, Arashid Ahmad, Haider Mehraj (Pg. 66) A Review and Analysis of Injection Attacks in Distributed Applications based on Service Oriented Architecture, Syed Nisar Hussain Bukhari, Muneer Ahmad Dar (Pg. 67) Mitigation Techniques against Economic Denial of Sustainability on Cloud Computing Architecture, Ashaq Hussain Dar, Beenish Habib (Pg. 68) Robust Watermarking Scheme with two Layer Security and Adaptive Strength, Nasir Nabi Hurrah, Shabir A. Parah (Pg. 69) Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Supervised Algorithms of Machine Learning, Taseem Nazir , Khalil Ahmed, Arashid Ahmed, Haider Mehraj (Pg. 70) Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: A Study, Farooq Aadil, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 71)

University of Kashmir

36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

A Comparative Review of Gait Biometric Identification Techniques, Haider Mehraj, Taseem Nazir, Arashid Ahmed (Pg. 72) A Distributed Watermarking Scheme for Copyright Protection of Color Images, Kaiser J. Giri (Pg. 73) SPAM vs. Right to Privacy: Legal Perspective, Syed Asima Refayi, Taseem Nazir, Arashid Ahmed (Pg. 74) Current Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing: A Study, Saima Mehraj, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 75) On the Realization of a High Capacity Data Hiding Technique for Color Images using Edge Detection, Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon, Shabir A. Parah, Javaid A. Sheikh, Nazir Ahmed Loan, Nasir Nabi Hurrah (Pg. 76) An Analysis of Information Security Technologies and Current Trends, Salma Farooq, Hilal Ahmad Khanday (Pg. 77) A Study of Various methods for Image Forgery Detection, Tawheed Jan Shah, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 78) E-healthcare System: A Pillar of Digital India, Farhana Ahad, Shabir A. Parah (Pg. 79) Prevention of Email Harvesting using Optimized SMTP Protocol, Shafiya Afzal Sheikh, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 80) Improvements and Challenges in Healthcare Applications with Internet of Things, Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 81) Ultra-Low Power Analog-to-Digital Converters: A Step Towards Batteryless Implants, SuhaibAhmed, Vipan Kakkar (Pg. 82) Ubiquitous Computing: A Vision of an Automated 21st Century, Suhaib Ahmed, Saima Bashir, Vipan Kakkar (Pg. 88) Braingate: A Thought into Action Turning Technology, Saima Bashir, Suhaib Ahmed, Vipan Kakkar (Pg. 84) Signature Recognition and Verification using Artificial Intelligence Technique, Syed Masaid Zaman, Qamar Parvez Rana (Pg. 85) Matter and Anti-Matter Symmetrization on Large Scale Structure of the Universe, Mohd Altaf Sofi, Riyaz Ahmad Bhat, Naseer Iqbal Bhat (Pg. 86) Is Privacy Casualty of Social Networks? What Stays on Facebook, doesn’t Stay on Facebook?, Aadil Masood Wani, Aaliya Ahmed, Malik Zahra Khalid (Pg. 87) Personal Health Record Management System: System Architecture and Design, Saurav Gupta, Sanjay Sood, D.K. Jain (Pg. 88) E-Learning Using Cloud Computing in Kashmir Valley, Akash Ahmad Bhat, Q. P. Rana (Pg. 89) Nanotechnology in Electronics, Javeed Iqbal Reshi, M. Tariq Banday (Pg. 90)

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55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74

18

Nanoelectronic Technologies Beyond CMOS, M. Rafiq Beigh (Pg. 91) Log-Domain QRS Detection System Using Pan-Tompkin Algorithm, Imran Nazir Beigh, Farooq A. Khanday (Pg. 92) Delayed Inertial Neuron Model: Theory and Design, Nasir Ali Kanth, Farooq A. Khanday (Pg. 93) Fractional Chaotic Dynamics: A Design Perspective, Mohammad Rafiq Dar, Farooq A. Khanday (Pg. 94) Face Recognition using SOM, Sameer Sidiq Sofi, Rafi Ahmad Khan (Pg. 95) Data Mining for Diagnosing in Healthcare Sector – A Review, Umar Sidiq (Pg. 96) Information Security Challenges in Smart Grid Based Advanced Power Systems, Muzaffar Ahmad Dar, Zakir Hussain Rather (Pg. 97) Non-Conventional Structures and Techniques for Channel Control in Nano Scale MOSFET, Aadil Tahir Shora (Pg. 98) Achievable Maximum Detection Probability of Cognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative MIMO-OFDM, Saba Amin, Javaid A Sheikh, Mehboob ul Amin, Shabir A Parrah, G. Mohiudin Bhat (Pg. 99) Cloud Computing and Data Backup: Digital Library Perspective, Rosy Jan, Nadim Akhtar Khan (Pg. 100) Smart Apps for Libraries, Nadim Akhtar Khan, Rosy Jan (Pg. 101) High Temperature Electrical Transport and Optical Studies of ZnO:Cu Quantum Dots, Ghulam Nabi Dar, Arfat Firdous (Pg. 102) Neural Network for Heart Disease Prediction using Data Mining Approach, Mujtaba Ashraf Qureshi (Pg. 103) A Comparative Survey of 4G Service Providers in India and Related Security Issues, Asif Iqba Kawossa, Syed Ishfaq Manzoor (Pg. 104) Is Internet a Threat to Privacy Per Se? A Review, Benish Ali Bhat, Aadil Masood Wani (Pg. 105) Traditional Statistics and Data Science: A Comparative Study of Data Analysis Approaches with Special Reference to Medical Science Data Sets, Tariq Rashid Jan (Pg. 106) Towards Developing Automatic Phonetic Alignment for Kashmiri Language using Train & Align, Musavir Ahmed (Pg. 107) K- means Clustering: A New Approach to Determine Number of Clusters, G. Mohiudin Bhat,Farhat Roohi, Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi (Pg. 108) Real-Time Smart Flood Monitoring, Warning and Control System, Shakeel Ahmad Bhat (Pg. 109) Deep Web: The Non-Googleable Data, Taufat Hussain ((Pg. 110)

University of Kashmir

Expert Lecture

SEEDS-2016 18 & 19 March, 2016

and Keynotes Organized by: Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Expert Lecture

Prof. Ramesh Gaonkar [email protected]

ADVANCES IN MICROPROCESSOR/ MICROCONTROLLER TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON ENGINEERING CURRICULA

T

he presentation includes changes in semiconductor technology over the last fifty years – from 4-bit microprocessor to present day complex microcontrollers such as ARM and high performance Intel processors such as i5 and i7. These microcontrollers have become integral part of embedded systems. In late 1990's and early 2000 many technologies such as RFID, wireless, and Internet began to converge that led to Internet of Things (IoTs). These changes in technologies will have significant impact on engineering curricula and engineering careers. Keywords: Internet of Things; Embedded Systems; Engineering Curricula; Engineering Careers.

About Author: Prof. Ramesh Gaonkar is professor of Electrical Engineering Technology at Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York. He is also responsible for the development of the Computer Technology Program, STIP-Skills Improvement Program and Apprentice Program and is the author of several books. Prior to teaching, Prof. Gaonkar was a Design Engineer where he was responsible for Circuit Design. He has served as consultant for the National Science Foundation, Advanced Technology Program Proposal Review, Development and Evaluations Associates, and the National Institute of Industrial Engineering in Bombay, India. Prof. Gaonkar has received several awards, including the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Creative and Scholarly Activities, the Central NY Technology-Outstanding Teacher Award, and the American Society for Engineering Education Outstanding Teacher Award. He is a member of several professional organizations serving in leadership capacities. Prof. Gaonkar received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, his Master's of Science in Physics from Bombay University, his Master's of Science in Electrical Engineering from Union College and his Doctorate in Instructional Technology and Electrical Engineering from Syracuse University.

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2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 1

DOES A PICTURE IS STILL WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS? Prof. Ekram Khan Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Tel.: +91 94-57-110112, E-mail address: [email protected]

I

n the early 1900’s, the Chinese proverb “A picture is worth a thousand words” became very popular among magazine and newspaper editors. Actually, this proverb shows the power of image for conveying information. Another idiom “Seeing is believing” proves that visual clues are more convincing than verbal clues. However, this idiom is not necessarily true always in this era of digital revolution. We are living in an era of digital revolution, where it has become very easy to access, share and process information. However, such advancement in technology came up with various major security challenges also. In last decade with the development in image processing technology, digital image manipulation and tampering has become much easier without leaving any visual clues. Easily available powerful computer software’s like Adobe Photoshop, Corel Paint Shop etc. have made the manipulation of digital images incredibly easy, up to such an extent that even an inexperienced user can edit image such a way that it cannot be detected from naked eyes. So it has become a challenging task to discriminate between an authentic picture and its manipulated or doctored version. The problem is growing day-by-day; as more than several million pictures are uploaded every day over Internet. Nowadays, a huge population of world rely on the Internet for their routines, especially social networks (like Twitter and Facebook etc.) A person can easily download or upload images for interaction. Image forgery, like any other pernicious and illegal activity, could cause serious harm to the society. Therefore, the authentication and verification of integrity of an image is very important from information security point of view, as well as for their use as evidences in court. In this lecture, the emphasis will be on different methods used to manipulate an image with bad intension, a review of techniques used to detect forgeries in JPEG compressed images and some latest research in this direction. Keywords: Image Manipulation; Image Forgery; JPEG.

University of Kashmir

21

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 2

CAREER IN CYBER FORENSICS Mr. H. K. Lohia IPS – 1992, IGP, Technical Service, Jammu and Kashmir Police, Police Headquarters,Gulshan Ground, Jammu

Phone/Fax No. 0191-2459562, E-mail address: [email protected]

T

here are multiple avenues for advancement in career by accruing knowledge in Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is an application of investigation and analysis technique to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law. Cyber forensics can be applied in the following careers: a) Law and Order - Police forces and Central Forensic Laboratories across the country have started to actively recruit experts to analyze and prepare reports on digital data seized from suspects in various cases. This Requirement is growing day by day due to the large number of cases reported daily. b) Consultancy both Public and Private - Companies who are working in the area of corporate fraud investigation and financial fraud investigation have a requirement for specialized personnel for seizing and recovering evidence which can prove that fraud has been done, and c) Data Recovery - Since the usage of digital devices in the country is increasing day by day, there is an urgent requirement for experts who can recover data which has been lost by deletion or other means. Apart from above Data/Systems Authentication services is one field which can result in handsome earnings. In all, Cyber Forensics is a field which can be called the Future. Keywords: Cyber Policing; Forensics; Network Security; Forensic Laboratory.

University of Kashmir

23

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 3

FRACTIONAL ORDER ELEMENT: A New Player in Electronic Circuits and Systems Dr. Karabi Biswas Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.

Tel.: +91 3222 283046, E-mail address: [email protected]

A

fractional order system is a system that has an order of differentiation of non-integer value such as 0.25 𝑦(𝑡) 0.25. Then, the characteristic equation of the system is written as, 𝑑 𝑑𝑡0.25 + 𝑦(𝑡) = 𝑥(𝑡) which appears to be beyond common understanding. But in reality, many of the physical phenomena in nature can be modeled as fractional differential equations. Few common examples are diffusion processes, dielectric relaxation of the capacitors or relaxation of stresses in material. In the last few decades, several applications based on fractional order modeling in wide spread fields of science and engineering have been proposed. A list of some additional fields of application include fluid flow, dynamics of earthquake, optics, geology, visco-elastic material, biosciences, medicine, electromagnetic waves, nonlinear control, signal processing, control of power electronic converters, chaotic dynamics, finance economics and statistics. Though fractional order systems have gained substantial momentum in theoretical domain in all the fields of science and engineering; however, circuit realization of fractional order systems has not yet received enough attention and is still in its infancy. Fractional order systems call for fractional order elements/fractors. Fractors, ideally of infinite order, are usually realized approximately using truncated RC network. A few researchers have only reported about realization of fractors as a single component. Applications of fractors and fractional calculus go side by side. Being such an important entity, attention must be paid to explore the possibilities. In light of the above issues, this lecture aims to exploit the potential of fractor/fractional order element. The lecture will focus on a) Realization of fractor/fractional order element (single component, multiple components, integrated etc.); b) Modelling of fractor (electrical, electrochemical, mathematical etc.); c) System modelling using fractor (fractional capacitor, inductor using fractor or R-C network etc.); d) Applications of fractors (control, modelling, automation, signal processing etc.); and e) Noise analysis in fractional order systems. Keywords: Fractional Order Element; Fractional Order System; Fractance; Fractional Order PLL; .Fractor; Fractional Order.

University of Kashmir

25

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 4

VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR REAL TIME IMAGE PROCESSING Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.

Tel.: +91 9412 307694, E-mail address: [email protected]

I

mage processing is widely used in fields such as entertainment, healthcare, defense etc. Some of these image processing applications are bounded by real time constraints. Hardware implementation of realtime image processing (IP) algorithms require highly efficient VLSI architectures that should dissipate low power without compromising the performance. Various real-time embedded platform such as General Purpose Processors (GPPs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are used to implement the IP techniques having low to moderate computational complexity. Multi core general-purpose processors architecture with limited memory are used for computer graphic applications. However, due to ever increasing requirement of high definition multimedia, much more memory space and computational resources are needed to achieve better performance. Hybrid architecture based on FPGA and DSP are more suitable for real-time IP techniques having complex computational requirement. In such systems, FPGA provides parallel processing and supports most of the I/O standard whereas, DSP suffices the floating point computation and high speed inbuilt multiplier and accumulator requirements. This talk will deal with state-of-the art VLSI architectures for implementation of real time image processing algorithms. Keywords: Image; VLSI; FPGA; ASIC.

University of Kashmir

27

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 5

IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES: SOC Trends and Future Scope Dr. Vipan Kakkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu & Kashmir.

Tel.: +91 9419 233904, E-mail address: [email protected]

I

mplantable Medical Devices (IMDs) research is still in its early stages, and thus represents an enormous opportunity for which Ultra Low Power System on Chip (SoC) and MEMS technologies can enable the development of novel devices and therapies. Broadly, biomedical implants encompass a range of medical solutions for various bodily disorders and include Cardiovascular implantable devices like stents, vascular grafts, heart valves, defibrillators, pacemakers; Neural devices like deep brain stimulation (DBS) and prostheses for central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), cochlear and retinal applications; Orthopedic prostheses like bone grafts, bone plates, fins and fusion devices. Unlike other commercial devices however, developing microsystems for these applications requires critical analysis in terms of specifications, technologies and design techniques because of the devices’ safety and efficacy. The trade-off between performance and power consumption is a challenging act in the design of these devices. In this presentation, techniques to deal with the acquisition and processing of electrophysiological signals such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Electromyogram (EMG) will be discussed. It aims to evaluate possible applications so as to derive the requirements that future circuits integrating bio-sensors, ultra-low power processors, must meet and to recognize, as far as possible, the challenges which have to be faced. Keywords: Biomedical Implants; Energy Harvesting; Bio sensing; Ultra Low Power Consumption.

University of Kashmir

29

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 6

AR MODEL BASED PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION USING EAR BIOMETRICS Prof. Ajaz Hussain Mir Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.

Tel.: +91 9419 010409, E-mail address: [email protected]

F

rom security point of view, the link between identity of a person and surveillance of critical infrastructure is obvious. Increased threats to conventional security methods of personnel identification has given rise to personnel identification systems based on biometrics. These systems establish human identity using individual’s physical or behavioral attributes. These attributes besides being universal, unique and permanent need to be acceptable as well. One such biometric modality that has potential for further exploration is ear. Based on literature survey it has been concluded that despite reasonable research work in the area of ear biometrics, no adequate attempt has been made to explore potential of model based approach for personal identification using ear biometrics. As a step in this direction, we have made an attempt to explore the potential of time series based Autoregressive (AR) modeling technique for determining identity of a person. To implement this technique, edges of ear are detected. This is followed by binarization to facilitate extraction of ear shape in terms of contour and respective coordinates. The closed contour coordinates form the time series. AR model is fitted to this time series. AR coefficients thus obtained serve as a feature vector. Ear feature vector of person of interest is compared with ear feature vectors of persons contained in data base. Recognition Rate (RR) based on the basis of Euclidian distance classifier is of the order of 99% at different orders of the model. Model has been found invariant with respect to scale, translation, posture, rotation and illumination. RR up to 99% has been obtained. Similar results have been obtained on the basis of State Vector Machine (SVM) classifier as well. Keywords: Surveillance; Personnel Identification; AR Model; Human Identity.

