SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

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Proceedings of UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

16 - 17 March 2015 Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir Srinagar, 190 006, J & K

ISBN (Online): 978-93-82288-64-0 ISBN (Print): 978-93-82288-59-6

Sponsored by: University Grants Commission (UGC) under its Special Assistance Program (SAP) No: F.3-29/2012(SAP-II) (2013-2018)

Proceedings of UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security 16-17 March, 2015

SEEDS-2015 ISBN (Online): 978-93-82288-64-0 ISBN (Print): 978-93-82288-59-6

Publisher:

University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006, J&K, India.

Publication Date: 16 March, 2015

Editor: Dr. Mohamad Tariq Banday

Copyright Notice: © All rights are reserved by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006, J&K, India.

Highlights: Five Keynotes, Three Expert Lectures, and Forty-Eight Presentations on 16 and 17 March, 2015 Submission of Abstracts, Keynotes/ Speaker Proposals, CRC Submissions, Registration, etc. were Online.

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SEEDS-2015

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A. H. MIR

JUNAID RASOOL WANI

S. UMIRA R. QADRI

A. K. C HATURVEDI

KHALID SULTAN

SAJAD A. MIR

ABDUL WAHID

M. IKRAM

SAKEENA AKHTAR

ABDUL QUAIYUM ANSARI

M. MUSTAFA

SAMEER SADIQ SOFI

AFAQ ALAM KHAN

M. TARIQ BANDAY

SANJAY DAHIYA

AKASH SINGH

MANBIR SANDHU

SANTANU CHAUDHURY

AMRUTHA BV SASTRY

MANU RAJ MOUDGIL

SHABIR AHMAD PARAH

ANAND BHARADWAJ BV SASTRY

MEHBOOB UL AMIN

SHAFIYA AFZAL SHEIKH

ANUSHA JOSHI

MISBAH

SHAKEEL AHMAD DAR

ASIF IQBAL KAWOOSA

MOHAMMAD RAFIQ BEIGH

SIDRA EFFENDI

ASMA NAZIR NAQASH

MOHAMMAD RAFIQ DAR

SIMRANJEET SINGH

BILAL AHMAD MALIK

MUHAMMAD RAYEES BHAT

SUBIR KUMAR SARKAR

BRAJESH KUMAR KAUSHIK

MOHAMMAD S. HASHMI

SUPRITA K

CHAMAN VERMA

MUNIS KHAN

SYED ISHFAQ MANZOOR

DEEPA SHIVANAND CHABBI

MUSAVIR AHMED

SYED SAJID HUSSAIN

DEEPAK KUMAR

MUZAFAR AHMAD SOFI

T. R. JAN

FARHAT ROOHI

MUZAMIL MASOOD MATTOO

TAHIR HUSSAIN BHAT

FAROOQ AADIL RATHER

NADIYA MEHRAJ

TARIQ RASOOL

FAROOQ AHMAD KHANDAY

NAHIYA MALIK

TAWHEED JAN SHAH

G. MOHIUDDIN BHAT

NASIR ALI KANT

TAWSEEF AHMAD BHAT

GULZAR ALI SOFI

NIDA UL AMIN

UMER ASHRAF

HADIA AMIN

PRASUN SHRIVASTAVA

UZMA

HAWEEZ SHOWKAT

PREETI RAI

VINAY SHUKLA

IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN BHAT

PURNIMA

WALI MOHD DAR

IMRAN NAZIR BEIGH

RAFI AHMAD KHAN

WASIM AHMED PARRAY

JAIPREET KOUR WAZIR

REYAZ AHMAD M ATHANGI

ZUBAIR AHMAD BANGI

JAVAID AHMAD SHEIKH

ROUF UL ALAM B HAT

ZUBIDA HABIB

JAVEED IQBAL RESHI

RUBIYA SAMAD

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Authors

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The National seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security, captioned as SEEDS-2015, organized by Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology with the financial support of University Grants Commission of India, had the aim of bringing together scholars, academicians and experts in various specialized subfields of Electronics Engineering. The Seminar was attended by many learned scholars from the premier institutions of the country. During the two days of the Seminar, the scholars and academicians delivered lectures and talks on a wide variety of research issues falling within the ambit of Electronics and Computer Engineering. The participants presented their research findings and achievements in an academically rich atmosphere besides engaging others in healthy discussions on the challenges faced in the field. The seminar was organized in a manner so that every scholar, irrespective of his or her portfolio, gets ample time to present himself or herself before the learned audience. The venue proved an excellent opportunity for young scholars to learn and get motivated from the reputed scientists in the field. Among the applied sciences, Electronics and Computer Engineering has a brilliant history to its credit. From the wireless technology of the days of yore that the world cherished in the form of radio and television, to its modern day achievements being reflected in all forms of mechanical and communication systems, Electronic Engineering has come a long way in shaping the life of twentieth century man. It is indeed a tribute to all those people who over the course of time have worked in the field of Electronics that the world is witnessing revolution after revolution in fields like Signal Processing, Satellite and Fibre Communication Technology, Health Care, Instrumentation, Automation, Remote Sensing, Microelectronics, Space Exploration, Broadcasting, Telegraphy and Telephony, Biotechnology, Disaster Management, Networking, Information Security, Cryptography, etc. The SEEDS-2015 was indeed envisaged by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, to commemorate the advances made in Electronics and allied engineering disciplines. As head of the University, I was delighted to see the manner in which the Seminar proceeded. I place on record the sheer hard work done and perseverance shown by the organizers in making the seminar as successful as it has been. Electronics and Instrumentation Technology is one of premier Departments of the University and over the years has been able to produce first-rate work force that is serving the broader society within and outside state. The young and promising faculty has excellent research to its credit and have been publishing their research findings regularly in reputed International Journals. To its credit, the Department has managed to get around eight million Rupees under Special Assistance Program (SAP) from UGC for infrastructure upgradation.

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Foreword

The book of abstracts has been prepared by the organizers meticulousness, quite in tune with international standards of academic publications. I hope it will serve as a motivation for all the scholars who presented their work in the seminar to further excel their research and make their name in the field of Electronics and Computer Engineering. I wish the Department great success and promise all kinds of support in its future academic endeavours.

Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi (Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Kashmir) Chief Patron, SEEDS-2015

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In recent years, research in electronic devices, circuits, and systems has made significant progress in terms of their phenomenal integration densities and advanced applications with increased intelligence and immense processing power. The advancements in microelectronics, satellite and optical fiber technology, analog, digital and wireless communication techniques, signal processing, VLSI circuit and system design methodology have resulted in developing complex electronic devices, circuits, systems and equipment capable of implementing fast and efficient information and communication systems. These advances have further been complimented by the availability of vast spectrum of storage and the means by which information is stored, copied, changed, and transported. Reported hardware and software security breaches enable numerous attacks and have already led to the loss of confidential information, identity theft, intercepted cellular communications, and IP burglary. Hardware exploits are more difficult to detect and correct than their software counterparts. The scope and dimensions of information security has evolved considerably and it extends to security of networks and allied infrastructure besides covering security of data and information. Novel methods, techniques, protocols, devices, systems and procedures are continuously developed to secure information from potential threats. The national seminar captioned as “National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems, and Information Security” (SEEDS-2015) with financial support from the University Grants Commission of India under its Special Assistance Program has been organized to provide an opportunity to academicians, professionals, scholars, and students to get infused with recent developments and challenges in electronic devices, systems and information security. I extend my thanks to all of those who made the seminar and these proceedings possible. My first thanks goes to late Prof. N. A. Shah under whose dynamic leadership University Grants Commission of India granted financial support for the seminar under its SAP program. I am thankful to the University Grants Commission for entrusting their confidence in the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology. I am thankful to invited speakers for agreeing to deliver expert lectures and authors for presenting their work on contemporary topics covered under the seminar and for contributing to the proceedings. A few numbers: these proceedings contain abstracts of eight invited talks, and fortyeight oral presentations on equal number of topics contributed by eighty-three authors. I thank advisory committee members for their valuable guidance and support during every phase of the seminar. I thank members of the review panel especially Prof. M. Mustafa who read each abstract carefully between lines and provided detailed comment on each of them. I am thankful to the organizing committee members who worked very hard towards successful organization of the event despite several odds. I highly appreciate the support of various administrative units of the University and the staff members of the Department for their support and assistance.