University of Kashmir

31

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 7

TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION AND INCUBATION: Scope, Opportunities and Challenges in J&K State Prof. G. Mohiuddin Bhat Dean Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

Tel.: +91 9906 677322, E-mail address: [email protected]

F

rom the invention of Penicillin to the present day Mobile phone, history is witness to the fact that innovations and inventions have enabled societies to produce more. As envisaged by National Knowledge Commission (NKC) and National Innovation Council (NIC), Innovation is the catalyst in the process of economic growth and leads to the generation of an entrepreneurial culture. Both NIC & NKC have recommended the systematic reform of higher education system in India, which would act as an enabler for developing the required intellectual capital as well as laying the foundation for effective collaboration between industry and educational institutions for promoting technology innovation which will lead to the generation of new jobs for unemployed youth. While the number of Patent applications filed annually in a country are an important indicator of the progress of that Country, India does not figure among first 15 countries in the World, which have dominated filing of Patent applications (survey 2010). Needless to mention that every indigenous and commercially applicable technology leads to the generation of a Patent. The major factor behind the dismal performance is our inability to tap the vast resource of innovation within and outside our educational and professional institutions as well as those available in the informal sector. Unfortunately, the State of J&K has been a poor performer so far as incubation of innovative technologies is concerned. Further, the State of J&K figures at the lowest among all the States in India in terms of number of patent applications filed annually (survey 2010). This has led to poor industrial fabric resulting into a poor job market in the State. The author has an experience of working for technology innovation in the State of J&K for several years, and it can be recorded with authenticity that there is a huge resource of intellectual property in the State. The reason might have been the harsh living conditions of the people resulting into the ‘necessity as the mother of invention’. However, there has been no major effort from any private or public sector organization (aside from University of Kashmir) towards technology innovation and incubation in the State. In order to promote technology innovation in the State, there is an urgent need to establish several Technology Incubation Centers so that the support for prototype fabrication, value addition, prior art search and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection is provided under one roof. The incubation centers shall facilitate scouting, documentation and incubation of technological innovations from formal sector as well as those from the nonformal sector. Meritorious innovations and Traditional Knowledge scouted as such can be subsequently incubated into useful products and services. It will be unrealistic to expect growth of indigenous technology innovation in absence of such technology incubation centers in the State.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Culture; Technology Innovation; Patent; Intellectual Property Rights.

University of Kashmir

33

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

KEYNOTE – 8

CARBON NANOTUBE BASED ON-CHIP INTERCONNECTS Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.

Tel.: +91 9412 307694, E-mail address: [email protected]

T

he conventional on-chip interconnect copper material is unable to meet the requirements of future technology needs, since it demonstrates lower reliability with down scaling of interconnect dimensions. Therefore, researchers are forced to find an alternative solution for interconnects. Graphene nano interconnects have been proposed as promising interconnect materials due to their unique physical properties such as higher thermal conductivity, current carrying capability and mechanical strength. Graphene nano interconnects can be classified into carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene nanoribbons (GNR). CNTs are made by rolling up of graphene sheet in a cylindrical form and GNR is a strip of ultra-thin width graphene layer. Most of the physical and electrical properties of GNRs are similar to that of CNTs, however, the major advantage of GNRs over CNTs is that both transistor and interconnect can be fabricated on the same continuous graphene layer. Therefore, one of the manufacturing difficulties in formation of perfect metal-nanotube contact can be avoided. On other hand, the GNRs fabricated till date, have displayed some level of edge roughness. The electron scattering at rough edges reduces the mean free path (MFP) that substantially lowers the conductance of the GNR. This fundamental challenge limits the performance of GNR interconnects. Presently, researchers and industrialists are standing at crossroads where they need to make subtle improvements to make CNTs and GNRs a workable solution for future. The conventional planar integrated circuit (2D) packaging technique has already hit the red brick wall and is almost on the verge of extinction due to limited number of I/O pins and lower bandwidth. The best way to move towards the “More-than-Moore” technologies is 3D IC packaging, where the dies are vertically stacked. The electrical connections between the dies are established by through silicon vias (TSVs). The idea of using CNTs and GNRs as filler material in TSVs has also rapidly gained research interests. Considering the above-mentioned issues, this talk will analyze and compare the performance of CNTs and GNRs for both on-chip interconnects and TSVs applications. Keywords: Carbon Nanotube (CNT); Graphene Nanoribbon (GNR); On-chip Interconnects through Silicon Vias (TSVs).

University of Kashmir

35

SEEDS-2016

Abstracts

18 & 19 March, 2016

Sponsored by: University Grants Commission (UGC) under its Special Assistance Program (SAP) No: F.3-29/2012 (SAP-II) (2013-2018)

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Security Challenges for the Public Cloud Rashid Ashraf Malik£ Department of Computer Applications, Govt Degree College (Boys), Kupwara, J&K, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 708030.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-003

Abstract With the rise of personal, mobile and pervasive computing users, the volume of data has risen manifold, therefore, the need to keep this data always available across multiple devices has become critical. The substantial portion of this data is generated by non- technical, and middle income groups, which is an impediment, both technically and economically to opt for the private clouds. The solution lies in the public clouds, which is managed by the provider, and extends cost effective solution to a common user. The fundamental reservation before moving to a public cloud is security; both for individual users and corporates. This paper will delve in the broader and niche aspects of how public clouds can be made more secure, and more specifically how providers can think in terms of linking machines (clients, servers, devices and other intermediaries) in a more secure, failsafe, and scalable manner. This paper will discuss how to authenticate machines rather than a user or protocol. Most of the intrusions in public clouds is because we authenticate just by alphanumeric password (though encrypted). The broader aim of this paper is to suggest that we need to understand the behavior of the user and usage; how data is generated, and moved to the public clouds; how data is being accessed from public clouds, like the type of devices used, ISP’s, work-office hardware/software set, computing behavior, predominant geographical areas etc., type of cloud service used like Software as a Service(SaaS), PaaS, IaaS. This whole range of mechanism will rely on the data sciences, and more predominately deep learning and machine learning. This paper in no way is suggesting to remove the basic model of authentication, because a user could always switch a device, ISP, or move out of a specific area. Therefore, unless and until prodigious reliable data sets about a user is generated, these methods of authentication may not always work. But the critical point here is, no two users in the world can have same usage pattern/behavior. So know the user, rather than his password.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Public Clouds; Private Clouds; Pervasive Computing; Deep Learning; SaaS; PaaP; IaaS.

University of Kashmir

37

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Innovative Breakthroughs in Electronics: Marketer’s Space Owais Ahmed£ I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Jalander, Punjab, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 747771.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-004

Abstract Technological outgrowth witnessed humungous pace in recent years. Innovative breakthroughs revolutionized the entire technological space in general and electronic systems and devices in particular. Electronics overhauled the dynamics of business world. Industries across different sectors imbibe electronics in one way or the other. Electronics redefined optics, thermodynamics, computer science, mechanics, etc. with breathtaking innovative breakthroughs. Electronics witness transformation from the science of semiconductors to digital electronics. Electronics simplified complex tasks, procedures, processes by innovative real time systems and devices. Electronics score high on key attributes like comfort, convenience, access, speed, security, efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, etc. Electronics, basically, have redefined values, lifestyles, cultures, and ethics of today’s highly addictive tech buff society. The current study would be about several innovative breakthroughs in electronic systems and devices. Besides, various valuable implications of these developments for marketers, practioners, academicians would be given due consideration as well. In addition, several challenges posed by these breakthroughs would also form part of the study. Finally, while concluding several important recommendations for overcoming the given challenges and utilizing the benefits of electronic developments would be offered.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Innovative Breakthroughs in Electronics, Marketer Space, Electronic Industrial Space.

38

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Study of the Applications of Machine Learning Maleeha Shabeer Koul£ Department of Computer Science Engineering, SSM Collegw of Engineering and Technology, Pattan, Kashmir, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 758701.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-005

Abstract Machine learning is a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. Using algorithms that iteratively learn from data, machine learning allows computers to find hidden insights without being explicitly programmed where to look. Because of new computing technologies, machine learning today is not like machine learning of the past. While many machine learning algorithms have been around for a long time, the ability to automatically apply complex mathematical calculations to big data – over and over, faster and faster – is a recent development. A few widely publicized examples of machine learning applications are: a) The heavily hyped, self-driving Google car? The essence of machine learning; b) Online recommendation offers like those from Amazon and Netflix? Machine learning applications for everyday life; and c) Knowing what customers are saying about you on Twitter? Machine learning combined with linguistic rule creation. Resurging interest in machine learning is due to the same factors that have made data mining and Bayesian analysis more popular than ever. Things like growing volumes and varieties of available data, computational processing that is cheaper and more powerful, and affordable data storage. Ever wonder how an online retailer provides nearly instantaneous offers for other products that may interest you? Or how lenders can provide near-real-time answers to your loan requests? Many of our day-to-day activities are powered by machine learning algorithms, including: a) Fraud detection; b) Web search results; c) Real-time ads on web pages and mobile devices; d) Text-based sentiment analysis; e) Credit scoring and next-best offers; f) Prediction of equipment failures, g) New pricing models; h) Network intrusion detection; i) Pattern and image recognition; and j) Email spam filtering. The primary goal of machine learning research is to develop general purpose algorithms of practical value. Such algorithms should be efficient. As usual, as computer scientists, we care about time and space efficiency. But in the context of learning, we also care a great deal about another precious resource, namely, the amount of data that is required by the learning algorithm. Learning algorithms should also be as general purpose as possible. We are looking for algorithms that can be easily applied to a broad class of learning problems, such as those listed above. Of primary importance, we want the result of learning to be a prediction rule that is as accurate as possible in the predictions that it makes.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Learning Aalgorithm; Big Data; Data Mining; Computing Technologies; Bayesian Analysis; Automation.

University of Kashmir

39

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Tensor Network Theory: From Geometrization of the Brain to ADS\CFT Correspondence Mohammad Zaid Zaz£ Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8803 260373.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-006

Abstract This tutorial review on tensor network theory provides a semi-historical account of the development of the tensor network theory. It discusses how this theory was developed to provide a geometrical insight into neural networks and how tensor networks are being currently used in 'Big Data Handling'. It also points out that this mathematical method also comes handy in applied and theoretical physics particularly quantum Information science and condensed matter physics particularly solid state physics and superconductivity. We shall also assert that it provides a computationally less complex representation of strong correlations in quantum many-body systems. Lastly we shall briefly refer to ADS\CFT correspondence in quantum gravity theories and see how tensor networks come handy. Therefore, this review shall trace the history of the development of this theory and the basic concepts relating to this theory shall also be presented in a lucid way. This review aims to serve as an introduction to this novel mathematical technique which has as already pointed out immense applications in neural networks, data processing, applied and theoretical physics.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Innovative Breakthroughs in Electronics, Marketer Space, Electronic Industrial Space.

40

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Novel Classification for Script Identification in Document Images Rumaan Bashira£, S.M.K. Quadrib Islamic University of Science and Technology, Kashmir, India. Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 510488.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-009

Abstract Computing & Communication have undoubtedly grown to be a part of everything in the world. Computer Science & consequently Information Technology have touched all the realms of life and offer numerous applications. All these applications deal with ‘documents’ which are considered very important and common elements. The documents are either prepared manually or generated in an electronic manner. Documents are used as storage, processing, detailing, writing & reading elements. Initially processed through manual procedures, but with the technological advancements in the past few decades’ documents were started to be processed in an automated fashion. The automated management of documents when input as an image is called as Document Image Analysis. It is the procedure of analyzing a document image with the purpose of extracting the contents so that they can be used according to the need of various stakeholders. A majority of these documents images contain written text. The analysis of this text is easier for a human as compared to a computer system. A computer system needs to be trained to work on this text. In this context, a key task is to identify the Script of this text. Script Identification is one of the prime areas of research in the field of Automatic Pattern Recognition & Document Image Analysis. Script Identification involves evaluating the script(s) of which a document is comprised. Languages are written using scripts and the scripts are made up of symbols. The nature of various scripts varies in their writing order, symbol shapes, styles, usage of diacritical marks, profiles, density, and the like. A lot of work has been reported in this area. Here, we present a novel classification of script identification after a detailed analysis of the literature available.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Script; Script Identification; Classification; Pattern Recognition; Document Image Analysis, Document Image.

University of Kashmir

41

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Quantum Cryptography: Future for Information Security Nasrullah Nabi£, Tarana Afrin Chandal Directorate of IT&S, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 578726.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-010

Abstract Every day, it seems, governments and corporations fall victim to data leaks caused by anonymous online crusaders or foreign terrorist organizations — leaks which call into question the efficacy of modern computer security measures. Quantum cryptography, the use of quantum mechanical principles to make and break codes, could alter the way cybercrimes are committed, as well as the way in which we defend against them. Quantum computing threatens to exacerbate our current information security problems by compromising current encryption techniques, and if this comes to pass, then quantum key distribution could level out the cybercrime landscape by restoring security. We will show the concept of BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol which uses photon polarization states to transmit information from sender to source and analyze its use as an information system where, (the sender selects two complementary states, each described by two bases. According to Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states that “it is impossible to measure two interdependent physical quantities simultaneously”, only one of the two states can be known. For each photon, the sender chooses a random bit (0 or 1), and one of the two bases that describe the state, and accumulates the state of the photon based on both of these random choices. The recipient must also randomly choose a basis in which to measure the photon, and when the sender and recipient use the same basis, they will observe the same state. The resulting string of shared choices becomes their key, and the rest of the photons are discarded). Quantum key distribution, or QKD, is a subset of quantum cryptography that allows two parties to produce a shared random key, which they can then use to encrypt and decrypt private messages. The difference between classical and quantum cryptography will be presented in a way of understanding the main advantage of quantum information processing over classical information processing. Also, we will present today and future use of quantum cryptography and its possible impact on security of information systems.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: BB84; QKD; Information System; Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

42

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Relevance of CIA Triad in Strengthening MIS of Tourism Organization Uniba Maqbool Qurashia£, Abrar Maqbool Shahb Department of Computer Sciences, Islamic University of Science and Commerce, Kashmir, India. Government Polytechnique College, Bandipora, Kashmir, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 816597.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-011

Abstract Information Security, in short abbreviated as InfoSec, is the convention to entrench information from illegitimate, unlawful, unjustified, pirated or unauthorized access, mobilization (usage), revealment, severance, alteration, inspection, documentation or crashing. Information security applies to any form of data whether electronic or physical. InfoSec focuses on three main features, i.e., confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (also known as CIA triad). This triad model is blueprint to devise guidelines for information security within an organization. This paper aims to focus on information security in tourism. The adoption of digital tourist records, increased regulation, provider consolidation and the increasing need of information between tourists, providers and payers, all point towards the need for better information security environment. In tourism, and for the purpose of this paper: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability mean the following: a) Confidentiality: The property that tourist related information is not made available or disclosed; b) Integrity: The property that tourist information have not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner; c) Availability: The property that tourist information is accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized person or an organization. Information security in our case will be achieved by implementing suitable set of controls including policies, processes, procedures, organizational structures and software and hardware security mechanisms. This process of establishing, implementing, monitoring, reviewing and improving these controls requires tourism organization to keep track of all the changes in the concerned environment and other security related threats. It is to ensure that certain specific security objectives regarding precious information of tourism organization are met with regard to the protocols of an organization. This will further enhance the efficacy of management information system in tourism organization.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Information Security; Tourism Management; Technology for Management;.

University of Kashmir

43

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Detection and Segmentation of Main Components in Heart Sounds Sidrat Tasawoor Kantha£, M. B. Srinivasb IISc, Bangalore, India. BITS-Pilani Hyderabad Campus, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 0997 2735595.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-012

Abstract Auscultation is a primitive and simple method of clinical evaluation of heart and heart sounds are one of the most useful indicators of cardiac activity. The presence and timing of S1 and S2 peaks condition is important for locating the start and end of the cycle, and this is a marker physicians use to judge the duration of the cardiac cycle. The presence of extra peaks between S1 and S2, or abnormal intervals between them can indicate a diseased condition. In this study, a method to extract individual cycles from an audio recording of heart sound for use in a classifier or automated detector is proposed. First, signal decomposition and de-noising is carried out in the wavelet domain. Next, Hilbert transform is used to obtain the envelope and a threshold is applied to remove spurious peaks. The exact timings are extracted in a four-step approach, and the individual cycles are detected. A check and correct algorithm is developed. Two types of data sets were used in the study and cycles were extracted for both the normal and diseased conditions. Using the above approach, the efficiency achieved was high for one data set (around 90% across normal and diseased conditions), and lower for the second set.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Heart Sound Signals, Auscultation, Envelope, Wavelet, Peak Detection.

44

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Automatic Green House Controlling and Monitoring System Rumiya Rashid£, Zainab Noor Islamic University of Science and Technology, Kashmir, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086 369452.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-013

Abstract Greenhouse Automatic monitoring and control has become the necessity for the agricultural based country like India where maximum number of people employ themselves in the field of agriculture. The main objective of our work is to design an automated agricultural system which is purely sensor based and economical as well. It can communicate with the various sensor modules in real-time in order to control the light, aeration and drainage process efficiently inside a greenhouse by actuating window openers, motors and lights respectively according to the necessary condition of the crops. The proposed system is an Automatic Green House Controlling and Monitoring System which closely monitors and controls the microclimatic parameters like temperature, humidity etc. of a greenhouse on a regular basis for cultivation of crops or specific plant species which could maximize their production over the whole crop growth season. When any of the above mentioned climatic parameters cross a safety threshold, the sensors sense the change and the microcontroller reads this from the data at its input ports after being converted to a digital form by the ADC. The microcontroller then performs the needed actions by employing relays until the strayed-out parameter has been brought back to its optimum level. The aim of this proposed work is to create a system which will automatically control light intensity, soil and air temperature, and provide preventive measurement about fire in a greenhouse for proper growth of plants of all types.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Green House; Sensors; ADC,Microcontroller; Microclimatic.

University of Kashmir

45

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Knowing RISE: A Robust Image Search Engine Sumeer Gul£, Aabid Hussain, Sheikh Shueb Department of Library and Information Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8803 050076.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-015

Abstract World Wide Web is not only a corpus of bits and bytes, but also a platform for pixels. As multimedia technology is enticing users, images are increasingly used for the visualization of concepts and things. As images contain complex and high dimensional information, efficient retrieval tools are of high requisite. The search engine technology is trying to be in line with the growth of images on the web to ensure easy retrieval and high relevancy. The traditional measure of query matching with the image metadata is ameliorated by Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) methods involving color, shape and texture of images. Content based image retrieval is a very active research field that aims to improve the performance of image retrieval systems. RISE, a Robust Image Search Engine is a step towards that improvement, computing the similarity of images using their color signatures. It organizes, indexes, and searches images based on the content of the images. The study introduces the tool by discussing the various search options for image searching. It also investigates the performance of RISE search engine on precision scale by running 10 queries specific to the Electronics and Computing. The precision ratio will be determined by undertaking first twenty results in view of the fact that most of the users usually look up the first twenty hits (2 webpages) of a query. The queries will be selected randomly but relevant to the subject of Electronics and Computing. The precision rate of the first retrieved image for each keyword query in relation to their similar images under the search option “Search Relevant images” shall also be analyzed.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: RISE; Image Retrieval; Content Based Image Retrieval; Electronics; Computing.

46

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

An NHPP Software Reliability Growth Model Javaid Iqbal£ Department of Computer Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 95960 32499.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-016

Abstract Software permeates our life style. A life style without software will take us ages back. Having highly reliable software systems deployed in every walk of life is our constant endeavor. The permeation of software solutions is due to our increased belief and dependence on these systems. Software reliability stands out as a very important concern for the wide-spread acceptance of such systems. Software reliability is defined as the probability that software will provide failure-free operation in a fixed environment for a fixed interval of time. The reliability of software applications is measured by use of mathematical formulations called as Software Reliability Growth Models which basically describe the error-detection and correction processes. Many Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process software reliability models have been proposed. Many of these models study learning effects in testing process. Learning and experience are related. The importance of experiential gains forms an important part of the continuous process of learning that the testing team undergoes during the testing phase. Learning and testing phenomenon are intertwined in terms of their interactional interplay and mutual influences. The learning parameter is static which comes from inspecting the testing/debugging codes. In this study, a new software reliability growth model that represents learning, that testers undergo as a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition of testing skills and knowledge as testers do the testing on a software and loss of the acquired testing knowledge due to forgetting or negligence by testers. The differential equation represents an intensity function governed by the learning and total cumulative faults in the software. The intensity function denotes the fraction of errors at some point of time. The total cumulative faults are the fraction of errors detected within time (0, t). The forget parameter represents the failure on part of testers to apply the learnt patterns due to forgetting or negligence. The proposed model is statistically tested and validated on use of two datasets using comparison criteria. Parameter estimation of these models on these two data sets is also presented.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Software Reliability, Software Reliability Growth Model; SRGM; Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process; NHPP; Learning Effect; Fault Detection Rate.

University of Kashmir

47

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

An App to Log Location Mining Apps in Android Appliances Nazir Ahmad Dar£, Afaq Alam Khan ApTech, ILM Infinity, Parray Pora, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8713 880359.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-017

Abstract Android is undoubtedly the most widely used operating system for mobile phones and tablets. Its market share is high as compared to other mobile operating systems even higher than iOS. Such a huge base of users makes Android an ideal target for malwares. There has been a rapid increase in the number of malware attacks. Even though malware detection is one of the major concerns in mobile computing but data mining intrusive apps are emerging as a major challenge nowadays. Such apps can be more dangerous to users than malwares. Mobile phones do store sensitive data and leakage of this information can be risky. Geo-located data is valuable and snooping on geo-location is one of the primary tasks of malicious apps. Android provides a passive security mechanism to publish apps on play-store. Therefore, it is not proving to be much effective in case of data leakage. This paper proposes an app which constructs logs of apps which mine location of a device. The app inspects on Manifest files, Intents, app description and the network traffic statistics of an app. This lets the users know which app is mining its location. Hence, a user can check the maliciousness of an app. Besides, a learning algorithm can be applied to the logs generated for the malware detection purpose.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Android; Intrusive Data Mining; Android Permissions; Android Services; Android Logs.

48

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Biogeography based Optimization Approach Ajay Kaushik£, Ravi Teja, Raunaq Nayar, S. Indu, Daya Gupta Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9416 879934.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-018

Abstract Wireless sensor networks are constrained by limited battery lifetime. A wireless cluster goes down as soon as the battery of cluster heads is consumed. Therefore, extending the lifetime of the cluster heads is a challenging issue for long run operation of wireless sensor network. The Biogeography based optimization algorithm uses migration of species to solve or to optimize the energy usage of cluster heads efficiently. The paper presents a novel algorithm for energy efficient clustering in wireless sensor network using biogeography based optimization. The proposed algorithm is implemented using Matlab simulation and shows better results than (i) particle swarm optimization in terms of network lifetime (tested for varying number of nodes, varying number of gateways and varying sink location) and number of packets received by the base station. (ii) BBO fuzzy technique in terms of alive sensor nodes, lifetime of the first dead node and average lifetime of the network.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Gateway; Energy of Gateway; Habitat; Habitat Suitability Index; Immigration Rate; Crossover; Migration.

University of Kashmir

49

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Air Pollution Modelling of Srinagar City using Landsat Images Appliances Maroof Ahada£, Sibtain Hafizb, Aijaz Badyaric, Abid Rahhd Department of Civil Engineering, SSM College of Engineering, Kashmir, India. Islamic University of Science and Technology, Kashmir, India. c Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. d Department of Computer Science Engineering, SSM College of Engineering, Kashmir, India. a a

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 291423.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-019

Abstract Air pollution in developing cities is one of the major concerns from health hazardous and agricultural growth deterioration point of view. In order to resolve and reduce it needs multiple applications and environmental management. Of the main sources of this pollution are anthropogenic activities including urban development and transport that discharge large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With a variety of pollutants and high volume transportation, local distribution of production facilities the testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons, lead compounds and particulate matter are substances that cause air pollution. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modelling is the important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and Sulphur dioxide as the most drastic source of air pollution LANDSAT images have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters, Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of these pollutants in Srinagar over a defied period of time period has been modeled and then to the model valuation, created maps were found the only source of providing such data as the state of Jammu and Kashmir has only three ground stations for measuring such pollutants situated in Narwal (Residential), M A M Stadium (Residential) and Bari Brahmana (Industrial). ArcGIS, ArcMap’s and Matlab were used to process the .tiff images provided by LANDSAT to analyse the data.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Environment; GIS; LANDSAT; Image Processing; Air Pollution.

50

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

The Computerized Communication and World Wide Web Muzafar Ahmad Shah£, Shabir A. Bhat The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 663545.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-020

Abstract The Advanced Research project agency launched its first satellite in 18 months in 1958 in response to the satellite “Sputnik” launched by Russia. After several years of the satellite launch ARPA started focusing on computer networking and communication technology. It is because the first milestone of Sputnik and Atlantic cable was achieved which laid the foundation for focusing on the computer networking and communication technology. ‘Critical Mass’ mass was one of the main dynamics of computerized communication at that time. To create an endeavor there were very few people to contribute effectively to its solution. There was a need to bring all the intellectual people together so that they could contribute to the newly emerged technology. It was not possible to bring all these intellectuals together and to place all of them on higher positions. So meetings were conducted on weekly basis. But the correlations of their mental models degenerated between meetings so that it may take a year for a week’s communicating. Therefore, there should be some way for communication between the intellectuals. Thus, in 1972, a public demonstration of the ARPANET was organized in the International Conference on Computer Communications. The first step towards creating World Wide Web was developing a Client Server architecture. Thus World Wide Web was originally developed to access the data in standard formats from across the world. Therefore, a server was required to be built to provide the services to the client computers and the first server and client machines were built by CERN- the European Laboratory for Particle physics in November,1990. Since then the web turned the globe into a common village. Distances are shortened and any information could be accessed, processed, analysed and converted into meaning full information from any corner of the world. Thus Steven Jobs ignited the PC revolution to Lee, co-founder of WWW. This paper is an attempt to discuss the advent of computer networking and evolution of the web from 1st to 4th generations.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: ARPANET; Web 1.0; Web 2.0.

University of Kashmir

51

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Study of Security and Privacy Issues in E-learning Platforms Fozia Hameed Wani£, Rafi Ahmad Khan The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 441998.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-021

Abstract Information security and privacy such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation is no longer only a highly desired feature but it is now an essential legal requirement of an information system and e-learning is not an exception. An e-learning platform is web based and therefore is prone to diverse attacks, such as brute force attacks, XSS (or Cross Side Scripting), direct SQL code injection, remote SQL injection using a virus/trojan file, SQL injection in the site address (URL SQL injection), web indexing, session predictions, password cracking, etc. In addition, there are various issues concerning privacy of users (learners and teachers) including issues related to grading, competency, and personal information due openness and issues in trust management. Currently, many e-learning systems do not have adequate security design and privacy features integrated into the e-learning development process and therefore, such platforms can cause serious issues in maintenance of learning objects, authentication in student/teacher registration, scheduling of events, protection of user profiles, conduct of examination, and award of certification. Vulnerabilities can be accidentally and intentionally introduced throughout the software development life cycle during requirements definition, design, implementation, deployment and maintenance. This paper attempts to enumerate critical security issues that must be adequately addressed by an e-learning platform and possible development methodology to incorporate security components at the design stage to mitigate web attacks on e-learning platforms. It also gives a security feature comparison of few popular e-learning platforms.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: e-Learning; Security and Privacy; e-learning Platforms; Attacks on e-learning Platforms; Secure e-learning platform.

52

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Nearby Block based Shoulder-Surfing-Resistant Graphical Password Scheme Swaleha Saeed, M. Sarosh Umar£ Department of Computer Engineering, ZHCET, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9634 283848.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-022

Abstract Information security is the rapidly rising area of concern in today’s world of network technology. Traditionally, secure access to information is guarded by combination of username and password. The use of text password goes back to decades and is still in practice. The vulnerability of text based approaches towards security threats like guessing attack, dictionary attack, key-logger based software, etc. reduces their usability in present scenario. The idea of graphical password as an alternative to text based approach was proposed by Blonder in 1996 motivated by the fact called as “picture superiority effect” i.e. human brain can easily memorize images far better than text. Typically, the graphical password schemes employ password objects like picture, icons, etc. as a direct input in authentication session, thereby making them an easy target for shoulder surfing/peeping attack. In order to minimize this security threat prevailing in most of the existing graphical password schemes, there should be some mechanism for indirect password entry during the login process. In this paper, we have proposed a new secure technique of authentication, which conceals information about the user’s password without sacrificing the usability. The proposed method is recognition based technique, here the password images along with distracter images are provided as challenge set for input. These image are randomly placed in the presented challenge set, hence for every authentication session this placement strategy is different. During password creation phase, the user has to choose password images from the image portfolio set and a particular direction like left, right, top and down. Apart from password images, the user needs to remember the chosen direction for successful login. At the time of authentication step, instead of selecting the password image the user has to select its adjacent neighbor called as a subordinate image. For a particular password image there would be four adjacent neighbors (left, right, top and down block image), among them the subordinate image is governed by the direction chosen by the user during password creation step. Therefore, the technique exploits indirect entry of password image by creating a delusion to select nearby neighbor which makes it difficult for a shoulder-surfer to identify the user’s actual password. The simulation result and user study proved that the scheme is easier to use, faster, secure, reliable and can be easily adopted in various security applications like ATMs, mobile phones etc. without requiring any hardware changes.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Graphical Password; Picture Superiority Effect; Recognition Based Schemes; Shoulder-Surfing Attack; Subordinate Image.

University of Kashmir

53

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Speech Signal Compression and Transmission using Daubechies Wavelets in a Space Time Block Coded Cooperative MIMO-OFDM Systems Sakeena Akhtar£, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiudin Bhat Deaprtment of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology,University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 475295.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-027

Abstract Cooperative Communication is a new communication paradigm and is one of the fastest growing areas of research. The increasing demands of wireless multimedia services like audio, video, image as well as text data are fueling intensive research efforts in future generation Wireless Communication Systems. A new technique of speech compression and transmission using different Daubechies Wavelets in a Space Time Block Coded Co-corporative MIMO-OFDM Systems has been proposed and evaluated in this paper. MIMO-OFDM is the dominant air interface solution for 4G and 5G Wireless Communications which multiplies signal capacity by transmitting signal over multiple antennas thereby providing more reliable communication at higher data rates. In recent times, Cooperative Diversity in wireless networks has received great importance and is considered as promising technique to mitigate multipath fading effects in MIMOOFDM Systems. The basic idea behind corporation is that several users pool their resources in a network in order to form a virtual antenna array which creates spatial diversity. This Cooperative spatial diversity leads to decrease in error probability with increased rate of SNR. In this paper wavelet based analysis, processing and compression of multimedia signals like speech are described and implemented for a Cooperative MIMO-OFDM system. More precisely, we try to find out various major issues regarding the wavelet compression of a speech signal. These issues include choice of a wavelet, decomposition level and thresholding criteria. A wavelet based speech compression techniques obtained by using hard and soft thresholding algorithm have been presented. This work shows that wavelet compression with QPSK modulation is a promising compression technique in a Cooperative MIMO-OFDM system which makes use of the elegant theory of wavelets. The performance has been evaluated using Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Compression Ratio (CR), Bit Error Rate (BER), and Retained Signal Energy. It has been found that the transmitted speech signal is retrieved well under noisy conditions at higher order Daubechies wavelets. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, various performance parameters have been compared with previously implemented techniques and it has been found that the proposed work shows better performance as compared to the already existing techniques.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cooperative Communication; MIMO-OFDM; Speech Compression; wavelet decomposition; Daubechies Wavelets; Soft Thresholding; Hard Thresholding.