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Editor’s Note

I am confident that delivered invited talks and presentations shall provide avenue to share knowledge among delegates and participants, make networks, and develop a community of researchers.

Dr. M. Tariq Banday Editor, Proceedings of SEEDS-2015 Coordinator, UGC-SAP Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir

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SEEDS-2015 Organization Chief Patron: Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi, Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Patron: Prof. Mohamad Ashraf, Dean Academic Affairs, University of Kashmir. Patron: Prof. Sheikh Javeed Ahmad, Dean Research, University of Kashmir. Convener: Prof. G. M. Bhat, Dean Engineering and Head, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Organizer: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Sr. Assistant Professor (Coordinator UGC-SAP), Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Advisory Committee: Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi, Honourable Vice-Chancellor, University of Kashmir. Prof. Mohamad Ashraf, Dean Academic Affairs, University of Kashmir. Prof. Sheikh Javeed Ahmad, Dean Research, University of Kashmir. Prof. Zaffar Ahmed Reshi, Registrar, University of Kashmir. Prof. M. Y. Shah, Dean, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, University of Kashmir. Prof. Nisar Ahmad Rather, Dean, Physical and Material Sciences, University of Kashmir. Prof. G. M. Bhat, Dean Engineering and Head, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Prof. S. M. K. Qaudri, Head, Department of Computer Applications and Director, IT&SS, University of Kashmir. Prof. Sharief-ud-din Pirzada, Head, Department of Mathematics, University of Kashmir. Prof. Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Head, Department of Physics, University of Kashmir. Dr. M. A. K. Baigh, Head, Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir. Prof. Ajaz Hussain Mir, Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NIT, Srinagar. Er. A. H. Moon, Director, NIELIT, Srinagar. Dr. Mohammad Ahsan Chesti, Department of Computer Science Engineering, NIT, Srinagar. Dr. M. Tariq Banday, Sr. Assistant Professor (Coordinator UGC-SAP), Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Prof. Aadil Amin Kak, Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Basharat Ahmad Want, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Majid Zaman Baba, Scientist B, Directorate of IT & IS, University of Kashmir. Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Shabir Ahmad Parah, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Dr. Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

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Kashmir.

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Dr. Tariq Rashid Jan, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Musavir Ahmad, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir. Dr. Nadeem Ahmad, Sr. Assistant Professor, Department of Library Sciences, University of Kashmir. Er. Abdul Mueed Hafiz, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Er. Rouf ul Alam Bhat, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir. Mrs. Farhat Roohi, Electronic Engineer, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir.

Members of Organizing Committees: Dr. M. Tariq Banday, (Coordinator UGC-SAP), (General and Program Chair) Dr. Farooq Ahmad Khanday, (Finance Chair) Dr. Shabir Ahmad Parah, (Publicity Chair) Dr. Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, (Hospitality Chair) Mrs. Farhat Roohi, (Registration Chair) Er. Rouf ul Alam Bhat, (Accommodation Co-chair) Er. Abdul Mueed Hafiz, (Accommodation Co-chair) Mr. Nisar Ahmad Paray Mrs. Muzamil Hassan Mr. Azad Ahmad Shah Mr. Mohamad Rafiq Beigh Ms. Shafiya Afzal Sheikh Mr. Javeed Iqbal Reshi Mr. Nasir Ali Kant Mr. Mohammad Rafiq Dar Ms. Uzma Ms. Tawheed Jan Ms. S. Umira R. Qadri Mr. Farooq Aadil Rather Mr. Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi Mr. Jahangir Ahmad Mr. Mehboob ul Amin Mr. Imran Nazir Beigh Ms. Sakeena Akhtar Ms. Asma Nazir Naqash Ms. Jaipreet Kour Wazir Ms. Farhana Ahad Mr. Nazir Ahmad Mr. Zubair Ahmad Bangi

Invited Talks 

Information Theoretic Perspective on Cognitive Radio Networks [3]



Design Challenges for Low Power VLSI Circuits [5]

Prof. Subir Kumar Sarkar, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. 

Deep Learning for Document Image Analysis [7]

Prof. Santanu Chaudhury, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Delhi. 

Security Issues in IT Systems and their Management [9]

Prof. Abdul Quaiyum Ansari, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. 

Spin Transfer Torque based Magneto-resistive Memories [11] `

Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, IIT, Roorkee. 

Technology Innovation and Diffusion Practical approach towards 'Make in India' [13]

Prof. G. Mohiuddin Bhat, University of Kashmir, Srinagar. 

Current State of Cyber Crimes in the State of Jammu and Kashmir [15]

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Prof. A. K. Chaturvedi, IIT Kanpur.

Mr. Rayees Mohammad Bhat, IPS, SP, Hazratbal, Srinagar. 

Detecting Forgery in Images: A Statistical Perspective [17]

Prof. Ajaz Hussain Mir, NIT, Srinagar.

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Mind Set Towards Internet Usage: A Study among various Colleges/University Students in District Sirsa (Haryana) (Chaman Verma) [21] Energizing Smart Grid using Biogas based Generating Unit (Anand Bharadwaj BV Sastry) [22] A Comparison between Si and Poly-Si Square Diaphragm MEMS Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors (S. Umira R. Qadri) [23] Emerging Technologies and CMOS: Extending the Road beyond CMOS (Nida Ul Amin) [24] A Comparative Study of Specific Absorption Rate of Recently launched Mobile Phones (Farooq Aadil Rather) [25] Region of Interest Coding based Technique for Infrared Thermal Image Compression (Tawheed Jan Shah) [26] Aluminium Covered Stainless Steel OPGW (Simranjeet Singh) [27] Software Tool for Online Victim Complaint System (OVCS): Application Package for Crime Free Society (CFS) (Vinay Shukla) [28] E-commerce: Threats, Countermeasures, and Precautions (Tahir Hussain Bhat) [29] Communication Networks: Past, Present, and Future (A Review) (Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi) [30] Right to Privacy in Digital Environment (Iftikhar Hussain Bhat) [31] A Technique to Detect and Prevent Malicious Covert Communication (Shafiya Afzal Sheikh) [32] Study of Channel Estimation Techniques in Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) - A Review (Uzma) [33] Fire and Gas Leakage Detection and Solution Technique Based on Secured Android Platform (Sidra Effendi) [34] Information Security in Virtual Private Networks (Muzafar Ahmad Sofi) [35] Synthesis of Speech Corresponding to Kannada Scripts, using Concatenative Synthesis Method (Deepa Shivanand Chabbi) [36] Cyberspace - The New Battleground (A Survey) (Manbir Sandhu) [37] Advances in RF Power Amplifier Design Technologies (Mohammad S. Hashmi) [38] Face Recognition Using Neural Networks (Sameer Sadiq Sofi) [39] Light Fidelity (Li-Fi): A Novel Way of Wireless Communication (Umer Ashraf) [40] Reversible Computing: Motivation, Progress, and Challenges (Javeed Iqbal Reshi) [41] Fractional Order Systems: A Future Outlook (Mohammad Rafiq Dar) [42] Governing Dynamics of VHDL Based Intensity Tracking Solar Panel (Junaid Rasool Wani) [43]

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Presentations

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Integrated Biomedical System Design: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospective (Imran Nazir Beigh) [44] Anatomization of the Hardware Implementation of Neural Networks (Nasir Ali Kant) [45]