54

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

The Internet of Things: Challenges, Issues and Solutions to

Information Security Mudasir Raja£

The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 124876.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-028

Abstract The fate of Internet is foreseen to go beyond the World Wide Web and human-human communication. An emerging and promising disruptive technology, the Internet of Things (IoT), has picked up fast in the last decade or so. IoT is an extension of the Internet to interconnect all kinds of smart devices around us to provide extensive and ubiquitous access to data and information. Smart devices are now being developed with the ability to have a unique way of identifying and communicating seamlessly with each other through different information communication technologies allowing people and objects in the physical world as well as data and information in the virtual world to interact with each other so as to create smart environments such as smart homes, smart offices, smart factories, smart retail environments, smart health, smart outside environments, smart energy, smart transport systems, smart cities, etc. These devices exchange data and information without the intervention of humans thereby bringing ease to their exchange of goods, services and information. From human-human and human-thing communication we are moving towards a thing-thing communication era where the Internet is now extending to become the Internet of Things. With this paradigm shift, IoT brings with itself new information security challenges and issues that must be recognized and addressed. Users, manufacturers and other stakeholders are faced with ever-increasing need to secure the devices, networks and information in the Internet of Things. This paper aims to introduce the Internet of Things and discusses the various information security challenges and issues that come forth in this emerging technology. It also deliberates about the solutions to maintain information security in the Internet of Things.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet of Things; Privacy; Data; Information, Security.

University of Kashmir

55

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

On the Design and Realization of Adaptive Noise Canceller based on Multirate Filter Techniques Javaid A. Sheikh£, Jai Preet Kour Wazir, Shabir A. Parah, G . Mohiudin Bhat Deaprtment of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology,University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 274966.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-029

Abstract Noise or unwanted signal finds its presence in almost all signals. Noise can occur because of many disturbances. In some cases, it is negligible and in other cases it eliminates the desired information from the signal. Actually, it is unwanted disruption that obstructs the desired information while keeping the source sound. The sources might comprise Speech and Music playing in different devices as in mobiles, laptops, or even no audio. Noise can arise due to several reasons such as interference, interruption, and overlapping. To remove unwanted noise from the signal is historically a driving force behind the enhancement of signal processing technology and it continues to be a most important application for Digital Signal Processing Systems. Noise cancellation technology is an important and versatile area of Digital Signal Processing. Over the past few decades a lot of work has been done in this area. Various filters have been used to remove noise from the corrupted signals. In many applications, Multirate filters are used either in sample rate alteration or in noise removal. Another example is Adaptive Noise cancellation which is an effective method to remove the unwanted signal (noise) from the original signal and leaves the desired signal. This paper presents the structure of the Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) using the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm based on Multirate filter based on the fact that ANC is not able to filter out the distortion from the signal completely. Further the comparison between Multirate filter and Adaptive filter has also been investigated. The performance has been evaluated in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). It has further been observed that the Multirate filter shows better results than Adaptive filter.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC); Multirate Ffilters; Adaptive Filter; Least Mean Square Algorithm (LMS); Cascaded Integrated Decimation Comb Filter.

56

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Study of Various Multiple Access Extensions of OFDM for 4G Broadband Wireless Communication Systems Uzma Bhat£, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiudin Bhat Deaprtment of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology,University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 090421.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-030

Abstract Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the underlying technology for two dominant standards of 4G communication systems (WiMAX and LTE). WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) uses OFDMA in both uplink and downlink streams whereas LTE (Long Term Evolution) uses OFDMA in the downlink and SC-FDMA in the uplink stream. The OFDM is an active topic of research because of its numerous advantages in wireless communication systems. OFDM is multiplexing/modulation technique in which the data stream to be transmitted is divided into various sub-streams and are then loaded onto the various carriers that are orthogonal to each other. As such OFDM is a parallel transmission stream which increases the data rate without actually decreasing the symbol duration thereby reducing the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). OFDM is a transmission technique in which all orthogonal carriers are used for transmitting the information of a single user. In other words, OFDM is not a multiple access technique by itself, but it can be combined with existing multiple access techniques such as TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), FDMA (Frequency Division Multiplexing) and CDMA to make it a multi-user technique in addition to multi-carrier system. All the subcarriers can be shared by multiple users in the form of OFDM-TDMA, OFDMA (OFDM-FDMA) or MC-CDMA (OFDM-CDMA). This paper presents an extensive overview of these multiple access techniques when used in conjunction with OFDM. The advantages, drawbacks, and relationship of these multiple access techniques with each other are analyzed and discussed. In OFDM-TDMA system all subcarriers are allocated to only one user for the duration of several OFDM symbols. In this case resource allocation among the users is orthogonal in time. The OFDMA system assigns a subset of sub-carriers to each user whereas OFDM-CDMA allows for sharing both time and subcarriers among all users where a set of orthogonal codes is assigned to each user and the information symbols are spread in frequency domain. These Multiple access techniques associated with OFDM differ from each other in many aspects like flexibility and Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The amount of physical resources (i.e time slots, subcarriers and spreading codes) depends not only on required data rate but also on the multiuser diversity gain among the users. Among these multiple access techniques associated with OFDM, OFDMA is one of the most useful approaches in the mobile cellular system.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: WiMaX; OFDM; LTE; CDMA; Multiplexing; Inter Symbol Interference.

University of Kashmir

57

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

An Insight Analysis of Recent Trends in Stream Cipher Design Faheem Syeed Masoodi£, Gousiya Hussain Pandow Department of Computer Science, Jazan University, KSA.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +966 5359 11997.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-031

Abstract During past few decades, substantial amount of research work has been done in the domain of symmetric key cryptography and a significant number of new designs have been proposed over the years that would withstand the cryptanalytic attacks and strengthen the security. Symmetric key cryptography is considered as one of the constitutive cryptographic primitive and forms an intrinsic ingredient for cryptographic applications. Symmetric key cryptography is essentially based on an identical key that is used for the purpose of both encryption and decryption and the security of the cipher system is dependent on the secrecy of this key. Although the encryption algorithm for symmetric cipher system is considered core security factor and must be strong enough to protect any decryption based on the cipher-text alone but the security of system does not require keeping algorithm secret. Symmetric key cryptography is split into Block and Stream cipher and unlike Block ciphers, Stream ciphers do not have a standard model and a variety of structures are followed in their design. This work is aimed at providing an insight into the recent trends in the design of stream ciphers and revisit different design philosophies used in past. Focused parameters for comparative analysis would be key size, memory consumed, required processing power and processing time taken by various stream ciphers.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cryptography; Symmetric-key; Block Cipher; Stream Cipher, Security.

58

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Analysis and Design of Security Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network Ayaz Hassan Moona£, G. Mohiudin Bhatb NIELIT, Srinagar, J&K, India. University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 014801.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-032

Abstract Existing WSN security frameworks and protocols like SPINS (comprising of u-Tesla, SNEP), TinySec, Tiny ECC, Tiny PK, LEAP, LEACH etc. have been studied and compared to the extent of identifying their respective advantages and disadvantages in each case. The study has been used to design new authentication and key generation protocols which are computationally light and overcome some of the limitations reported in them. The solution leverages the low computational overheads associated with cryptographically secure one-way hash chains and ECC. The usage of hidden generator point derived by using hash-chains provides defense against man-in-the middle attack. We also demonstrate that the developed protocol addresses issues associated with Novel Access Control Protocol for secure Sensor Networks NACP. Along with it, various threat perceptions, attacks launched on WSN and the mitigation techniques have also been reported.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: WSN; Security Architecture; Authentication; Access Control; Hash Chains.

University of Kashmir

59

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Ayaz Hassan Moon, Ummer Iqbal Khan£ NIELIT, Srinagar, J&K, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419090812.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-033

Abstract Due to the myriad range of applications in environmental monitoring, wireless sensor network (WSN) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Since WSN suffer from many constraints including lower processing power, low battery life and small memory, security becomes the main concern to deal with such kind of networks as traditional cryptographic algorithms are not efficient. As key exchange is pivotal to all cryptographic services, need for an efficient and secure key exchange mechanism becomes imperative. An energy efficient protocol like Elliptic Curve DiffieHellman, ECDH is subject to man in the middle attack due to lack of authentication between the communicating nodes. In this paper, an authenticated key exchange mechanism based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been introduced for wireless sensor networks. The protocol establishes a shared key between two parties in an authenticated manner. The protocol is resistant against Man in the Middle Attack. The Shared Key can further be utilized for achieving any cryptographic service like authentication, Confidentiality etc. The developed protocol has been simulated in TinyOS using Tossim simulator. The protocol has also been ported to WSN Hardware, MicaZ mote. The performance benchmarking of the proposed protocol against ECDH has also been carried out.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: WSN; Key Generation;, Authentication; WSN Securit;, ECDH.

60

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Robust Watermarking for General and Medical Images in Pixel Domain Nazir Ahmed Loan£, Shabir A. Parah, Javaid A. Sheikh, Nasir Nabi Huurah, Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797412447.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-034

Abstract The exponential growth of internet and information technology has led to transfer (upload/download) of tremendous information and made it easily available for public. The easy availability of digital information (image, audio, video, text etc.) has increased the risks of interception. In such a scenario, the protection of such valuable data for authors, owners, copyright holders become more and more challengeable. Due attention needs to be drawn in order to maintain the easy availability of multimedia information and at the meantime industry must come up with the algorithms to protect intellectual property of creators’ distributors or simply owners of such data. Digital image watermarking is a valid solution in such a scenario. Digital image watermarking has become essential and potent tool for copyright protection and authentication. It is worth to be noted that most of the existing image watermarking algorithms are performed only in the single domain (Spatial domain or Frequency domain), and not integrating the advantages of different domains. By adapting the computing principle and spreading property of the direct current (DC) co-efficient, a blind watermarking algorithm for gray scale images is presented. The host image is divided into 8x8 blocks and only DC (zero-frequency) coefficient of each block is computed in spatial domain instead of computing the DCT of that block and a watermark bit is embedded into that block by modifying this DC coefficient in pixel domain. For embedding watermark, the amount of change that needs to be brought in pixels of the blocks is calculated by using DC coefficient of respective blocks, nature of watermark bit (0 or 1) to be embedded and the modification factor. For watermark extraction, only the watermarked image and the modification factor are needed in the spatial domain. Experimental results show that the proposed methods can resist both traditional signal processing attacks and geometric attacks and also the proposed extraction algorithm is able to detect the angle of rotation blindly in case where image is rotated by adversary so that the watermark could not be extracted and hence one fails to prove copyright ownership. The simulation results have been compared with certain existing state of art algorithms. The comparison results show that the proposed technique performs better. Further, the proposed technique is computationally efficient because we compute a single DC coefficient instead of DCT of whole block that is for computation of DCT of an b×b pixel block, it requires b×b computation cycles; where a computation cycle means the calculations required to compute a single DCT coefficient of that block and for computation of DC coefficient, it requires a single computation cycle. Each computation cycle comprises of 3(b×b )-1 real additions, 8(b×b)+1 real multiplications and 2(b×b) real divisions. The proposed technique would require lesser hardware for implementation compared to those using DCT.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: DC Coefficient; DCT; Copyright Protection; Spatial Domain; Frequency Domain; Geometric Attacks.

University of Kashmir

61

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Comparative Characteristic Analysis and Study of QCA Inverters Zubair Ahmad Bangi£, G. Mohiudin Bhat Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596434488.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-035

Abstract Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a new knowledge for growth of logic circuits based on nanotechnology and is one of the choices for designing high performance structures over existing CMOS technology. QCA technology is based on charge confinement and has higher clock speed up to tetra hertz range, lesser area then CMOS. The basic logic in QCA does not utilize voltage level for logic representation, though it represents the binary state by polarization of electrons on the Quantum Cell which is its fundamental building block. This technology has a large potential to provide high space density, ultra-low power dissipation that enables us to build up QCA circuits with faster speed, smaller size and high performance for integration and computation. The basic logic elements of QCA are the Inverter (INV) and the Majority Voter (MV). An Inverter in QCA converts binary digits or signals into its complement. This paper presents the fundamentals of QCA technology and various inverter designs that are available in the literature. This paper also presents a comparison on the basis of all previously reported inverter designs in accordance with the cell count, polarization, occupied area and fault tolerance. Further, a conclusion has been drawn on various inverter based designs.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Quantum-dot Cellular Automata; Inverter; Polarization; Complexity; Occupied Area; Fault Tolerance.

62

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Study of Universal Gates in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Syed Umira Riyaz£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 434477.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-036

Abstract To achieve a steadfast design with low power consumption is the necessity and demand of time for the swift growth of very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a promising technology for the expansion of logic circuits based on nanotechnology and is considered as one of the possible alternatives for designing high performance computing over prevailing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The basic logic in quantum cellular automata does not use voltage levels and instead it represents the binary state by polarization of electrons in the Quantum Cell which is the basic building block of this technology. Quantum Cellular Automata has a large potential to provide high space density, ultra-low power dissipation that enables us to develop the circuits with fastest speed, smaller size & high performance for integration and computation. Quantum Cellular Automata architectures have been designed by using either the combination of inverter and majority gate or the universal gates such as And-Or-Inverter (AOI), Nand-Nor-Inverter (NNI), AIN and FNZ Gate. This paper presents the fundamentals and a detailed comparison among the universal gates already designed in quantum cellular automata in order to verify the functionality and reliable performance by using QCA Designer tool.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Quantum-dot Cellular Automata; Inverter; Polarization; Complexity; Estimated Area.

University of Kashmir

63

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Security Comparison of Android and IOS Muneer Ahmad Dar£, Syed Nisar Hussain Bukhari National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 547699.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-037

Abstract With the widespread use of Smartphone’s, the manufacturers of these Smartphone s are competing to outgun each other for Smartphone storage, processor used, platform compatibility and camera strength but it’s mainly the software - the Smartphone Operating System - that makes the biggest difference to the popularity and market share of Smartphone. Two leading Smartphone operating systems Android and IOS are competing with each other in terms of quality of service, user friendliness, price etc. but the major concern for the millions of users of these operating systems is the security of their confidential data that they carry in their smart phones. In this paper we carry out a detailed security comparison of these two platforms with the intension to find the pros and cons of one operating system on other and we tried to find out which operating systems have an edge on the other. We propose broad enhancements aimed at making them more user-friendly and secure.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Smartphone; Storage; Processor; Android; IOS.

64

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Cyber Law & Crimes: An Understanding through IT ACT 2000 Heeba Din£, Sahar Gul Department of Law, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797102728.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-038

Abstract The technological revolution has changed the face of human communication and interaction. The internet along with the digitization of economies in particular has immense contribution towards the growth of humans and with time our increased dependence on the medium for every day to day activity has made it become an indispensable part of the world civilization. This increased dependence of individuals and organizations on cyberspace has another aspect to it beyond development and communication- that of Cyber Crimes. Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) define Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)" From cyber terrorism, identity thefts, Phishing scams, harassment, cyber bullying, cyber stalking, Internet troll and hate crimes; the scope and outreach of cyberspace unfortunately also extends to cybercrimes as well. The widespread of the cybercrimes phenomenon encompasses multiple global levels of legislation and oversight. The footprints of cybercrimes are getting bigger as we speak as such the need to understand the legal perspective of the ever growing domain of technology and crimes becomes ever so pertinent. In India the abuse of Internet has extended the scope of new age crimes that are addressed through information and technology Act 2000. Every activity of ours on cyberspace has a cyber legal perspective and the objective of this paper is to explain the intricacies and nuances of the cyber-crime via Information and Technology Act 2000. The paper will use the methodology of case study, wherein a number of cybercrime related cases will be scrutinized visà-vis the legal perspective to see whether the legal provisions are enough to deal with the menace of cyber-crimes. A special focus will also be given towards the raging debate of “Freedom of speech v/s Internet regulation”.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cyber Crimes; Information and Technology Act 2000; Cyber Bullying; IT Act India.

University of Kashmir

65

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Review of Various MOSFET Fabrication Techniques Arashid Ahmad£, Haider Mehraj Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri, J&K, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086779816.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-039

Abstract In this paper a brief review of various fabrications techniques adapted for MOSFETs is provided. The MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect) due to their reduced dimensions, faster response/switching times, and reduced cost have been used in number of applications in fields not limited to Digital Design, Analog Design, Mixed signal Design, Microprocessors, Power electronics etc. MOSFETs due to their unique quality of sustaining larger scalability have been deployed in limitless application areas demanding miniaturization. The reason for such numerous and unique properties have been to large extent the state of art fabrication methods that have been developed and standardized exclusively in case of MOSFETs. Thus in this paper emphasis has been laid to explain the very basic and fundamental MOS fabrication processes like Wafer processing, N-Well/P-Well techniques, Twin Tub Techniques, CVD, and Photolithography and also study the various performance bottlenecks in them. This papers also highlights the various design bottlenecks faced by all these fabrication techniques and the various trade-offs made therein. In addition to above the concept of masking and designing the mask in case of MOS Fabrication is also explained here.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: MOS Fabrication;, CMOS Devices; CVD; Photolithography.

66

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Review and Analysis of Injection Attacks in Distributed Applications based on Service Oriented Architecture Syed Nisar Hussain Bukhari£, Muneer Ahmad Dar National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9697 881024.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-040

Abstract Service-Oriented Architecture is an application architecture in which all functions, or services, are defined using a description language and have invokable interfaces that are called to perform business processes. Each interaction is independent of each and every other interaction and the interconnect protocols of the communicating devices (i.e., the infrastructure components that determine the communication system do not affect the interfaces). SOA is used by enterprises to efficiently and cost-effectively integrate heterogeneous systems. However, SOA is affected by several security vulnerabilities, thus affecting the speed of its deployment in organizations. Studies on literature regarding current attacks suggests that with the proliferation of Web API and RESTFul services, the attack vectors prioritized by OWASP top 10, SQL injection, remains a dominant attack. In this paper, we review and analyse SQL Injection attacks pertaining to distributed applications based on service oriented architecture. Based on the result of this study, some preventive measures were established that need to be understood and implemented so that SQL injection can be minimized in the future.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: SOA; Service Oriented Architecture; Web Services; WCF; Vulnerability; Web Attack.

University of Kashmir

67

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Mitigation Techniques against Economic Denial of Sustainability on Cloud Computing Architecture Ashaq Hussain Dar£, Beenish Habib National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 008345.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-041

Abstract Cloud Computing (CC) is an emerging computing paradigm that provides large amount of computing and storage to the Clients on pay per use pricing model. Cloud Computing has attracted several enterprises due to various benefit that it offers in the form of greater resiliency, fast deployment, low cost and on demand security control. The cloud computing architecture has now paved a way from previous server cluster architecture to cloud based architecture. The cloud provides the services as per demand may that be software, platform or infrastructure as service. The major issue identified in the cloud computing is security attribute. Majority of security challenges are inherited from prior noncloud architecture. Like DDoS which affected the servers before continues to affect the cloud and has been creating a lot of loss of resources. A new form of attack called EDoS (Economic denial of sustainability) has emerged now and while DDoS disrupts a system by sending huge amount of traffic, EDoS increases the subscription charges by making the user pay a hefty amount for services. The cloud being elastic cannot be affected by DDoS as such as it is affected by EDoS. The security of cloud is a concern now and since the services are available on internet, this makes it more vulnerable for the attackers. The paper focuses on these security concerns and reviews the mitigation techniques to be employed for the attacks as such.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: SOA; EDos; Economic Denial of Sustainibility; Cloud Computing; Security; Mitigation Techniques.

68

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Robust Watermarking Scheme with two Layer Security and Adaptive Strength Nasir Nabi Hurrah£, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, Jahangir A. Akhoon Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 946887.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-042

Abstract The growth of high speed computer networks has explored means of new business, scientific, entertainment and opportunities. But there are enormous chances of duplicating and distribution of digital information which has led to the need for effective protection tools. In such a scenario a lot of techniques ranging from encryption, appending digital signatures and biometrics are being used to take care of issues like data security, content authentication and intellectual property rights. However, Digital watermarking has emerged as one of the prominent technologies being used to take care of mentioned issues. The watermark is a sequence of recognizable sequence of bits, a copyright mark or can be an image. To secure those binary bits, many encoding and encryption techniques can be used. Many techniques in spatial domain as well as in frequency domain using DCT, DWT and DFT exist. In this paper, for robustness, embedding is done in the frequency domain so that the watermark could be scattered in a range of frequencies which are not noticeable by the human visual system. The discrete cosine transform (DCT) technique is used because it has advantage of being more robust against attacks particularly JPEG compression. The DCT with block size of 8×8 is performed on image. For embedding watermark nine middle frequencies are randomly selected in order to bear high and low pass filtering attacks. This is due to the reason that low frequencies are more immune to common signal processing attacks and higher ones are less. So more embedding strength is selected adaptively for high frequency coefficients and lesser in lower ones. In order to increase the security further encryption techniques such as Arnold and Chaos encryption are used in the scheme to obtain multilevel security. The sensitivity against several types of attacks like sharpening, low pass filtering, median filtering, salt and pepper noise, Gaussian noise, jpeg compression etc. were investigated on watermarked image. The simulation results concluded that the proposed technique performs up to the mark.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: DWT; DCT; JPEG; Arnold Transform; Chaos Encryption.

University of Kashmir

69

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Supervised Algorithms of Machine Learning Taseem Nazir £, Khalil Ahmed, Arshid Ahmed, Haider Mehraj Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri, J&K, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086 541808.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-043

Abstract Now a days Cancer is one of the dangerous problem in the society particularly in northern India. In Jammu and Kashmir, Breast Cancer is second most cancer in women. Since the breast cancer, takes a long time to cure which sometimes leads to the loss of patient’s life. Thus, early prediction of breast cancer is very important. This paper focuses on the breast cancer prediction using various supervised Machine-learning algorithms (SVM is a mathematical entity, an algorithm or recipe for maximizing a particular mathematical function with respect to a given collection of data). The main aim is to detect the tumors weather they are benign or malignant from the mammogram images by using Gaussian filter for the filtration of these images based on standard deviation and matrix dimensions of the image. Then resulting image undergoes contrast stretching. Top hat operation is used to eliminate the back ground of the image. The top hat output is decomposed and reconstructed with Discrete Wavelet Transform. The threshold method is used for segmentation and the image is reconstructed from the tumor area. This method is used as the first step of grey level information of image enhancement. For each tumor extraction from the previous step, morphological features can be used to extract and categorize the tumors and finally Support vector classifiers are used.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: SVM; Gaussian Filter; Top Hat Operation; Discrete Wavelet; Morphological.

70

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: A Study Farooq Aadil£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 083352.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-044

Abstract Internet of things is an embedded network which consists of electronic devices, things and their interaction to communicate each other. The thing may be people, location of object and time information of object. IoT connects billions and trillions of devices to communicate virtual and the physical world. The potential of the IoT improves the economic and the social challenges in the near future. According to the Gartner Group, in 2015 the number of devices to be connected in the world is about 25 billion and this value will double in every five years. These devices will require unlicensed Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum allocated by federal communication commission (FCC) for communication. The IoT finds its application in wireless communication, home automation and control, WSN, environmental control and monitoring, agriculture, cloud computing, traffic control, etc. wireless sensor networks (WSN) plays key role in various applications like health care, industrial and production monitoring, control networks many other fields. In wireless sensor network, the sensor nodes are used to ensure data confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication depending upon the application sensitivity. In this paper, Internet of Things (IoT) and its application in WSN’s is studied in detail.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Wireless Sensor Network.

University of Kashmir

71

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Comparative Review of Gait Biometric Identification Techniques Haider Mehraj£, Taseem Nazir, Arashid Ahmed Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri, J&K, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086 411216.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-045

Abstract Gait Biometric is used to acquire information such as identity, gender, ethnicity and age from walking patterns. In the walking process, the humans tend to show regular periodic motion and specifically in upper and lower limbs, which reflects the individual’s unique moving pattern. Compared to other biometrics, gait is non obtrusive and acquired from a distance and is difficult to hide. In monitoring situations, people are at a distance from cameras, which makes most of biometric features non usable. Most of existing systems use face for identification and the shortcomings are obvious, for example, unexpected view angle and occlusion as a result of which full faces cannot be photographed, distance brings about low-resolution face image. Therefore, face cannot always achieve acceptable results in practical. In contrast, gait is a behavioral biometric, including not only individual appearance, such as height, leg length, shoulder width but also the dynamics of individual walking. Compared with other biometrics, gait is remote accessed and difficult to imitate or camouflage. Moreover, the capturing process does not require cooperation, contact with special equipment, or high image resolution. However, the identification process is hindered by various factors such as change in footwear, injury and with ageing. In this paper we give the general review of gait identification techniques and their advantages and limitations is presented along with a generic comparison of gait biometric techniques with other biometric techniques is provided.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Biometric; Gait; Face Recognition; Motion.

72

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Distributed Watermarking Scheme for Copyright Protection of Color Images Kaiser J. Giri£ Department of Computer Science, Islamic University of Science & Technology, Awantipora, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 167696.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-046

Abstract The ability to combining, replicate, and distribute the multimedia data such as images, audio & video faster and easier has no doubt revolutionized the world. However, the main reason that refrains the information proprietors to share their digital property is its unauthorized use and mal-distribution by online pirates. It is therefore imperative to come up with standard means to protect the Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) of the digital content there by developing the effective techniques to discourage the illegitimate distribution of information content. Digital Watermarking, which is believed to be the potential means among the various possible approaches, to encourage the content providers to secure their digital property while maintaining its availability, has been entreated as a tool to protect the Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) of multimedia contents. This paper presents a novel watermarking scheme for color images, in which discrete wavelet transformation is used as a tool to analyze the image data by decomposing the image into various coefficients. In order to improve the efficiency and reliability of the watermarking scheme in terms of robustness and transparency properties, the watermark coefficients are scaled down in terms of their magnitude before being embedded into the host image and are afterwards embedded in a distributed manner across the host image in such an manner so that the host image can withstand against most of the image processing attacks while maintaining its visual quality.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Watermarking; Intellectual Property Rights; Robustness; Copyrights, ,Discrete Wavelet Transformation; Robustness.

University of Kashmir

73

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

SPAM vs. Right to Privacy: Legal Perspective Syed Asima Refayi£, Taseem Nazir, Arashid Ahmed Department of Law, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 266789.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-047

Abstract In the last years of the 20th century, a phenomenon has been witnessed which is likely to change the shape of human civilization. This is the explosion that has taken place through electronic media as a result of which there has been infinite expansion of knowledge and information. The most outstanding development in this area has been the geometric expansion of trade, commerce, entertainment and information jointly known as the Internet or the Web. This Web accepts no restrictions of the country, race, and religion and has been a decisive factor in taking the world into what is now known as globalization. It is generally believed that a website is created every minute and along with its positive aspect. It also brings about a new sense of responsibility. The right to privacy manifests in the form of various rights contemplated in the Constitution which include the principles of inviolability of one’s domicile and communications. However, for the purposes of the discussion of the legal aspects of SPAM, perhaps the most relevant provisions on privacy are those generally contemplated in the American Convention on Human Rights to which Panama is a party. Pursuant to such Convention, no one may be subject to arbitrary or abusive interference in one’s life, or in one’s family life, in one’s domicile, in one’s mail, nor to illegal attacks to one’s honor or reputation. The Convention also indicates that all persons have the right to the protection of the Law against such interference or attacks. Spam is viewed by many as an intrusion to a person’s privacy because, among other things, unsolicited commercial e-mail takes away a person’s right to decide if he/she wishes to receive commercial advertising via e-mail at all. Various advertisements in the form of SPAM available through websites and mobile phones have given birth to new legal issues. This paper analyses key issues related to SPAM and Right to Privacy. Also an attempt is made to explore legal framework.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Privacy; Electronic Media, Geometric Expansions; Spam; Unsolicited Commercial Emails.

74

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Current Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing: A Study Saima Mehraj£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 847945.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-048

Abstract Cloud computing permits on-demand delivery of software and infrastructure from the shared pool of configurable resources over the Internet. Cloud computing provides a convenient network access to the computing resources with greater efficiency and minimal management overheads. The main objective of cloud computing is to offer infrastructure, platform and software “as a service”, that helps to reduce infrastructural and maintenance costs. However, moving data to the Cloud poses several privacy concerns and security issues because the cloud service provider can access the data at any time if adequate security and privacy controls are not implemented. It can accidentally or deliberately alter or delete data that is stored on the cloud. The most important threats to the data stored on cloud include a) insecure interfaces and API’s, b) data loss and leakage, and c) hardware failures. Since a large cloud server can provide infrastructure and software services to multiple organizations, therefore, a single successful hacking attack such as Drop Box Security breach and iCloud 2014 leak may put huge repository stored on the cloud to security and privacy risks. This paper discusses various confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and privacy issues of cloud computing. It also discusses various attacks such as man-in-the-middle attack, phishing, eavesdropping, sniffing, DDoS and various other attacks applicable to cloud computing.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cloud Computing; On-Demand Delivery; Software as a Service; Privacy Issues, Drop Box Security Breach; iCloud 2014 leak.

University of Kashmir

75

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

On the Realization of a High Capacity Data Hiding Technique for Color Images using Edge Detection Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon£, Shabir A. Parah, Javaid A. Sheikh, Nazir Ahmed Loan, Nasir Nabi Huurah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 680858.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-049

Abstract The growing possibilities of modern communications need the special means of security especially on computer networks. The network security is becoming more important as the data being exchanged on the Internet is increasing exponentially. Though cryptography is the one of the methods which is used to secure the data during transit, but the camouflaged appearance of the scrambled data alerts the adversary about some critical information being shared. In such a scenario, image steganography has been used as an alternate solution to secure the secret information. In this paper an image steganography method is proposed which is based on edge detection process. The color image is partitioned into Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) planes. Hybrid edge method is used find the edge and non-edge pixels of G and B planes cover image. The G and B planes are used for hiding the data while R plane holds status of these planes. The RC4 encryption algorithm is used to encrypt secret message before embedding it in the cover image which makes the proposed more secure. Experimental investigations reveal that the proposed scheme is capable of providing high quality of Stego-images for a fairly high pay load. The comparison results substantiate the above arguments.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Canny Edge Detection; Prewitt Edge Detection; Pixel Value Differencing; PVD; Ciphering..

76

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

An Analysis of Information Security Technologies and Current Trends Salma Farooq£, Hilal Ahmad Khanday Department of Computer Sciences, Islamic University of Science and Technology, Kashmir, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 901934.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-050

Abstract Information Security (InfoSec) may be defined as the protection of information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide confidentiality, integrity, and availability. The CIA triad (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability) is at the heart of information security. Information Security research includes many approaches to deal with protecting and mitigating threats to the information assets and technical resources available within computer-based systems. The ensuing paper presents the basic information about the various Information Security Technologies like Access Control Management, Antivirus, Audit Data Reduction, Firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems, Intrusion Prevention Systems, Anomaly Detection Systems, Password Cracking, etc. The recent approach of Steganography in data hiding cannot be ignored. The Image Steganography hides data in the form of pictures, so that nobody can even think about attacking the data. So, in our paper, we intend to present the various new trends like Steganography, Digital Watermarking, etc as well. The paper will also present the current Information Security Trends and various Laws and Regulations governing the InfoSec but primarily focuses on analyzing each InfoSec Technology within the modern information security and business context, looking at how it meets business needs while addressing Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability as a countermeasure that detects, corrects and/or protects the information.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: InfoSec; CIA; Steganography; Firewalls; Antivirus.

University of Kashmir

77

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Study of Various Methods for Image Forgery Detection Tawheed Jan Shah£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 997886.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-051

Abstract In the modern world, images are considered to be one of the most powerful and accepted communication media because of their accuracy and easy way to understand the image content. Millions of images are uploaded daily on the web and were undoubtedly accepted as legal evidences and historical records in varied fields such as journalism, forensic investigations, military intelligence, scientific research and publications, crime detection and legal proceedings, investigation of insurance claims, medical imaging, etc. But, with the advent of powerful computers, sophisticated and low cost image-editing tools such as Photoshop, Corel Paint Shop, PhotoScape, Photo Plus, Xn View, ProShow Gold, GIMP, etc., it has now become very easy even for non-specialists to create a believable forged image without leaving any visible sign of such forgery. Consequently, images have almost lost their reliability and place as proof of legal evidences. Therefore, detection of image forgery has become inevitable. In order to establish the authenticity of digital images, digital image forensics has become a very important and highly active research area. This paper presents a brief history of image forgery and a review of various image forgery detection techniques including image copy-move forgery, splicing, forgery due to resampling, and the newly introduced class of algorithms namely image retouching.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Image Forensics; Forged Image; Copy-Move Forgery; Forgery Detection Methods; Image Retouching.