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

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Effect of New Hybrid Techniques on Speech Compression (Sakeena Akhtar) [46] Performance Enhancement of Digital Receivers Using Interpolation Multirate Filter (Jai Preet Kour Wazir) [47] Impact of Cyber Security Challenges and Necessary Preventive Measures on Information Security with Reference to Expansion of Internet (Wali Mohd Dar) [48] Performance Evaluation of Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) using Transform Techniques in MIMO-OFDM (Mehboob Ul Amin) [49] Migration to Cloud through Microsoft AZURE (Abdul Wahid) [50] A Review of Novel Trends in Gate-Channel Designs for Efficient FinFET Structures (Tawseef Ahmad Bhat) [51] Fault Tolerant QCA Implementations: A Survey (Zubair Ahmad Bangi) [52] Emerging Devices for More-than-Moore (Mohammad Rafiq Beigh) [53] Performance Evaluation of Multi User DS-SS System over Multipath Fading Channel Using New Gold Code (Nahiya Malik) [54] Use of Social Media in Education: A Study with Special Reference to India (Muzamil Masood Mattoo) [55] Study of Machine Learning Algorithms for Developing Calibration Model For NonInvasive Glucose Measurement (Asma Nazir Naqash) [56] Slow Internet? More Bandwidth is not the Answer (Deepak Kumar) [57] Structural, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Sr doped LaVO4 (M. Ikram) [58] Statistical Machine Translation Process and Tools – A Review (Manu Raj Moudgil) [59] Open School: An M-Learning App for Android (Gulzar Ali Sofi) [60] Biometrics of Vision: A Comparative Study of Iris & Retinal Biometric Techniques (Shakeel Ahmad Dar) [61] Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Homes: A Design Prospective (Munis Khan) [62] Microcontroller based Advanced Vehicle Accident Detection and Prevention System (Misbah) [63] Digital Video Watermarking Using Low-Middle Frequency Bands Based On SVD and 3level DWT Techniques (Nadiya) [64] Fuzzy Learning Model and Artificial Intelligence (Farhat Roohi) [65] A Hybrid Approach for Cloud Bandwidth and Cost Reduction System using Predictive Acknowledgements (Syed Sajid Hussain) [66] Automatic Annotation in PRAAT for Kashmiri using Easy Align (Musavir Ahmad) [67] Internet Usage in Higher Education: Needs Analysis and Satisfaction (T. R. Jan) [68]

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SEEDS-2015 16 and 17 March, 2015

Organized by: Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 J&K

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Keynotes and Expert Lectures

1

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Prof. A. K. Chaturvedi* Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India

Keynote Cognitive radios hold tremendous promise to increase the spectral efficiency of wireless systems. We will start with a brief introduction to information theory and cognitive radio networks and then discuss the fundamental capacity limits in such networks. We will characterize a cognitive radio as an intelligent device that can use side information about its environment to improve spectral utilization. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peerreview under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio; Capacity; Degrees of Freedom; Interweave; Overlay; Underlay

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Information Theoretic Perspective on Cognitive Radio Networks

3 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 512 2597613. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-001

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Prof. Subir Kumar Sarkar* Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India

Keynote Tremendous growth of the VLSI technology has been mainly due to progress of fabrication technology, which allowed systematic scale-down of device feature sizes and exponential growth of the integration level. Continuous device performance improvement is possible probably through a combination of device scaling, new device structure and material property improvement. Due to its small size, their potential integration level is significantly high and its low power operation solves some of the instability and reliability problems. The major challenges for design Engineers are to design new generation products, which consume minimum power, without compromising its performance or achieving minimum chip area. As we approach millennium, power dissipation has become the main design concern in many applications such as wristwatch, laptop, computers, and pace makers although early VLSI design did not consider it. The objective of such applications is minimum power for maximum battery life. Power dissipation is the greatest obstacle for Moore’s law. Modern chips consume power of which about 20% is wasted in leakage through the transistor gates. The traditional means of coping with increased power per generation has been to scale down the operating voltage of the chip but voltages are reaching limits due to thermal fluctuation effects. To save power, several tricks have been considered viz., minimize activity, glitches, effective capacitance, wire length of nodes and use of minimum possible supply voltage constrained by performance needed, design for high speed and then reduce voltage to get the desired speed. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Low Power; VLSI Circuits; Power Dissipiation; Tricks to Save Power; Glitches; Effective Capacitance

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Design Challenges for Low Power VLSI Circuits

5 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 3324 572810. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-002

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Prof. Santanu Chaudhury* Dhananjay Chair Professor, FNAE, FNASc, FIAPR, Department of Electrical Enginering, I.I.T, Delhi

Keynote Deep networks provide a new paradigm for feature discovery and recognition. We can approach problems of document image analysis in the framework of deep learning. We shall examine use of deep learning for scene text recognition. Next we shall present an architecture for text recognition using deep LSTM. Text recognition involves some initial image processing steps like segmentation of lines and words which can induce error to the recognition system. Without segmentation, learning very long range context is difficult and becomes computationally intractable. Therefore, alternative soft decisions are needed at the pre-processing level. This paper proposes a hybrid text recognizer using a deep recurrent neural network with multiple layers of abstraction and long range context along with a language model to verify the performance of the deep neural network. In this paper we construct a multi-hypotheses tree architecture with candidate segments of line sequences from different segmentation algorithms at its different branches. The deep neural network is trained on perfectly segmented data and tests each of the candidate segments, generating unicode sequences. In the verification step, these unicode sequences are validated using a sub-string match with the language model and best first search is used to find the best possible combination of alternative hypothesis from the tree structure. Thus the verification framework using language models eliminates wrong segmentation outputs and filters recognition errors. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Feature Discovery; Document Image Analysis; Hybrid Text Recognizer; Deep Neural Network

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Deep Learning for Document Image Analysis

7 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 9891 266595. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-003

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Prof. Abdul Quaiyum Ansari* Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

Keynote IT security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction and IT Security management is a process of defining the security controls in order to protect the information assets. The issue of security related to IT systems is not only technical but is also a governance and organizational issue. Several agencies have been working simultaneously to resolve this issue both at the technical as well as at the organizational levels. Many standards have been developed to handle this complex problem. Every country has its own IT law. The Indian IT ACT 2000 aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India that is supposed to make a major impact for ebusinesses and the new economy in India. This Key Note will focus on the generic issues of the security challenges and their management as also the various perspectives of the IT Act 2000 as related to the international IT security standards and challenges. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IT ACT; Information Security; IT Law; IT Security Management

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Security Issues in IT Systems and their Management

9 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 9873 824597. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-004

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Dr. Brajesh Kumar Kaushik* Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, I. I. T, Roorkee, Uttarakhand

Keynote Researchers believe spintronics to be one of the most promising technologies to replace the conventional CMOS technology that suffers from severe static leakage beyond 22nm technology node. Spintronics is an emerging technology that exploits an electron's spin orientation and its associated magnetic moment as state variable. It involves the storage of information in terms of non-volatile magnetization state instead of the charge. Thus, the new goal is to develop computing architecture that can normally be off when not in use to prevent static leakage. Moreover, such architecture can be turned on instantly with full performance when required. The primary requisite to achieve non-volatile architecture is non-volatile RAM (NVRAM). Most promising technology to achieve non-volatile RAMs is the emerging spintronics based magneto-resistive memories that switches by spin transfer torque (STT). Spintronics based magneto-resistive memories were revolutionized by the phenomenon of spin transfer torque (STT) effect, first demonstrated by J.C Slonczewski in 1996. After this monumental discovery, spintronics based magneto-resistive memories have evolved considerably in the last decade into their novel form known as spin transfer torque magneto-resistive random access memories (STT MRAMs). STT MRAMs store data as the resistance state of a magneto-resistive device known as magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). An STT MRAM cell is composed of two primary components: the "Magnetic Tunnel Junction", which is usually characterized by magneto-resistance and switching current density, and the "Access Device", which allows a given memory cell to be addressed for read or write. This talk will target for a clear understanding of STT MRAMs in terms of architecture, operation and performance comparison with other volatile and non-volatile memory technologies. Moreover, the talk will also focus towards the recent developments and challenges ahead for STT MRAMs. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

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Spin Transfer Torque based Magneto-resistive Memories

Keywords: Spin Transfer Torque Switching; Magnetic Tunnel Junction; MRAM; Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

11 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 1332 285662. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-005

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Technology Innovation and Diffusion Practical approach towards 'Make in India' Prof. G. Mohiuddin Bhat* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Expert Lecture 'Make in India', an international marketing strategy conceptualized by the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi in September, 2014, has been aimed to boost the industrial production and labour intensive manufacturing in India. The objective is to create a job market for a largely unemployed population of 1.2 Billion people in the country, needing about one Million additional jobs every month. The economy of Indian, presently based on agriculture, cannot be left on the mercy of the unpredictable south-west Monsoons. In order to sustain the rapid growth and alleviate poverty, India rightly needs to harness its potential of 'Make in India'. From the invention of Penicillin to the present day Mobile phone, history is witness to the fact that innovations and inventions have enabled societies to produce more. However, technology innovations can contribute towards productivity only through their application, adoption, and diffusion. Liberal support for technology innovation will enhance entrepreneurship development, which will in turn accelerate the economic growth. Technology innovation and its diffusion are, thus, very crucial towards boosting the manufacturing and service sectors. However, in spite of its large publicly funded science & technology infrastructure, India has not been able to realize its innovative potential. The decrease in the number of indigenous patent applications being filed in India in recent years has raised several questions on the promotion of innovation eco-system in the country. While China topped the global list by filing 5,26,412 Patent applications in the year 2011 (with USA having 5,03,582 patent applications, as runner up), only 42,291 patent applications were filed in India during this period. Realizing that innovation led entrepreneurship development shall promise an economic growth; the Govt. of India has recently taken several initiatives with an innovation agenda. Declaration of 2010-20 as the Decade of Innovation, establishment of National Innovation Council and formulating the Science, Technology & Innovation Policy-2013 (STIP-2013) are indicative of some positive developments in this regard. Further, national level Organizations and programmes like National Innovation Foundations (NIF), Promotion of Innovations among Individuals and MSMEs (PRISM), Grass-root Innovation and Augmentation Network (GIAN) are several other initiatives launched in this direction. Creation of a robust national innovation eco-system is one of the key elements listed in the Science Technology Innovation Policy-2013 of the Govt. of India. With a focus on the new initiative of 'Make in India', as conceived by the Prime Minister of India, this article summarizes the possibilities and challenges in the implementation of the initiative through innovation-led entrepreneurship development. The support available for promotion of innovations in the formal and non-formal sectors, as well as the process for protecting innovations through patenting, leading to the diffusion of innovative technologies have been discussed. The recommendations identified in the article shall ensure the flow of technology from academia to the industry, thereby transforming ideas into wealth, and creating a job market in the country.

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Patent; Innovation; STIP-2013; GIAN; NIF; Make-in-India

13 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 9906 677322. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-006

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Current State of Cyber Crimes in the State of Jammu and Kashmir Mr. Rayees Mohammad Bhat* IPS, Superintendent of Police, Hazratbal, Srinagar

Expert Lecture It has been often said that the basic nature of crime is theft... that all crime is theft. Only the dimensions of theft change, the paradigms keep shifting and the convoluted course of time shapes the contours. Every innovation in history has brought a flurry of change in human lifestyle and society. Law and crime being barometers of society have naturally witnessed similar changes. Proverbially crime has stayed one-step ahead of the law. In practice, law has always been a subject of supply-demand dynamics; and once in, it has anticipated a larger slew of likely demands and adapted accordingly. The initiation of technological daily life and the rapid movement along the information highway has led to a generational leap in the past decade. It was pretty rare to find a PC let alone one with an Internet connection then. Now it is a sine qua non. We not only have information literally at our fingertips but we can actually “use” that information in the real sense – buying tickets, comparing prices of that car we like, waiting for online sales to buy our favourite jeans – it’s all happening. And, yet it has brought on its attendant problems of that basic nature of crime – theft. Identity theft, password theft, credit card fraud, bank details phishing, spamming, online cheating, skimming, Nigerian scams, MMS “scandals”, Internet pornography, spy cams, misuse of communication devices, cyber terrorism, cyber wars and what not have become common knowledge nowadays. And, J&K has not been left untouched in this highly evolving scenario. All the above crimes have been perpetrated and are occurring here every day. The trends in cybercrimes show a disconcerting increase over the last few years. Not only cybercrime per se, but usual or traditional crimes unsupported by computer resources and communication devices are now almost unheard of! Emulation of modus operandi and learning criminal / anti-social tricks online has also become a trend. And, J&K Police has been using almost all the tools available at the global level to counter the threats posed by this nouveau aspect in crime.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Keywords: Cybercrimes; Cyber Terrorism; Cyber Wars; Identity Theft; Spamming

15 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 84918 40107. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-007

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Prof. Ajaz Hussain Mir* Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.

Expert Lecture Images have become inseparable part of our life. Almost in all fields ranging from media to evidence in courtrooms, images play an important role. Whereas digitization of images have opened new vistas in image, processing and analysis techniques that enable to extract concealed information from images that may even be beyond visual perception. However, because of the easy availability of photo editing software’s digitized images have, at the same time, become vulnerable to image tampering. Attacker may tamper the images to mislead the public, distort truth, and destroy someone's reputation without leaving any trace. This puts authenticity of any image in doubt. Although techniques like watermarking and stenography can be used to check authenticity of an image but these techniques are no longer viable for every generated image in view of cost in terms of time and complexity. This limitation is overcome by digital image forensics. We need a reliable forensic technique that is able to act as an evidence to image authenticity. A number of forensic image authenticity techniques have been proposed. These work with varying degree of reliability. In our approach, we base our solution on the hypothesis that tampering may change underlying statistics of an image; though traces left by tempering may not be perceptible. It may be pointed out that a number of image forgery techniques exist. However, to test the proposed technique we have used two most commonly used forgery techniques Copy-move and splicing on images taken from two standard databases CASIA and CoMoFoD. To test the proposed hypothesis, efficacy of Grey Level Run Length Method (GLRLM) based on second order statistics has been used to detect forgery in images. The features obtained based on GLRLM have demonstrated the potential of proposed method in detecting image forgeries. © 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Detecting Forgery in Images: A Statistical Perspective

Keywords: Forgery in Images; Digitized Images; Digital Image Forensics; Watermarking; Stenography

17 *Speaker. Tel.: +91 9419 010409. E-mail address: [email protected] Keynote/Expert Lecture ID: SEEDS/COMMUNE-008

SEEDS-2015 `

16 and 17 March, 2015

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Abstracts

Sponsored by: University Grants Commission (UGC) under its Special Assistance Program (SAP) No: F.3-29/2012 (SAP-II) (2013-2018)

19

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Mind Set Towards Internet Usage: A Study among various Colleges/University Students in District Sirsa (Haryana) Chaman Vermaa*, Sanjay Dahiyab a

Department of Computer Science Engineering, JJTU, Rajasthan, India Ch. Devi Lal State Institute of Engineering & Technology, Panniwala Mota, Sirsa, India

b

Abstract Today the Internet connects more than two billion people worldwide. Time is major concern beyond the technology to create dynamic searching about information in this competitive world. India is a rising ICT country in the world. Internet is growing swiftly both in education and trade. In many recent research findings, it has been found that Internet provides us several ways of learning. Internet effects the education cycle of students and educators by providing alternatives learning styles. Internet is an aspect of dynamic student’s life. Most of the students and researchers involved in education sphere are directly or indirectly depending on internet. Internet has become very important tool that reveals discovery of data immediately to adapt the changes. Internet is the main item for launching new cultures among societies because of effecting education. In present technological world internet has proved as a very useful tool in almost all domains of interest. With the use of such an advance technology, students can grasp the awareness of importance about technology and major concern in order to build up attitude towards it. Students must accept that keenness and awareness in using the technological services. In order to use internet technology efficiently and creatively there should be right and positive attitude of the user. Through the Internet, students can attain real experience, learning motives to study about the attitude of students towards Internet and its role in education. The concerned study describes the attitude regarding Internet access of college/university students from different streams in relation to gender & locality in the district Sirsa of Haryana. For collecting suggestions from students instrument named IAS (Internet Attitude Scale) has been used.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet; Student; Attitude; Locality; Gender; College

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

21 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9802 231461. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-009

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Energizing Smart Grid using Biogas based Generating Unit Anand Bharadwaj BV Sastrya,*, Amrutha BV Sastryb b

a Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jain University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BNM Institute of Technology, Visvesvaraya Technological University,Bangalore, India