78

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

E-healthcare System: A Pillar of Digital India Farhana Ahad£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 453715.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-052

Abstract The Indian government has initiated a program, Digital India. The main aim of this program is to transform India into digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. Digital India wants to synchronize state government and central government by delivering good e-governance plan, coordinated by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY). It covers most of the fields and has been divided into nine pillars. For the proposed work, pillar five, e-Kranti-Electronic Delivery of Services, as Technology for Health, e-healthcare is of greater importance. The highlights of this pillar are online medical consultation, online medical records, online medicine supply and Pan-India exchange for patient information. For the purpose of Integrated Health Information System in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has proposed National e-Health Authority (NeHA) on 16th March 2015. The proposed time for completion of this project is 3 years. The privacy and security issues of Patient’s Health Information and Records have to be NeHA’s prime concern. India lags in WHO recommended figures in terms of doctor to patient ratio: Per 10,000 populations there are recorded 7 doctors and 17.1 Nurses and midwives. In order to incorporate Electronic Health Records (EHR) doctors, Health Institutes, Medical Information Centers, Diagnostic Centers etc. need to regulate their work schedule. In September 2013, Government of India formulated EHR standards which highlighted; developed healthcare provision, tele-diagnosis, efficiency in terms of manpower, time and cost, tele- medicine, tele- radiology, better access to specialized doctors and highly reputed medical institutes etc.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Digital India; e-Healthcare System; Security; Privacy.

University of Kashmir

79

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Prevention of Email Harvesting using Optimized SMTP Protocol Shafiya Afzal Sheikh£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9469 177449.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-053

Abstract In the current era, email SPAM is one of the major security issues as such email can harm the email users in different ways. For this reason, a number of tools and techniques are being used to detect and prevent Email SPAM. To reach more and more users, spammers use many tools and techniques including bots to collect email addresses from all possible sources for the purpose of spamming. The process of obtaining email addresses from different sources is called email harvesting. One of the email harvesting techniques is to extract email addresses from the “To” header field of emails. A behavioral study of Email users has revealed that users very often, for various reasons, send or forward emails that to a number of recipients or even to their entire address book. They share emails that they find useful and interesting or forward emails they are forced to forward to multiple recipients like chain emails and hoaxes. This process leads to adding a large number of email addresses in the “To” header field of the emails, making them good candidates for email harvesting. This paper discusses optimization to the SMTP protocol so that the additional email addresses are removed from the email before sending it to the recipient SMTP server. The sending SMTP server requests to open a connection with the recipient SMTP server. The recipient SMTP server accepts the connection with a welcome message and asks the sending SMTP server for the To, CC, BCC, Subject and Message body of the email. The Sending server provides the details it has received from the email client and modifies the “To” header field before passing it on to the receiving SMTP server. It does not provide the list of all email addresses in the “To” header field. Instead, for each email copy it provides only the recipient's email address in the “To” header field. Thus the recipient server does not receive the rest of the email addresses and each recipient of the bulk email receives a copy of the email with only his/her email address in the header field which restricts spammer or bots from obtaining rest of the email addresses. This papers shall discuss an optimized SMTP protocol that can be used to prevent e-mail address harvesting thereby, reducing SPAM.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Email; SPAM; Bots; Email Harvesting; SMTP; Chain Emails; Hoaxes.

80

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Improvements and Challenges in Healthcare Applications with Internet of Things Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 900421.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-054

Abstract The term Internet of Things (IoT) describes embedded devices with internet connectivity, which enables them to interact and share information and resources at global scale. IoT is the combination of low power, low cost, sensors, processors, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and wireless connectivity which revolutionized this technology. The IoT has evolved a platform where these devices can be controlled and monitored through Internet. The resultant of Internet of Things is that world is expected alive by sharing information through devices without human intervention. This technology will also improve challenges of human lives in terms of economic as well as social in the near future. The application areas include smart homes, smart cities, Industrial automation, smart manufacturing, smart environment etc. The most important application of IoT is in the field of healthcare sector. IoT wireless sensor networks technology will improve the quality of healthcare applications. Wearable and implantable wireless sensors devices monitor’s patients continuously without human intervention and provides cross-disciplinary concept of ambient intelligence that can minimize the challenges that we face in the current scenario. This paper explains the main challenges in healthcare includes increasing population of elders, diseases caused by environmental changes and diseases requires continuous monitoring like diabetes, thyroid, high blood pressure etc. that can be controlled by the state of the art IoT healthcare devices with reduced cost and non-involvement of human being. Also the challenges of IoT healthcare application will be explained.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IoT; Internet of Things; IoT; Wireless Sensor Networks; WSN; Healthcare Monitoring.

University of Kashmir

81

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Ultra-Low Power Analog-to-Digital Converters: A Step Towards Batteryless Implants Suhaib Ahmed£, Vipan Kakkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 90 18807158.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-055

Abstract Since the digital signal processor has developed rapidly due to integrated circuit technology over the past 20 years, engineers have turned to digital signal processing as a more advanced and convenient method. Medical implant devices, such as pacemakers, deep brain stimulators and implantable cardiac defibrillators, require advanced signal acquisition and processing systems to monitor and evaluate the health of a patient. As the industry of the medical implantable devices develops, lowering the power consumption as much as possible is essential in improving the service time of the battery, which cannot be replaced frequently. Hence low power design has become the main concern for batterypowered implants. Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is the critical block of the sensing unit of the implant and for measurements of various electrophysiological signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electromyogram (EMG), and Axon Action Potential (AAP) that cover distinct portions of the spectrum and signal bandwidths. ADC consumes about 30% to 35% of the total power of the device which is very high. The data being processed by the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) depends directly on the performance of the ADC. Hence, for biomedical implants which require low power consumption and low complexity to reduce the size and cost of the devices, there is a need to design an energy-efficient ADC for these systems and conform to these restraints. So, a highly efficient and ultra-low power consuming ADC can be the first step towards battery less biomedical implants.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: A/D Converter; Batteryless; Biomedical; Implant; Ultra Low Power.

82

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Ubiquitous Computing: A Vision of an Automated 21st Century Suhaib Ahmed£, Saima Bashir, Vipan Kakkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9018 807158.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-057

Abstract Today, the Internet connects almost all of the world’s computers. From a technological point of view, one could describe “ubiquitous computing” as the prospect of connecting the remaining things in the world to the Internet, in order to provide information “on anything, anytime, anywhere.” Putting it in another way, the term “ubiquitous computing” signifies the omnipresence of tiny, wirelessly interconnected computers that are embedded almost invisibly into just about any kind of everyday object. Using small sensors, such embedded processors can detect their surroundings and equip “their” object with both information processing and communication capabilities. This adds another, completely new dimension to such objects – they could, for example, find out where they were, what other objects were in their vicinity, and what had happened to them in the past. They could also communicate and cooperate with other “smart” objects and, theoretically, access all sorts of Internet resources. Objects and appliances could thus react and operate in a context-sensitive manner and appear to be “smart,” without actually being “intelligent.” Due to the continuing advances in the fields of computer science, microelectronics, communication technology, and material science, this vision of a comprehensive computerization and interconnection of everyday objects could become a reality in the nottoo-distant future. Since ubiquitous computing could trigger a completely new set of applications where, for example, cooperating objects created new emergent functionalities, this vision could in time also be successful from a business point of view. This would certainly have enormous economic and social implications. It would also raise issues relating to technology acceptance and the creation of a world in which reality gets closely coupled to and in some respects even merges with our information-based cyberspace. Any technology when practically implemented faces various real-time challenges and so is the case with ubiquitous computing. Scalability, Heterogeneity, Invisibility, Context-Awareness, Localization, etc. are some of the real-time issues faced by ubiquitous computing. A brief study on some academic projects along with the emergence of ubiquitous computing in India is also presented.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Context Awareness; Embedded System; Ubiquitous Computing; Internet of Things; Omnipresent.

University of Kashmir

83

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Braingate: A Thought into Action Turning Technology Saima Bashir £, Suhaib Ahmed, Vipan Kakkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 903185.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-058

Abstract Man Machine Interface has been one of the growing field of research and development in recent years due to the advances in Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain Imaging technologies that have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. Most of the effort has been dedicated to the design of user-friendly or ergonomic systems by means of innovative interfaces such as voice recognition, virtual reality. A direct brain-computer interface would add a new dimension to man-machine interaction. One such technology is BrainGate. BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by Cyberkinetics TM in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University, U.S. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The BrainGate technology platform is designed to take advantage of the fact that many patients with motor impairment have an intact brain that can produce movement commands. This may allow the BrainGate system to create an output signal directly from the brain, bypassing the route through the nerves to the muscles that cannot be used in paralyzed people. This paper shall discuss technological innovation behind BrainGate and present various remarkable achievements in this field.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: BrainGate; Brain Computer Interface; Neuroscience; Motor Impairment; Man Machine Interface.

84

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Signature Recognition and Verification using Artificial Intelligence Technique Syed Masaid Zaman£a, Qamar Parvez Ranab Shrivenkateshwara University Gajraula, Amroha,U.P, India. Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 288294.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-059

Abstract In today's modern world security is a critical issue. An important factor of security is authentication which is based on identity of individuals and accordingly the individual is approved to carry out certain operations. There are numerous methods for authentication, and signature is one of them. Since decades, signature is considered as a method for authentication and seal of endorsement. An essential point of preference of the signature check compared to others is its long custom of usage in numerous business fields, for example, e-business, which includes online banking transaction, electronic installments, electronic payments, access control and much more. In financial transactions for monetary exchange of money, the signature is utilized to check the identity of the person. Today signature check is done physically in banks wherein handwritten signature is compared to specimen signature manually. But in all cases, this strategy is most certainly not exact as naked eye can't recognize falsifications. This paper describes a computerized signature verification technique that can be used in banking application. Check of signatures should be possible online or disconnected from the net depending upon the application. Where the signature is captures and exhibited to the client in a picture format. Signatures are confirmed in light of parameters extricated from the signature utilizing different techniques. The signature elements, to be tried, are encouraged to the prepared neural system to find whether the signature is certifiable or a forged one.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Picture Preprocessing; Feature Extraction; Neural Network Training and Testing; Signature Verification and Recognition.

University of Kashmir

85

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Matter and Anti-Matter Symmetrization on Large Scale Structure of the Universe Mohd Altaf Sofia£, Riyaz Ahmad Bhata, Naseer Iqbal Bhatb Department of Physics, Govt. S.P College, Srinagar, India. Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

a a

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 076589.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-060

Abstract Matter and anti-matter is considered to undergo symmetrization as a grand canonical ensemble separately with a definite range for cluster interaction parameter. A plot of interaction parameter is drawn which provides an important clue regarding the grand symmetrization on both sides of the baryogenesis wall. The study takes into account the overall inclusiveness of the universe and suggests that the total content of galaxies and anti-galaxies always stays the same. In the observable universe the physical theories have been developed to explain how matter dominated over antimatter on account of the magnitude of asymmetry parameter which relates the overall number density difference between baryons and anti-baryons respectively and the number density of cosmic background radiation photons. It is theorized here that total content of matter and anti-matter always remains constant. Our study shows that the symmetrization introduces the parallel but anti physical universe separated through a phenomenological wall making it mandatory for the universe to have undergone a massive expansion and hence reducing the density for the cluster formation considerably. In our mathematical calculations we have arrived at a fixed range for the cluster interaction parameter which agrees well with the less dense cluster formation scheme for the normal universe. The overall structure of the universe on two sides of the baryogenesis wall is assumed to be based on the total matter and anti-matter content as a whole. It is therefore imperative to take into account matter/anti-matter distribution as a function of particle / antiparticle collection in the form of galaxy/anti-galaxy clusters. The number of baryons and anti-baryons must then add up to zero.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Galaxies; Anti-galaxies; Symmetrisation; Interaction Parameter; Paryogenesis Wall.

86

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Is Privacy Casualty of Social Networks? What Stays on Facebook, doesn’t Stay on Facebook? Aadil Masood Wani£, Aaliya Ahmed, Malik Zahra Khalid Media Education Research Centre, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 109925.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-061

Abstract Self-expression “assertion of one’s individual traits” (Webster) is an indicator of individual freedom. To express one’s selfhood, an individual needs forum, a medium. And in contemporary times this very forum is being provided by the social networks. This is one of the reasons that over a decade not only have social networks evolved but there has been humungous growth at the same time. Blogs, comments, tweets, selfies are all about self-presentation. This regular selfpresentation by users on different social networks has in turn ensured success and significance of networks. As of December 2015, Facebook had 1.59 billion citizens making it “largest country on earth”. If networks like Facebook have become a country with its citizen in every nook and corner of the globe, the fundamental question is how people in the new country are being governed, what are the set of rules that users follow and more importantly what are the consequences of being a network citizen? According to “Encyclopedia Britannica”, social contract is an “agreement between ruled and their rulers”. But when it comes to users and networks, it is the networks that have defined social contract unilaterally by “making private now public and making public now private”. Thus, challenging the very fundamentals of human privacy. For instance, in the year 2009, Facebook introduced new privacy policy which resulted in people sharing more personal information with strangers. This invasion of privacy was hardly challenged in any court of law. The information users share are real- names, email ID’s and as such it has real ramifications. The business model of social networks is such that it allows access to the personal data of users to the third party. Adrienne Felt while working on Facebook's third-party application programming interface (API) found loopholes which can potentially breach the privacy of users. Also, Facebook allows advertisers to personalize the message based on user’s profile and entries which again show the advertisers have personal information about the user. Facebook’s ad revenues reached $16.29 billion in 2015. The article tries to encompass the privacy issues on social networks and argues the need for a debate at societal level about the principles that should govern the various aspects of online privacy. This becomes even more important because the very nature of social networks keeps changing at a drastic pace which in turn provides challenges to the existing laws on privacy.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Facebook; Privacy; Social Networks; Self-Presentation.

University of Kashmir

87

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Personal Health Record Management System: System Architecture and Design Saurav Gupta£, Sanjay Sood, D.K. Jain Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Mohali, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9463 998448.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-064

Abstract Over the last decade, Indian healthcare sector has witnessed major reforms in the development and deployment of healthcare IT systems, which have greatly improved quality of care and efficiency of the healthcare service delivery. However, most of these healthcare IT systems deployed are heterogeneous and provide restricted access of the electronic health records to the patients. Further, people are becoming increasingly aware about their individual health which has led to the need for Personal Health Records (PHR). This has led to the development of Personal Health Record Management System (PHRMS), a project funded by DeitY and being designed by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Mohali. The PHRMS has been designed after comparing the features of major PHR systems available globally and has been adapted according to the Indian setting. The PHRMS has been designed in compliance to the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Guidelines released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The PHRMS system also makes use of global healthcare standards such as SNOMED CT for various PHR components such as procedures, laboratory tests and allergies, and RxNorms for including medications as part of the PHR. The standard ISO-13606 has been incorporated to enable interoperability with external clinical management systems. For this purpose, the PHRMS system has been integrated with OpenEMR, an open-source medical practice management application, for use by healthcare practitioners. This provision enables the users to port all their clinical information in PHRMS recorded during the medical episodes with healthcare practitioners using OpenEMR. This would lead to the creation and aggregation of clinical and health information of an individual for better disease management, thereby leading to a healthier lifestyle. For the storage of radiographs, prescriptions and other scanned reports, the PHRMS is being integrated with the Digital Locker, a public cloud storage platform provided by the Government of India. Also, the alerts, such as reminders and notifications, are being sent to the users, in the form of SMS, through the Mobile Service Delivery Gateway (MSDG), a service provided by the Government of India. This paper highlights the components of PHR, the design aspects and the system architecture of the Personal Health Record Management System.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Personal Health Records; eHealth; Digital Locker.

88

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

E-Learning Using Cloud Computing in Kashmir Valley Akash Ahmad Bhat£, Q. P. Rana Shrivenkateshwara University Gajraula, Amroha,U.P,India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 023463.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-065

Abstract The rapid growth of cloud computing in the whole world is because of its applications in almost all the fields including education. In Kashmir valley almost all the educational institutions are lagging behind far and far from the rest of the country in the field of information technology (IT). E – Learning systems usually require many hardware and software resources. With the implementation of e-earning tools the mode of teaching is given a proper, effective and easy way out. This may in-turn become a burden for the teacher to carry the same data over and over to the class, the process of implanting the e-learning over cloud may reduce the burden on the teacher and ease the lecture carrying and delivering process. There are almost all educational institutions in Kashmir valley that cannot afford such investments, and cloud computing is the only solution in this modern era with low cost and less infrastructure. This paper focuses on the benefits of cloud computing for E – Learning in Kashmir valley and its need in the valley.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cloud Computing; Information Technology; E-Learning; Kashmir Valley.