Abstract The Smart Grid is a promising new technology that promises to revolutionize the future of power sector. The digital technology powered Smart Grid involves many new features that boost the capability of the power utilities to provide reliable and quality power to the consumers. The support for integration of renewable energy resources is one such feature in Smart Grid, which helps in producing electricity from clean energy sources like solar, wind, etc. In this work, we focus on production of electricity from biogas-based generators monitored by Smart Meters by the customers and sold to the power utilities at reasonable tariff rates. A single Biogas plant is estimated to generate sufficient quantities of electricity to single household for a year. Based on a study conducted in Germany, the largest biogas market in Europe, it has been found that manure from a single cow is enough to generate up to 3kwh units of electricity. The objective of this work is to turn a customer from just being a consumer of electricity to producer of electricity where the customer can produce electricity locally using renewable energy source. The generated electricity can be sold to the power utility for a price mutually agreed upon and the purchased electricity by the power utility company can then be fed to grid for transmission for distribution. Agriculture continues to be one of the major occupations in India and many families are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. This is pre-dominant in the rural areas where many people are employed as farmers and laborers to run and maintain agricultural lands. The agricultural waste from these lands often is under-utilized or not utilized at all. This waste can be used to generate biogas the major components of which are CH 4 and CO2 along with moisture, H2S, and traces of other elements. Once the biogas is generated, it is upgraded so that it can be used for certain dayto-day usage like cooking, electricity generation, etc. The waste from the biogas plant is proven good manure, which is considered the best compared to chemical fertilizers. The main beneficiaries of this work includes the power utilities themselves and the customers of electricity themselves as this would ensure availability of electricity at all times at reasonable tariff rates making it economical for both the power utility and the consumers and also offset excess demand during peak demand which can be met by the biogas based generating unit. The consumption of electricity is monitored by Smart Meters, which send parametric data including voltage, current, etc. for customer consumption pattern analysis and demand side management including load forecasting.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: SmartGrid; Biogas; Smartmeter; Demand Side Management; Tariff

22 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7760 770051. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-010

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security A Comparison between Si and Poly-Si Square Diaphragm MEMS Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors M. Tariq Banday, S. Umira R. Qadri* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract In recent years, MEMS Piezoresistive pressure sensors have witnessed significant developments because of their applications in diverse domains such as biomedical, defense, civilian, aerospace, automobile, oceanography, domestic, and many more. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology permits manufacturing of small and definite size sensing elements i.e. diaphragm with desired pressure range, displacement, and stress. The diaphragm plays a vital role in the design of pressure sensors because the diaphragm is the key sensing component of a MEMS pressure sensors and actuators and hence the realization of a high-performance diaphragm is crucial to the efficiency of the sensor. The applied pressure, which deflects the membrane of MEMS pressure sensor, can be controlled by the elastic force of the diaphragm material. Using MatLab, this study analyzes and compares silicon and poly-silicon square diaphragm MEMS piezoresistive sensors in terms of Deflection, and Stress for Modulus of elasticity of the material (Silicon or poly-silicon) used in the construction of diaphragm. The maximum stress and displacement are analyzed for different values of Young’s Modulus ranging from 130Gpa to 187Gpa for silicon square diaphragm and 120Gpa to 175Gpa for poly-silicon square diaphragm. For both materials, the analysis was carried on diaphragm length of 160μm and thickness of 3.002604μm. The differential pressure from 0Mpa to 1Mpa in intervals of 0.1Mpa was applied on both types of diaphragm. Pressure applied on the diaphragm was controlled so that the displacement is kept to a maximum of 30% of the diaphragm thickness. For 1Mpa pressure, the silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor showed a displacement of 2.569931Mpa for Young’s Modulus of 130Gpa and a displacement of 1.786583Mpa for Young’s Modulus of 187Gpa. While as for polysilicon piezoresistive pressure sensor for same pressure of 1Mpa, a displacement of 2.784092Mpa for Young’s Modulus of 120Gpa and a displacement of 1.909092Mpa for Young’s Modulus of 175Gpa was recorded. In comparison to polysilicon square diaphragm, the displacement of the silicon square diaphragm is preferential owing to its linear displacement than polysilicon square diaphragm. Best results were achieved for silicon square diaphragm for Young’s Modulus of 187Gpa.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems; MEMS; Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor; Poly-Silicon; Square Diaphragm; Young's Modulus

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

23 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 434477. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-014

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Emerging Technologies and CMOS: Extending the Road Beyond CMOS Nida ul Amina*, Hadia Aminb a

Department of Technical Education, Govt. of Jammu & Kashmir, Srinagar, India b NIELIT, Khanyar, Srinagar, India

Abstract The quickening pace of MOSFET technology scaling is accelerating the introduction of many new technologies to extend CMOS into nanoscale MOSFET structures. These new devices likely will feature several new materials cleverly incorporated into new non-bulk MOSFET structures. They will be ultra-fast and dense with a voracious appetite for power. Intrinsic device speeds may be more than 1 THz and integration densities will exceed 1 billion transistors per cm2. Beyond CMOS, several completely new approaches to informationprocessing and data-storage technologies and architectures are emerging to address the time frame beyond the current roadmap. Rather than varying to “replace” CMOS, one or more of these embryonic paradigms, when combined with a CMOS platform, could extend microelectronics to new application domains currently not accessible to CMOS. A successful new information-processing paradigm most likely will require a new platform technology embodying a fabric of interconnected primitive logic cells, perhaps in three dimensions. Further, this new logic paradigm may suggest a new symbiotic information-processing architecture to fully extract the potential offered by the logic fabric. Consequently, discovery and development of a new industry-shifting information and signal-processing paradigm may greatly benefit from close collaboration between device technologists and systems architects. The goal of this paper is to introduce and review many new device technologies and concepts for information and signal processing having potential to extend microelectronics to and beyond the present time frame. As such, this paper will provide a window into candidate approaches.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: CMOS; Nanoelectronics; Molecular devices; Quantum computing; SOI; FinFet

24 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 707123. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-015

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security A Comparative Study of Specific Absorption Rate of Recently launched Mobile Phones M. Tariq Banday, Farooq Aadil Rather* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Radio Frequency (RF) exposure is the largest component of human body to electromagnetic radiations. Tissues of human body absorb radio frequency energy generated by electronic gadgets including mobile phones. The absorption of RF radiations results health hazardous in human body and may cause brain tumors, variations in pulse rate leading to heart attacks, physical and behavioral changes, DNA damage, and altered cell structure. The rate at which RF energy is absorbed by a human body when exposed to electromagnetic field generated by the use of a particular electronic gadget is quantified in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The SAR of an electronic gadget depends on various parameters such as its position near the body, power density, operational frequency, electrical properties, and duration of the exposure. It has been observed that the SAR decreases with the increase in the distance of the electronic gadget from the body. In general, the SAR value of a mobile phone at 0.01mm distance from the human body is 1.57W/Kg. The permissible SAR limits for handheld devices have been standardized in developed countries. These limits vary from country to country because in some countries, it is based on RF exposure of ear only while in others it is based on RF exposure of both ear and body. In the United States, the Cellular Telecommunication and Internet Association (CTIA) with FCC has set SAR limit to 1.6 W/Kg in 1g of tissue. In Europe, International Commission for NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has set the standard SAR value to 2W/Kg. This paper discusses RF exposure to human body by the use of mobile phones and their permissible legal limits across the Globe including India. It compares the recently launched and competitive mobile phones from Apple Inc., Motorola Corp., Samsung Electronics, Nokia Corp., and Blackberry Limited in terms of their SAR values. It discusses the parameters that may change SAR values when operated in different environments. It has been found that irrespective of the manufacturer of mobile phones, the SAR values differ considerably from each other. These values also change when operated in different conditions. The study further enumerates recommendations to remain safe from radio frequency radiations while using a mobile phone.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: RF Exposure; SAR Limit; Mobile Phones; Specific Absorption Rate

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

25 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 293440. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-016

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Region of Interest Coding based Technique for Infrared Thermal Image Compression M. Tariq Banday, Tawheed Jan Shah* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Infrared imaging science includes thermography in which digital images known as thermograms or thermal images are studied for thermal distribution in structures. Thermography has witnessed wide research interest in recent years owing to its growing applications in medicine, construction, power generation, material, aerospace and other infrared thermal wave non-destructive testing technologies. The thermograms in these applications require massive data processing, transmission, and storage. Therefore, to conserve storage, an efficient and fast processing technique for high-resolution thermal images without losing the information is required. Different algorithms have been developed to compress thermograms to achieve desired degree of compression. Thermal image compression algorithms that achieve maximum degree of compression may considerably reduce the size of thermograms but they reduce their quality. In these types of images, loss of quality in the region of interest is highly undesirable but some loss of information in non-region of interest may be acceptable. To achieve best quality of reconstruction of the region of interest and improve overall compression ratio, this study proposes the use of multiple compression techniques wherein ROI portion of these images is compressed using near lossless techniques or is left uncompressed while non-ROI portions are compressed using lossy compression techniques. The study analyzed the application of Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) with Huffman coding to ROI portion and Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT), Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) and Huffman coding to Non-ROI portions of thermograms. Discrete Wavelet Transform based compression-using Huffman coding for ROI and SPIHT coding for non-ROI portions and DWT based compression-using Huffman coding for ROI portion and EZW coding for Non-ROI portions showed effective compression of the image at nearly no loss of visual quality in ROI portion. These techniques showed outstanding performance in terms of mean square error, compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio. Encoding non-ROI with EZW showed slightly better performance than encoding non-ROI with SPIHT. Further, lower mean square error with higher compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio was found in high-resolution thermal images, thereby permitting reduction of both transmission time and storage space.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Thermography; Thermal Image Compression; Region of Interest; ROI Coding; Infrared Thermal Image Compression

26 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 997886. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-018

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Simranjeet Singh* Guru Nanak Dev University , RC Gurdaspur, India

Abstract The main cause of corrosion is contact between different metals. To overcome the problem a new type of OPGW is introduced namely aluminium covered stainless steel tube. In this paper, various experimental results are summarized and analyzed to obtain a better OPGW material. Some of the experiments performed on new OPGW are crush test, salt test and impact test. New OPGW fiber is covered with aluminium layer covering its surface, this helps in reduction of corrosion. The tests have been conducted on this new OPGW, which show its reliability with environment. Another problem related to OPGW is lightning strikes. Various experiments have been conducted to show various effects of lightning on OPGW. In these experiments, various temperature sensors are used. These sensors check the tolerance of the fiber with varying temperature. Experiments such as lightning strikes, temperature cyclic test are conducted on this fiber. All these experiments are summarized in this paper. The results obtained from the experiments reduced the drawback of conventional OPGW to great extent. New OPGW also increased the performance as compared to conventional OPGW. Temperature sensors such as BOTDR are used, which show the effect of lightning or temperature on the particular part of fiber.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Light Strikes; Temperature Cyclic Test; Temperature Senser BOPDR; Tubular Structure Tube; Aluminium Covered Stainless Steel OPGW

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Aluminium Covered Stainless Steel OPGW

27 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9781 887736. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-020

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Software Tool for Online Victim Complaint System (OVCS): Application Package for Crime Free Society (CFS) Vinay Shukla* Institute of Technology & Management, Maharajganj, U.P, India.

Abstract Victim complaint is valuable information for Police and personal Satisfaction towards victim. Rapid response to these complaints is an essential index of organization’s performance. The presented online model and tool for complaint system will have the ability to minimize victim dissatisfaction. It can encourage victims to participate in controlling the quality of security not only during lodging complain but also during submitting their feedback. The Proposed model aims to develop a Service-Oriented framework for online complaint system. Due to different obstacles faced in analog system or conventional lodging complaint system, those services may not be applied in appropriate way. Therefore, a need for a system that could detect Citizen’s problems and provide them with suitable feedback is raised. In the proposed model, we developed a software tool based on SOA architecture. Online Victim Complain System (OVCS) act as managing tool for crime record as well as making online complain with unique complaint ID. One can easily sort out such record or procure such complaint based on unique ID. Also, Online Victim Complain System oriented by Web-application, which will be used by victims as well as concerned department in order to make complaints about their dissatisfaction on provided services. This system will be able to handle complaints by recording and giving feedback for each raised complaint.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: OVCS; SOA; Web-based

28 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9554 776314 E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-021

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Tahir Hussain Bhata*, Afaq Alam Khanb a

Amar Singh College, Srinagar, India Central University of Kashmir Srinagar, India

b

Abstract Due to increase in e-commerce in market, the need for security was felt to protect the customers as well as business organizations. Security is the protection of e-commerce and subsequent possible malicious threats from hackers and business rivals assets from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction. Dimensions of e-commerce security are Integrity, Non-repudiation, Authenticity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Availability. E-Commerce offers the banking industry great opportunity, but also creates a set of new risks and vulnerability such as security threats. With advancement in Information Technology around the world, internet has a strong role in business sector. This online business refers to the E-commerce, which for past few years has been spreading very fast in developing countries like India. With the advent of easily affordable hand held devices and user friendly internet technology, e-commerce is now moving beyond geographical boundaries and is not limited to specialized persons. E-commerce traders have now taken advantage of the increasing popularity of mobile phones, tablets, and android applications to make the online trade easy, which ultimately increase their sales. Despite the increasing cyber threat risks, many people prefer e-commerce as compared to conventional trade. This paper describes the present basic principles of security, also the evolution of e-commerce in India, recent issues and developments in e-commerce, security threats, and counte-rmeasures to secure e-commerce in India. We also have brought forward and discussed the possible guidelines and recommendations for securing and developing online business.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: E-business Challenges; E-Commerce Security Issues; Security measures; E-Shopping

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

E-commerce: Threats, Countermeasures, and Precautions

29 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086 490990. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-022

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Communication Networks: Past, Present, and Future (A Review) M. Tariq Banday, Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Cellular standards have been evolving regularly and their new versions appearing approximately every tenth year since the development of 1G systems in 1981-1982. Every new generation of cellular standard has new frequency bands, higher data transfer rates, improved communication protocols, and wider coverage but does not necessarily support any backward compatible transmission technology. First generation wireless networks provided basic voice services and used analog-based protocols. The second-generation wireless networks designed for voice services improved in both coverage and capacity. They introduced digital standards such as GSM and CDMA. Second generation and its improved version namely 2.5G used GPRS standard and EDGE network to deliver packet-switched data capabilities to existing GSM networks allowing users to send data as packets though at a slower speed. Third generation networks support services that provide a data transfer rate of at least 200 Kbps. The later 3G releases, i.e. 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbps to ensure its use for wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV technologies. Third Generation networks use UMTS, the radio technology called W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) having an advantage of high transfer rate, and increased system capacity and communication quality by statistical multiplexing. W-CDMA utilizes efficiently the radio spectrum to provide a maximum data rate of 2 Mbps. LTE is a wireless communications standard developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is designed to provide up to ten times speeds of 3G networks for mobile devices. Based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, they increase the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements. According to ITU, LTE together with technologies such as WiMAX, HSPA+ can be called as 4G technologies. True 4G unlike 3G, is based on packet switching only. 4G is an evolution of 3G technologies such as WCDMA, HSDPA, CDMA2000 and EVDO that uses voice communications. Besides other, it includes LTE, UMB, and WiMax (IEEE 802.16). The primary goals of 5G wireless networks is to support a 10000-fold gain in capacity, connection for at least 100 billion devices, and 10Gbps delivered to individual users. Additionally, these new networks will be capable of providing mass low-latency connectivity between people, machines. The deployment of 5G networks are expected to begin from year 2020. LTE, 4G and 5G networks use Internet Protocol (IPv6) which possibly can create loopholes and many security challenges for these networks. This presentation will discuss current advances in mobile communication networks especially LTE, 4G and 5G networks and security challenges in IP based telecommunication networks. It will also discuss challenges and requirements in the RAN (Radio Access Network) layer.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: 4G LTE; 5G; RAN; Radio Access Network; IP Telecommunication Networks

30 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 900421 E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-024

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Iftikhar Hussain Bhat* Department of Law, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Digital communication technologies have become part of everyday life. By dramatically improving access to information and real-time communication, innovations in communication technology have boosted freedom of expression, facilitated global debate, and fostered democratic participation. By amplifying the voices of “human rights” defenders and providing them with new tools to document and expose abuses, these powerful technologies offer the promise of improved enjoyment of human rights. As contemporary life is played out ever more online, the Internet has become both ubiquitous and increasingly intimate. In the context of privacy, the technological developments have created a new reality, on both the legal and the practical level. While technological progress has changed the rules of the game completely, the legal system lags behind. While lawyers are still thinking over the appropriate form of regulation and its appropriate boundaries, the violators of privacy are accumulating knowledge, power, and information and impose norms of conduct, which will be almost impossible to uproot. A reality where there is no law and order raises the question: is it still possible to protect privacy? All of these issues lead to legal questions about the appropriate scope of the right to privacy and the choice of the best form of regulation. Against this background, this paper will critically examine the impact of digital media on right to privacy. Necessarily it will bring in discussions on the relevant international and national legal framework guaranteeing the human right of privacy. In conclusion, some suggestions will follow to protect right to privacy in the digital environment.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Digital media; Privacy; Human Rights; Internet