University of Kashmir

89

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Nanotechnology in Electronics Javeed Iqbal Reshi£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 340249.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-066

Abstract The semiconductor industry is a major driver of the world economy and has accounted for a large portion of the productivity gains that have characterized the global economy since the 1990s. Recent advances in this area have been fueled by what is known as Moore’s Law scaling, which has successfully predicted the exponential increase in the performance of computing devices for the last 40 years. This gain has been achieved due to ever-increasing miniaturization of semiconductor processing and memory devices (smaller and faster switches and transistors). Continuing trend to shrink the dimensions of electronic devices is important in order to further increase the processor speed, reduce device switching energy, increase system functionality, and reduce manufacturing cost per bit. However, as the dimensions of the devices approach atomic size, quantum tunneling and other quantum effects degrade and ultimately prohibit the operations of conventional devices. Researchers are therefore pursuing more radical approaches to overcome these fundamental limitations. Nanoelectronics holds some promising answers that might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while reducing their weight and power consumption. Among the various recently developed nanoelectronic technologies, Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has emerged as the strong candidate which promises to addresses the entire problem faced in the previous technologies.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Moore’s Law; Miniaturization, Quantum Tunneling; Nanoelectronics; Quantum dot Cellular Automata.

90

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Nanoelectronic Technologies Beyond CMOS M. Rafiq Beigh£, M. Mustafa Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 741766.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-067

Abstract The semiconductor industry has enjoyed a significant growth in design and fabrication of high density, high speed and low cost IC chips by scaling down its basic computing element - the CMOS transistor. However, this scaling cannot continue forever because of unavoidable limitations. Among the chief technological limitations responsible for the expected slow-down of ULSI miniaturization are the interconnect problem and power dissipation. One of the challenges to continued transistor scaling is being noticed even today, namely leakage current through the gate oxide. This leakage current results from quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons from the gate electrode through the oxide and into the transistor channel. As transistors continue to shrink, more and more of the quantum effects will start to overwhelm their operation. Because of the legacy of the transistor, researchers are exploring many different approaches to maintain the functionality of the transistor at even nano-scale. These limitations in slow-down of conventional silicon technology may provide an opportunity for researchers to develop alternative device technologies. The present work deliberates on the technologies that may postpone the scaling limit of CMOS devices and discusses the technologies that may replace CMOS in future.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Nanoelectronics; CMOS; FinFET; Spintronics; Quantum dot Cellular Automata.

University of Kashmir

91

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Log-Domain QRS Detection System Using Pan-Tompkin Algorithm Imran Nazir Beigh£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 730217.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-068

Abstract The QRS complex is one of the most important parameter associated with ECG signal. Its detection is of vital importance as it reveals about the health condition of the patient and therefore can have serious consequences if not exactly detected. A poor detection of QRS may lead to wrong diagnosis and therefore wrong treatment. A QRS detector detects different QRS morphologies which includes the time durations, amplitudes etc. of its different regions/events. Exact QRS detection is difficult, not only because of the physiological variability of the QRS complexes, but also because of the presence of various types of noises. Noise source include muscle noise, artifacts due to electrode motion, powerline interference, baseline wander, and T-wave with high frequency characteristics similar to QRS complexes. In the open literature several methods/algorithms have been reported for the effective detection of QRS complex. Among them the Pan-Tompkin algorithm is one of the recent inclusions which has shown some promising results for the effective detection of QRS complex. Therefore, an electronic implementation of QRS detection system based on PanTompkin algorithm is presented in this work. The said design has been achieved using Log-Domain companding technique. The performance of the design has been verified in HSPICE using TSMC 130nm CMOS process.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Biomedical Electronics; Biomedical Signal Analysis; Electrocardiogram; QRS Detection; Pan-Tompkin Algorithm; Log-Domain Technique.

92

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Delayed Inertial Neuron Model: Theory and Design Nasir Ali Kanth£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 937561.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-069

Abstract In a pursuit of achieving the intelligent designs, the field of neural network has remained the focus of study from the last few decades. After the introduction of the first model by Hodgkin and Huxley, several models have been reported in the open literature designed to mimic the behavior of the natural neuron. Neuron models, like, Izhikevich model, FitzHugh-Nagumo model, Hindmarsh-Rose, Chay model, Morris-Lecar model etc. have been studied and put to use for various applications. Besides, models exhibiting a quasi-active membrane under certain conditions have been reported in the open literature. This behaviour found in hair cell membrane in the semicircular canals of some animals and in squid axon etc. has been modelled by an inductance and therefore, an inertial term has been added to the standard neural equation. In addition, non-negligible time delay between the production of signal from a neuron to its reception at receiving site of a post synaptic neuron has been considered in several simple neuron models in recent years. The inclusion of time delay has a vital impact on the network dynamics, and in case of simple neural network it can result in the amalgamation of chaotic behaviour. In this work, a brief idea about the delayed inertial neuron model is presented. Furthermore, some simulated examples are given to verify the behaviour of delayed inertial neuron.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Neural Network; Neuron Models; Delayed Inertial Neuron; Non-linear Dynamics; Chaos.

University of Kashmir

93

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Fractional Chaotic Dynamics: A Design Perspective Mohammad Rafiq Dar£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797993077.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-071

Abstract Non-integer calculus or fractional calculus research is gaining the pace as it is the natural generalization of the traditional integer order calculus. As a result, due to its feat in explanation of anomalous diffusion, it has been widely accepted as a strong tool for efficient modeling of most of the physical phenomena’s and is employed in various areas of study like in Bio-, Electrical-, Electronic- and Mechanical-engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology etc. Among the mentioned fields of study, the fractional-order nonlinear dynamics (like fractional chaotic dynamics) is of prime concerns to the scientific community as it helps in understanding and designing the problems pertinent to the human life. Chaotic behavior of systems finds various applications in engineering, science and finance like secure message communication, understanding human physiology, financial progresses and predictions. As far as Electronics engineering is concerned, the fractionalization of electronic chaotic systems is showing the promising results in understanding the biophysical behavior of human tissues, lungs, liver etc. and diagnosing the health of the same. Besides such systems found very good applications in secure message communication like cryptography. This work generally addresses the chaos in fractional-order circuits and conditions for circuits to exhibit chaos. Some simulation examples are given to verify the chaos in fractional-order circuits.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Non-linear Dynamics; Fractional Calculus; Fractional-order Circuits; Chaos; Fractional-order Chaotic Circuits.

94

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Face Recognition using SOM Sameer Sidiq Sofia£, Rafi Ahmad Khanb Department of Computer Science, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India. The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797935724.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-072

Abstract Automatic recognition of humans has been a challenging task since a long time and so far no such flexible and robust system has been designed that could provide complete human recognition, access and security to important information and physical property resources. Among the various biometric techniques, facial analysis and recognition techniques have progressed significantly in the last few decades and have been mostly used in identifying individuals. However, the reliability of face recognition methods still requires challenging tasks to be performed by the research community to overcome possible facial appearance variations like illumination, pose, expression, ageing etc, that have been practiced in the real environment due to the performance issues. Among the various Neural Network techniques, SOM (self-organizing maps) has proved as a convenient and better technique to identify individuals in terms of recognition and performance rates. SOM enhances recognition rate by changing a high dimensional facial feature dataset into a low dimensional facial feature dataset, thus preserving only abstract facial features. Moreover, SOM needs low computational requirements and is more cost effective in terms of both processing speed and memory. In this paper, we are discussing framework and algorithmic architecture of SOM for facial recognition systems. The framework presented in this system shows that SOM perform very well on various facial image recognition tasks, such as face alignment, facial feature detection and face recognition and clearly demonstrates that the SOM technique is convenient, efficient and robust approach for facial image recognition.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Biometric System; Face Recognition; Neural Network-SOM.

University of Kashmir

95

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Data Mining for Diagnosing in Healthcare Sector – A Review Umar Sidiq£ Department of Computer Science, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 314250.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-073

Abstract Data mining is a powerful tool and is suitable for fetching previously unknown patterns and useful information from huge dataset relating to human ailments. Data mining plays a major role in predicting and diagnosing various diseases in various health care sectors. It is useful in evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments. It uses a variety of techniques to find hidden patterns and relationships in large pools of data. Healthcare organizations or sectors that use data mining approach show better performance to meet their long-term needs. These data mining applications provide countless possibilities for hidden pattern investigation from underlying Healthcare datasets. These patterns can be used by physicians to determine diagnoses, prognoses and treatments for patients in healthcare organizations and derive useful information from them that can predict future behaviors and guide in decision making. In this paper an overview of data mining approach used in health sector is presented. The various data mining techniques are discussed and analyzed to further improve and increase human disease and ailments diagnoses and prediction. This work will help medical sectors to further compare and contrast various causes, symptoms and treatment methodologies.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Data Mining; Health Care; Pattern Recognition.

96

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Information Security Challenges in Smart Grid Based Advanced Power Systems Muzaffar Ahmad Dar£, Zakir Hussain Rather National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 018551.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-074

Abstract Transformation of traditional power systems to advanced communication and automation empowered smart grid based modernized power infrastructure has received a tremendous attention in the recent years. Most of the countries, including India have set ambitious targets to realize smart grid enabled electricity system, with reasonably a significant number of smart grid projects implemented/being undertaken by various countries. Information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the key component of the smart grid system, and such ICT embedded smart grids are being envisaged to transform the energy transportation system in an efficient and reliable manner, particularly in the context of promising goals of renewable energy integration. A significant population of the world, with around 400 million in India only, either does not have access to the electricity or have access to limited and unreliable electricity. As a promising technology, ICT embedded Smart grid, while leveraging renewable energy sources, is foreseen as a reliable platform to achieve the goal of “Electricity for all” in efficient, secure and reliable manner. However, increased integration of ICT into smart grid based modernized electricity infrastructure, where almost entire operation and control actions are mainly dependent on the information gathered from across the system, is exposing the electricity grid to increased attacks. Therefore, security against increased vulnerability to attacks in such infrastructure is a severe challenge to secure and reliable operation of such modernized power systems, and these challenges have gained considerable importance in recent years. Security for Information in Electric Power Systems stresses the importance of handling information security within an electric utility. In this paper, firstly, the characters of smart grid are analyzed and discussed. Secondly, a hierarchical information and communication model is abstracted. Based on the described model, the information security risks and information security protection demands of smart grid are studied and summarized. Thereafter, information security standard architecture is described to guide the electric power utilities in their smart grid information security efforts. Some of the key issues emerging for implementation of Smart Grid include secure communication, standard protocols, data management and an efficient architecture, which can facilitate secure data exchange.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Power Systems; Smart Grid; Information Security; ICT and Architecture.

University of Kashmir

97

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Non-Conventional Structures and Techniques for Channel Control in Nano Scale MOSFET Aadil Tahir Shora£ National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9018 933389.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-075

Abstract One of the active areas of research and development in Nanotechnology is nanoelectronics. As nanoelectronics is seen successor to microelectronics technology, it is clear from the results to date that it will be many years before nanoelectronics can reach the level of maturity of the present silicon technology. The fundamental building block in modern semiconductor electronics is Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) device. The MOSFET feature size has been continuously scaled down to meet the demand for high performance devices. Several structural modifications had been proposed to maintain the device stability against the asymmetries induced due to miniaturization. In this work, we review the unconventional device structural approaches to circumvent or surmount the barriers to device scaling. Among the non-conventional structures, Silicon-on-nothing (SON) structure offers many advantages for nano-scale MOSFET such as high speed, lower power dissipation, low parasitic capacitance and small SCEs. However, threshold voltage roll-off restricts the further scaling of short channel SON MOSFET. Various multigate architectures have already been reported, which can suitably modify the threshold voltage to potentiate the performance of the device. In a short channel SON MOSFET, where field at any point is a combination of vertical and lateral field, threshold voltage can further be engineered by exploiting continuous lateral and vertical mole fraction variation of multi-metal gate electrode. This technique will cause continuous effective work function variation, which can adjust the overall field through the adjustment of vertical field and can reduce the asymmetry in surface potential profile in a short channel device thereby controlling threshold voltage roll-off by restricting Drain Induced barrierlowering (DiBL) effect.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Nanoelectronics; Silicon-on-nothing; SCEs, Metal Gate; Work Function.

98

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Achievable Maximum Detection Probability of Cognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative MIMO-OFDM Saba Amina, Javaid A. Sheikhb, Mehboob ul Amin£b, Shabir A. Parrahb, G. Mohiudin Bhatb CTIR, India. Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

a b

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596127081.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-077

Abstract Spectrum Scarcity is one of the major hurdles faced by telecom operators, resulting in poor system performance. To overcome this looming spectrum scarcity, a team of 3GPP is examining the incorporation of Cognitive Radio in wireless network systems. Cognitive radio is an exciting emerging technology that deals with the stringent scarcity of the radio spectrum by exploiting the unused spectrum in an opportunistic manner. Therefore, such a revolutionary and transforming technology represents a paradigm shift which can be expected to change the way radio spectrum will be accessed, shared and managed in the future. In this paper, a cooperative framework using a tri-sectored cellular network served by Base station (Primary Transmitter) and two types of users (Primary users and Secondary users) is proposed. Multiple antennas are placed both on Primary users as well as Secondary users to enhance the sensing Probability of the target. The spectrum is sensed for different combination of users and Power Spectral Density graph is plotted for each combination. To evaluate the performance of whole system, Detection Probability of target is calculated for each MIMO configuration and compared with threshold value. The results shown in this paper prove that the use of MIMO antennas increases the “Probability of Detection” and decreases the “Probability of Missed Detection” of the target. Thus, this technique increases the chance to exploit spectrum resources more efficiently, so that spectrum scarcity problem is alleviated.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio; Probability of Detection;, Probability of Missed Detection; Primary User; Secondary User; Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output; MIMO.

University of Kashmir

99

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Cloud Computing and Data Backup: Digital Library Perspective Rosy Jan£, Nadim Akhtar Khan Department of Library and Information Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar,India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 598819.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-079

Abstract Cloud computing is today’s one of the most enticing technology areas due to its cost-efficiency and flexibility among various other benefits. Despite various threats like Data Theft, Privacy issues and Infected Applications it has emerged as one of the most popular virtual technology adopted by diverse fields. Libraries have also adopted the paradigm. The new concept of cloud and libraries has generated a new model called cloud libraries. Though the usage of cloud computing may vary with the libraries nature, services and information needs but most common usage of cloud computing within libraries can be development of digital libraries, corporate cataloguing, acquisition, storage and sharing of resources. Since data storage and distribution is one of the main functions of modern libraries, particularly those with digital collections. Storing such large digital files can stress local server infrastructures. The files need to be backed up, maintained, and reproduced for patrons. This can strain the data integrity as well as hog bandwidth. Moving data to the cloud may be a leap of faith for library professionals. The paper as such attempts to define the concept in relation to its applications in libraries. It further looks into the Cloud-Based services especially data Backup pros, cons particularly common security issues and current solutions which partly target the security challenges posed by the cloud.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Digital Libraries; Data Theft; Cloud Computing; Cloud Storage.

100

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Smart Apps for Libraries Nadim Akhtar Khan£, Rosy Jan Department of Library and Information Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar,India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 598819.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-080

Abstract Technologies are witnessing dramatic changes in present times and mobile technology is no exception to this scenario as it is highly influenced by such changes. The developments in mobile technology can be ascertained by the availability of thousands of smart phone apps concerning everyday comfort of modern tech savvy users. Mobile computing is transforming how people search, receive and interact with information on a daily basis. These advanced mobile tools provide portable, instantaneous access to the world of information, across boundaries of subject, discipline and industry. Libraries are fast moving towards adapting increased demand for electronic collections and ongoing acquisition and archiving of born-digital content. Many of the aspects of mobile technologies make them powerful including pervasive connectivity, location awareness, and close integration with social networks and online profiles. Smart Libraries now-a-days are facilitating access to such resources using smart apps. They are thus employing innovation and creativity in providing smart library services. Mobile devices and apps therefore provide tremendous flexibility for providing library services to the users by facilitating access to e-resources and multimedia content via such smart phone apps. By going mobile, a library can take a leap towards becoming a round-the-clock service available to the users in their palms. The mobile environment thus also offers new venues for teaching digital literacy skills and aid libraries in their outreach as consumer educators and e-government access portals. The paper discusses the concept and use of smart mobile technology in delivering state-of-art services to their clientele in present technologically driven user-interactive environment.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Digital Libraries; Smart Libraries; Apps; Mobile Computing.