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Right to Privacy in Digital Environment

31 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9469 421704. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-025

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

A Technique to Detect and Prevent Malicious Covert Communication M. Tariq Banday, Shafiya Afzal Sheikh* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Advances in technology have led to the development of covert communication between air-gapped computers using media that usually have not been designed for communication or data transfer. Covertly communicating computers do not use standard networks such as LAN, Internet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. but instead they use ultrasonic audio signals beyond 20MHZ frequency for communication. Although covert communication can be used for establishing secure communication between computing devices, however, if it is not adequately designed it may create a new security threat to the information by making it possible to covertly transmit and receive data or secretly leak critical data. It can also be used to remotely send application commands, which can cause malfunctioning of devices. This study reports the results of establishing a covert communication channel between two computers using Morse Coded ultrasonic audio signals. Two programs (sending program and receiving program) were developed to study the possibility of security threats to the information stored in the communicating computers. The sending program transmits data through Morse Coded ultrasonic audio signal from its speakers and the receiving program records through microphone that transmitted Morse Coded ultrasonic audio signal, decodes and stores the original data transmitted by the sending computer. This scheme works securely; however, malicious covert communication programs can be spread through various conventional communication channels without the knowledge of the user. Further, current antivirus and antispyware programs do not necessarily monitor audio-based communicating programs; therefore, this form of communication can create severe information security threats because it is possible to gain access to the computers. The study proposes and discusses a technique to detect and prevent such malicious covert communications between two computing devices. Programs were developed to notify users using computers infected with malicious covert communication programs through visual alerts. The program provides option to stop the malicious covert communication. The performance evaluation of the proposed preventive measure, its future scope, and the shortcoming, of covert communication technique are also discussed.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Covert Communication; Covert Channel; Malicious Covert Communication; Malicious Communication Programs; Information Security

32 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9469 177449. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-026

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Study of Channel Estimation Techniques in Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) - A Review G. M. Bhat ,Uzma*, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is a strong candidate for high data rate system for wireless multimedia applications. The OFDM is Multicarrier Modulation (MCM) technique in which the data stream, to be transmitted, is divided into a number of smaller sub-streams which are transmitted using a set of sub-carriers. The subcarriers have the least frequency separation required to maintain the orthogonality of their time-domain waveforms. MIMO on the other hand is an antenna arrangement wherein more than one antenna is used at the transmitter as well as at the receiver. It enhances the spectral efficiency of the system and channel capacity at low power. In any wireless system, channel estimation is an exigent problem because unlike a guided media the radio channel is highly dynamic. Channel Estimation (CE) is the process of characterizing the impact of the physical medium on the input sequence. It is an important and necessary function for wireless systems. This paper presents an extensive overview of CE techniques employed for MIMO-OFDM system. The advantages, drawbacks, and relationship of these estimation techniques with each other are analyzed and discussed. There are three basic blocks affecting the performance of CE, pilot pattern, the estimation method used and signal detection. The various techniques for CE are broadly classified into two categories, blind and non-blind techniques. The most conducted search in this field is the subset of these techniques. Transform domain techniques have also been stated for CE. However, it has been stated that it does not provide better performance with guard bands since transform domain technique introduces CIR path leaks due to the suppression of unused subcarriers. In addition to these techniques, spatial correlation can also be exploited in the CE as the use of multiple antennas in MIMO-OFDM brings another dimension (spatial domain) in addition to frequency and time domain. Various issues about the choice of estimation method to be used, are to be taken care of which include required performance, computational complexity and time variation of the channel. The utilization of the estimation techniques depends upon the field of application and thus choice should be made accordingly.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Keywords: Multicarrier Modulation; MCM; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; OFDM; Multiple Input Multiple Output; MIMO; Spatial Multiplexing; Antenna Diversity; Channel Estimation

33 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 090421. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-027

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Fire and Gas Leakage Detection and Solution Technique Based on Secured Android Platform Prasun Shrivastava, Akash Singha, Sidra Effendib*, Preeti Raia a

School of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India b School of Computer Science and Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India

Abstract In this 21st century, several explosions due to household Gas cylinders have been reported. Many such explosions can be prevented, if some device having capability to detect pre-explosion atmosphere in the premise is designed. The NCRB has reported that 586 people died in Tamil Nadu because of explosion of cooking gas cylinders and Gujarat registered 735 such deaths. This work is about designing a device that can detect such explosive environments. This safety device will be self-sufficient so that it can warn a user if there is a Gas leakage or a fire alarm in the house or in any other part of the house by the help of mushroomed technique of a GSM Module. The GSM Module if further linked up with an Android Application that can inform the user and its family members by a network established with the help of Qualnet Software. The device is essentially an embedded application of multiple electronic modules designed in a mainframe, which can further manipulate the output. Mechanical infrastructure in the form of a remote device that is capable of detecting the thermal intensity level and can reach to that destination and can imply an interrupt i.e. INT1 of micro controller AT89S52 has been attached. The device will reach to that location and will perform pre-built in Task’s which are burnt into the micro-controller. As soon as the fire extinguisher “attached by actuators and relays” will be released another interrupt i.e. INT0 will be generated through which it will inform 108 “Nationalized Ambulance Contact Number” and will give up the location of the fire location with the help of GPS Module attached to the device. The device is different from other similar devices. Firstly, it uses a pre-defined network in which the message will propagate. Secondly, it permits connection and availability of the service in a secured Android Platform. Thirdly, it is cost effective solution for the modern mushrooming retorts of Fire and Gas leakage.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: AT89S52; MQ-7 CM Gas Sensor; GPS; GSM; Android Apllication; Secure; Reliable; Qualnet

34 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796 290189. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-028

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Muzafar Ahmad Sofi*, Syed Ishfaq Manzoor, Asif Iqbal Kawoosa Department of Computer Sciences, Amar Singh College , Srinagar, India

Abstract As the number of organizations, that start establishing their own internal networks are increasing day-by-day and today’s business is not located at specific place but there are number of organizations that have offices at distant locations. In addition, all established internal networks do not use their own communication media instead use the public networks to build their private networks. Thus employees of any business organization very often need to connect to internal private networks over the internet (which by nature is insecure) from homes, hotels, airports or from other external networks where they cannot afford to have their own communication media. Security becomes a measure consideration while accessing these internal networks over internet. Finding well-written, unbiased information about Virtual Private Networking is difficult, primarily because VPNs by their nature are not easy to explain. A "network within a network," VPNs utilize the concept of "tunneling" to transmit private communications over public lines. A VPN system depends on complex low-level networking technologies including specialized protocols. The details of network design, security, and administration can seem intimidating at first. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) has attracted the attention of many organizations looking to both expand their networking capabilities and reduce their operating costs. This paper provides a general overview of VPN and technologies involved in it. It discusses the potential security risks and considerations involved while implementing a VPN.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: VPN; Tunneling Protocol; Security; Information; Protocol

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Information Security in Virtual Private Networks – A Survey

35 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 072008. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-029

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Synthesis of Speech Corresponding to Kannada Scripts, using Concatenative Synthesis Method Deepa Shivanand Chabbi*, Anusha Joshi, Suprita K Shree Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara College of Engineering & Technology, Karnataka, India

Abstract Speech synthesis, the artificial production of human speech is an advancing technology, which can be extended for various useful applications. A speech synthesizer can be implemented in software or hardware products. This paper discusses one of such applications of speech synthesis from the textual information. In India different languages are spoken, each being the mother tongue of tens of millions of people. In India, the dialect of the language changes after every 10 kilometers of distance. Kannada is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken in Indian state of Karnataka, and forms official language of the state. The work presented is the synthesis of speech corresponding to Kannada scripts using concatenative synthesis method. The paper presents the segmentation of Kannada text into the smallest units of the word and concatenating sound pieces extracted from recorded speech that are stored in database to produce speech output. The simulation and performance analysis of the method was carried out using MATLAB 2013, and the results were found to be satisfactory. The proposed work can be very helpful for people with visual impairments or reading disabilities, as any document containing Kannada textual content can be heard in the form of speech. The advancements of this work in the future is expected to make such people self-reliant.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Concatenation; Kannada Language; Segmentation; Speech Synthesis; Sound Extraction; Text to Speech Synthesis