University of Kashmir

101

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

High Temperature Electrical Transport and Optical Studies of ZnO:Cu Quantum Dots Ghulam Nabi Dar£, Arfat Firdous Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086486160.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-081

Abstract ZnO is an excellent promising member of the semiconducting materials of II-VI group. ZnO quantumdots have shown potential technological applications in various electronic devices. In the present investigation ZnO and Cu doped ZnO quantum dots, are prepared through sol-gel technique with zinc sulphate as an organic precursor. The prepared quantum dots were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopic measurements. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the typical hexagonal structure of ZnO quantum dots along the preferred orientation of (101) and (100) planes. The optical bandgap of ZnO quantum dots was found to be 3.60 eV while as that for Cu doped ZnO is 3.54, -3.02 eV from the absorbance spectrum, which is higher than that of the bulk ZnO material. The copper doped ZnO are found to be redshited with respect to pure ZnO quantum dots. The electrical resistivity data reveals semiconducting behaviour to both pure ZnO and Cu doped ZnO nano-crystals. Fitting of resistivity data in Mott’s variable range hopping model (VRH) shows that copper doping in ZnO reduces gap parameters from 3.42 to 3.31 eV with respect to pure ZnO quantum dots.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: ZnO:Cu Quantumdots; Doping; Optical Properties; Electrical Transport.

102

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Neural Network for Heart Disease Prediction using Data Mining Approach Mujtaba Ashraf Qureshi£ Department of Computer Science, Mewar University,Chittorgarh, Rajasthan,India.

a

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 723604.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-082

Abstract Data mining refers to extracting or mining knowledge from large amounts of data. It is performed through computers and mainly focuses on the extraction of valuable information from huge databases in most accurate and efficient manner. Data mining tools answer complicated questions that traditionally are time consuming to resolve. The huge and voluminous data stored by healthcare industries for heart disease prediction is too complex to provide accurate and quick results by means of traditional methods. By employing data mining methods and knowledge, these stored voluminous amounts of data are converted into useful information and thus utilized for developing decision support system. This system then takes less time to predict heart ailments and thus saves both time and money. Since past few decades’ various data mining techniques such as naive Bayes, decision trees, clustering, etc. have been used to predict heart diseases and have proved quite efficient. Among these techniques, Neural Networks seem to be more efficient and fast and can be efficiently applied to larger data warehouses. Neural Networks have emerged as reliable even in situations where data size of the problem is very large. In this paper, we discuss various techniques of data mining used for the prediction of heart disease. Results from neural networks shows more accuracy and efficiency over other techniques.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Data Mining, Heart Disease, Naïve Bayes.

University of Kashmir

103

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

A Comparative Survey of 4G Service Providers in India and Related Security Issues Asif Iqba Kawossa£, Syed Ishfaq Manzoor Amarsingh College, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 127081.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-083

Abstract In mobile telephony, 2G is the most efficient technology for voice calls. GSM technology involves splitting each second into millisecond slices and distributing time among all callers connected to the mobile tower (signal emitting station) at that time. However, for internet connectivity, which require data packets to be delivered, this was not very efficient. The evolution to 3G, which came in tandem with operators using internet protocol, changed that. This technology breaks all information into packets, sends it over telecom cables and unpacks them at the other end. 4G is a technology meant for data, mostly video, which requires a consistently higher bandwidth to run smoothly. The latest technology allows lesser space for the same amount of information making it more suitable for streaming videos. In India there are various 4 G Service providers including emerging players like Reliance JIO, etc. This paper compares various 4 G service providers in India associated security threats.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Mobile Service Providers; 4G; Bandwidth Comparision, Streaming Video .

104

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Is Internet a Threat to Privacy Per Se? A Review Benish Ali Bhat£, Aadil Masood Wani Media Education Research Centre, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 722980.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-088

Abstract The current age or what we call the information age can be described as an era where most activities whether economic or personal are information based. The characteristic of this era is a great rise in number of knowledge workers. The world has become more open in the sense of free and open communications and internationalization or trans-border flow of data. The development and use of technology has become the main focus. But this shift in paradigm brings forth new ethical qualms that mainly relate to protection of privacy that is threatened by the free flow of information, the right of access to information (how much is allowed?) and the threat to intellectual property. The current paper will review and discuss the threats to individual privacy that are posed by growing digital technology. As personal information is increasingly shared online, digital dossiers about individuals are assembled. With social networks, online e-commerce and other digital platforms working together our digital dossiers are complete and jam-packed with information. The dossiers can act like digital data files. The information gathered can put individuals at risk and these can be used in ways that profoundly affect lives. According to an Oxford Internet Survey, almost half of their Sample finds Internet a threat to privacy but despite this 70% still easily give out their personal information. It is an ironic relationship where the amount of freedom of expression presented by the digital world to one person might lead to the invasion of privacy of the other. Once the information gets online it’s vulnerable to “thousands of threats” like hacking, or “password cracking algorithms” and even “identity thefts” in certain cases. The present paper will try to focus on the definition of privacy and the issues and threats that are faced by internet users.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet; Privacy; Free-Information; Digital Technology, Threats.

University of Kashmir

105

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Traditional Statistics and Data Science: A Comparative Study of Data Analysis Approaches with Special Reference to Medical Science Data Sets Tariq Rashid Jan£ Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 461403.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-092

Abstract Traditional statistical approaches perform computations on data with the most portability and rigor. These approaches are independent of the type of physical model. Machine learning is an exciting and fast-moving field and is the intersection of computer science, statistics, and optimization. Many recent consumer applications including Microsoft Kinect, Google Translate, IPhone’s Siri, and digital camera face detection have successfully been built through machine learning. Machine learning and computational statistics play a central role in data science. Data science incorporates varying elements and builds on techniques and theories from mathematics, statistics, data engineering, pattern recognition, supervised and unsupervised learning, visualization, uncertainty modelling, data warehousing, high performance computing, etc. to extract meaning from data and subsequent creation of data products. In this paper, a comparison is drawn between data analysis approaches used in traditional statistics and data science with special reference to its application in medical science. The paper will discuss various data analysis approaches used in traditional statistics, machine learning, data mining, predictive analytics, and data science which are not only different from each other in the manner they operate but also differ from each other in type and volume of data sets they can effectively handle.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Data Warehouse; Supervised Learning; Machine Learning; Data Products.

106

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Towards Developing Automatic Phonetic Alignment for Kashmiri Language using Train&Align Musavir Ahmed£ Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 023260.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-099

Abstract Over the years, a number of tools have been developed for phonetic alignment of continuous speech. Some of these prominent tools include EasyAlign, SPPAS and P2FA. The main purpose of phonetic alignment or segmentation is to fix the time position of sound, syllable and word boundaries in a continuous speech corpus of long durations. Such alignment works on a correspondence between the recorded speech and its orthographic transcription. These usually come in the form of plug-ins for speech software PRAAT. Train&Align is one of the latest tool kits in the series of phonetic alignment tools. Its advantage over the previously developed toolkits is that it trains the model on the very corpus that is to be segmented and as such can be used for any language and style. The present paper reports the application of Train&Align for developing an automatic annotation tool for Kashmiri language in PRAAT. A recorded speech of 50 minutes and its phonetic transcription has been utilized for the development of the auto aligner. The paper also reports the accuracy of the automatic aligner with reference to the manual alignment.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Speech Synthesis; Speech Analysis; EasyAlign; SPPAS; P2FA.

University of Kashmir

107

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

K- means Clustering: A New Approach to Determine Number of Clusters G. Mohiudin Bhata, Farhat Roohia£, Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshib Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

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£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 074595.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-100

Abstract In data analysis, data clustering is a methodology to segment a large collection of data items into some homogeneous groups on the bases of some identified similar characteristics among the data items. It is done in such a manner that intra-cluster variance is minimized while inter-cluster variance is maximized. Clustering heterogeneous data in this manner results in a number of groups which are homogeneous within but heterogeneous between them. This leads to the extraction of useful information about the patterns and structures that are inherently present in the data set but are not evident. The capacity to classify and club/cluster similar items/objects together is among the most fundamental characteristics of human intelligence. A large number of clustering techniques based on various parameters are available in literature to augment the human clustering capability, which broadly fall under hierarchical or partition categories or lately fuzzy clustering. Partition or K-means clustering method has found a special importance in literature given its application, practicality and interpretability. However, for k-means and fuzzy c-means algorithms the number of clusters should be specified a priori, for which some knowledge about the process or phenomenon is must. This sometimes makes the use of K-means method a bit cumbersome or little inefficient. As such in order to overcome this limitation an attempt has been made in this paper to propose a new method for k-means algorithm to overcome the limitation of specifying the number of clusters beforehand. The proposed algorithm automatically generates initial number of clusters based dispersion in the data set, besides presenting a comprehensive overview of clustering techniques.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis; Competitive Learning; Self-Organizing Map; Artificial Neural Network; ANN.

108

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Real-Time Smart Flood Monitoring, Warning and Control System Shakeel Ahmad Bhat£ University Science Instrumentation Centre, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 173574.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-101

Abstract Flooding is one of the major disasters occurring in various parts of the world. The Kashmir Valley has a long back history of floods arriving at regular intervals from 2082 B.C up to September 2014.It is only for a period of 1900-1965, the valley experiences about 15 major floods. It is very unfortunate that despite of such a number of major floods in a short span of about 65 years, the valley has no flood monitoring warning and control systems although several countries have already installed such a system as per their needs. The main object of this study is to design and propose real-time monitoring, warming and control system keeping in view the course of river Jhelum and its flood spill channels, as the proper prevention and thus the control is more needed for socio-economic conditions of the people. The Paper presents water level sensor based real-time supervisory control using Programmable logic controller for controlling various field devices and wired or wireless communication. This technology if deployed could prevent valley in future against disasters experienced in September 2014 flood in the Kashmir valley.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Floods; Programmable Logic Control; Control; Water Level Sensors.

University of Kashmir

109

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Deep Web: The Non-Googleable Data Taufat Hussain£ Department of Library and Information Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 573199.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-102

Abstract World Wide Web (WWW) is the fastest medium for information search and retrieval. It helps in keeping scholars up to date with the latest developments in science, technology and research. However, like other systems, it has some limitations. Search engines like Google, Yahoo!, etc. are the means which facilitate information seekers to access, locate and retrieve desired information in order to satisfy their information needs. Broadly speaking, WWW has been categorised into two parts: Surface web and Deep web. Surface web is a part of the web which is generally accessible and searchable with different known search engines like Google and Yahoo!. Recently, Alieda suggested that searching information on the web is as equivalent as dragging a net over the surface of the ocean. However, a huge plethora of data lies under the surface of the ocean of the web, being non-searchable and inaccessible to general search engines. This non-searchable and inaccessible data is called as Deep Web which is about 500 times more than surface web. It is also called hidden web, dark web or invisible web. It contains a big number of databases, scientific data, government data, etc. Thousands of databases of rich content from universities, libraries, associations, business organisations, government agencies and scientific and cultural organisations form a significant part of the deep web. There are a number of reasons and drawbacks linked with the searching algorithms of general search engines which make them incapable of reaching deep web content. In case of Google, for instance, a huge number of websites or Webpages cannot be searched through links as these sites demand a user to submit a search query on the homepage of the website and thereby creating restrictions to search engine crawlers for accessing them. Further, since Google uses PageRank algorithm for searching webpages, therefore, a webpage which does not have in-links to other webpages on the web cannot be found by such search engine crawler. Moreover, blocked webpages, dynamic content, password protected websites and Robots Exclusion Protocol files or non-indexed pages belong to deep web, and indexing all web content has come out as almost impossible. Since deep web databases (WDBs) contain wealthy and quality information which is hard to retrieve, integrate and index, therefore, deep web searching is a challenging process. In this paper, Enhanced Form-Focused Crawler for domain-specific deep web databases, enhanced algorithms for search engine crawlers, etc. have been discussed as a viable resolution to deep web searching.

© 2016 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Deep Web Searching; Deep Web Databases; Enhanced Form-Focused Crawler; PageRank.

110

University of Kashmir

2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Author Index Author Name Aabid Hussain Aadil Masood Wani Aadil Tahir Shora Aaliya Ahmed Abid Rahh Abrar Maqbool Shah Afaq Alam Khan Aijaz Badyari Ajay Kaushik Ajaz Hussain Mir Akash Ahmad Bhat Arashid Ahmed Arfat Firdous Ashaq Hussain Dar Asif Iqba Kawossa Ayaz Hassan Moon Beenish Habib Benish Ali Bhat Brajesh Kumar Kaushik D.K. Jain Daya Gupta Ekram Khan Faheem Syeed Masoodi Farhana Ahad Farhat Roohi Farooq A. Khanday Farooq Aadil Fozia Hameed Wani G . Mohiudin Bhat Ghulam Nabi Dar

Page No.(s) Author Name 46 87, 105 98 87 50 43 48 50 49 31 89 66, 70, 72, 74 102 68 104 59, 60 68 105 27, 35 88 49 21 58 79 108 92, 93, 94 71 52 33, 54, 56, 57, 59, 62, 69, 99, 108 102

Gousiya Hussain Pandow H. K. Lohia Haider Mehraj Heeba Din Hilal Ahmad Khanday Imran Nazir Beigh Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi Jahangir Ahmad Akhoon Jai Preet Kour Wazir Javaid A. Sheikh Javaid Iqbal Javeed Iqbal Reshi Kaiser J. Giri Karabi Biswas Khalil Ahmed M. B. Srinivas M. Mustafa M. Rafiq Beigh M. Sarosh Umar M. Tariq Banday Maleeha Shabeer Koul Malik Zahra Khalid Maroof Ahad Mehboob ul Amin Mohammad Rafiq Dar Mohammad Zaid Zaz Mohd Altaf Sofi Mudasir Raja Mujtaba Ashraf Qureshi Muneer Ahmad Dar

University of Kashmir

Page No.(s) 58 23 66, 70, 72 65 77 92 108 61, 69, 76 56 54, 56, 57, 61, 69, 76, 99 47 90 73 25 70 44 91 91 53 63, 71, 75, 78, 80, 81, 90 39

87 50 99 94 40 86 55 103 64, 67

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2016 UGC Sponsored National Seminar on

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

18-19 March, 2016

Author Name

Page No.(s) Author Name

Page No.(s)

Musavir Ahmed Muzafar Ahmad Shah Muzaffar Ahmad Dar Nadim Akhtar Khan Naseer Iqbal Bhat Nasir Ali Kanth Nasir Nabi Hurrah Nasrullah Nabi Nazir Ahmad Dar Nazir Ahmed Loan Owais Ahmed Q. P. Rana Qamar Parvez Rana Rafi Ahmad Khan Ramesh Gaonkar Rashid Ashraf Malik Raunaq Nayar Ravi Teja Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi Riyaz Ahmad Bhat Rosy Jan Rumaan Bashir Rumiya Rashid S. Indu S.M.K. Quadri Saba Amin Sahar Gul Saima Bashir Saima Mehraj Sakeena Akhtar Salma Farooq Sameer Sidiq Sofi Sanjay Sood Saurav Gupta Shabir A. Bhat Shabir A. Parah

107 51 97 100, 101 86 93 61, 69, 76 42 48 61, 69, 76 38 89 85 52, 95 19 37 49 49 81 86 100, 101 41 45 49 41 99 65 83, 84 75 54 77 95 88 88 51 54, 56, 57, 61, 69, 76, 79, 99 80

109 46 50 44 82, 83, 84 46 53 74 104 85 64, 67 63 42 106 70, 72, 74 110 78 96 60 43 57 29, 82, 83, 84 45 97 62

Shafiya Afzal Sheikh

112

Shakeel Ahmad Bhat Sheikh Suhaib Sibtain Hafiz Sidrat Tasawoor Kanth Suhaib Ahmad Sumeer Gul Swaleha Syed Syed Asima Refayi Syed Ishfaq Manzoor Syed Masaid Zaman Syed Nisar Hussain Bukhari Syed Umira Riyaz Tarana Afrin Chandal Tariq Rashid Jan Taseem Nazir Taufat Hussain Tawheed Jan Shah Umar Sidiq Ummer Iqbal Khan Uniba Maqbool Qurashi Uzma Bhat Vipan Kakkar Zainab Noor Zakir Hussain Rather Zubair Ahmad Bangi

University of Kashmir

2016

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SEEDS-2016 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Proceedings of UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

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Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir Srinagar, 190 006, J & K

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