36 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8971 479513. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-030

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Manbir Sandhu*, Purnima Sri Guru Gobind Singh College, Punjab, India

Abstract Cyberspace is a complex environment consisting of interactions between people, software, and services, supported by worldwide distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) devices and networks. Being the mantra of the 21st century ICT has created new vulnerabilities and opportunities of disruption for India and other nations. Cyber security threats manifest themselves in disruptive activities that target individuals, businesses, national infrastructure, and governments. Their effects carry significant risk for public safety, security of nation and the stability of globally linked economy. This paper traces the evolution of cyber threats from simple hacking, viruses, worms, password attacks, spyware to highly sophisticated Advanced Persistent Threat (APT),Metamorphic and Polymorphic malware etc. ; identifies and categorizes the various cyber threats (Bot-Net Operators Spyware, Phishers etc.); discusses the sources of cyber threats; and the critical infrastructures like defense, telecommunication, banking etc. that are endangered. It elaborates upon Indian legal tools already in place to combat the dangers arising from cyber threats, such as the Indian Information Technology Act, 2000, with its 2008 amended provisions, laws such as Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act, Intellectual Property Rights laws, banking laws etc., that complement the current Indian cyber law framework. Research and development (R&D) in the area of cyber security is also of immense importance and is the need of the hour. Such research must contribute and lead to further development of cyber laws and regulatory mechanisms of the country. R&D activities being carried out through premier institutions in the country, facilitating creation of R&D infrastructure, development skills and solution-oriented development, have also been highlighted in this paper. Stress is laid on new technologies and a workforce with the skills to detect and repel sophisticated cyber-attacks. Public awareness campaigns on cyber threats, such as Stop, Think, and Connect, that can have a profound impact on stopping cyber-attacks, are also dwelt upon. Finally, it has concluded that there is a propelling need for careful planning; stringent cyber laws and advanced cyber defense strategies, enhanced IT infrastructures globally and more importantly, sensitizing human resources.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cyber Defence; Malware; ICT; Indian Information Act 2000; Cyberspace; Spyware; Bot-Net; Phishing

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Cyberspace - The New Battleground (A Survey)

37 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9815 403227. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-031

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Advances in RF Power Amplifier Design Technologies Mohammad S. Hashmi* IIIT Delhi, New Delhi, India and University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Abstract High Frequency power amplifier (PA) performance, output power, conversion efficiency and linearity etc. is significantly influenced by the terminal voltage and current time varying waveforms that develop at the transistor terminals; terminal waveforms are the unifying theoretical link between transistor technology, circuit design and system performance. Thus, waveform engineering should be a major objective driving the power amplifiers design flow. However, in practice, while waveform engineering may be a guiding principle, the lack of appropriate RF waveform measurement tools has hindered its direct application at high frequencies. Past ten years have seen the development of a number of RF characterization systems capable of measuring RF voltage and current waveforms. Coupling such systems with impedance control hardware (known as load-pull systems) enables experimental control (Engineering) of these terminal RF waveforms during measurements. Such experimental setups essentially provide practical RF Waveform Measurement & Engineering solutions. This talk will discuss some of these emerging systems and show they are now finally enabling practical waveform engineering to be directly undertaken within the power amplifier design. It will also be demonstrated that these systems provide design support either through direct utilization of the measurement system in the design investigation/evaluation loop, or through indirect use by providing CAD accessible datasets. Time permitting - few PA design and characterization examples utilizing measurement data will be discussed.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Radio Frequency Power Amplifier; Efficiency; Linearity; Nonlinear Measurement System; Calibration

38 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 1126 907453. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-032

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Rafi Ahmad Khana,Sameer Sadiq Sofib* a

The Business School, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India Department of Computer Science, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India

b

Abstract Face Recognition is a computer application for automatically identifying a person from a still image or video frame. The face recognition problem is challenging, as it needs to account for all possible appearance variation caused by change in illumination, facial features, occlusions, pose, face expression, identity etc. It has received a great deal of attention over the last few years because of its many applications in various domains. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint recognition systems. Some facial recognition algorithms identify facial features by extracting landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and jaw. These features are then used to search for other images with matching features. Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress the face data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face recognition. A probe image is then compared with the face data. This paper will review algorithms/techniques of neural networks in face recognition. Various techniques are studied and compared in respect of their performance. Some algorithms will be summarized both regarding how useful and flexible they are to recognize human faces. The main purpose is to gain some experience with some of the most commonly available face recognition algorithms, also compare, and contrast the use of neural network as the best technique available for facial recognition.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Face Recognition; Person Identification; Biometrics; Neural Networks

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Face Recognition Using Neural Networks

39 *Presenting Author. Tel.: + 91 9797 935724. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-034

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Light Fidelity (Li-Fi): A Novel Way of Wireless Communication Umer Ashraf*, Wasim Ahmed Parray Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, India

Abstract Light fidelity is an advanced wireless technology, which uses visible light as a means of communication. The concept of light fidelity is based on the intensity modulation of light emitting diode (LED). Data can be encoded in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice, so the output appears constant. The transmitted light is detected by a high sensitivity receiver. Until now data rate up to 1Gbps have been achieved. Due to bandwidth intensive applications like triple play services, high-definition TV (HDTV) and online gaming the radio spectrum seems to be highly saturated . Higher radio frequencies (RF) increase complexity and interference which limit the data rate. Data transfer through illumination eliminates these limitations by communicating in visible light spectrum, which is much wider than RF spectrum. Li-Fi can produce data rates faster than 10Mb/s, which is far quicker than average broadband connection. Hence, a future can be envisioned having light as transmitting medium to our laptops, smart phones and tablets. By implementing such technology, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) can be replaced to a large extend. The various performance parameters of Li-Fi like efficiency, capacity, availability, and security are satisfactory. This technology can be made versatile by developing hybrid combination of RF and Li Fi .Due to the advent of this technology, the life of wireless communication is prolonged.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Light Emitting Diode; LED; Radio Frequency; Light Fidelity; Li-Fi; Wireless Fidelity; Wi-Fi; High-Definition TV

40 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7298 286015. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-035

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

M.Tariq Banday, Javeed Iqbal Reshi* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract One of the most important considerations in the design of digital circuits is its power dissipation. Due to the erasure of bits during logic operations, conventional digital circuits dissipate substantial amount of energy thereby increasing power consumption. Irreversible logic operations dissipate unevenly the logic signal energy, which itself has a lower bound due to thermal noise. Increasing operating frequency of computers is one of the main parameters to improve their performance; however, this significantly increases power dissipation. Significant reduction in power consumption can be achieved if digital circuits are so designed and developed that they do not erase bits during logic operations. Reversible computing motivated by Von Neumann-Landauer (VNL) does not destroy bits during logic operations. This has led to the development of various reversible gates such as Feynman Gate, Fredkin Gate, Peres Gate, etc. Reversible logic has received great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation. Bennett was the first researcher to demonstrate the concept of reversible computing. Computers based on reversible logic operations can reuse a fraction of the signal energy that can approach close to 100% if the quality of the devices used in their construction are improved. Reversible computing has thus made construction of computers with high performance possible at fixed levels of power dissipation. Reversible computing has wide applications in advanced computing, low power CMOS design, optical information processing, DNA computing, bio-information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. This paper discusses reversible gates, their advantages over irreversible gates, and their applications. It also discusses challenges in the design of reversible gates for the development of fast and cheap switching devices with adiabatic energy coefficients far below those of transistors, clocking systems that are themselves of very high reversible quality and the design of highly optimized reversible logic circuits and algorithms.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: VLSI; CMOS-Design; Reversible Computing; DNA Computing

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Reversible Computing: Motivation, Progress, and Challenges

41 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 340249. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-036

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Fractional Order Systems: A Future Outlook Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Mohammad Rafiq Dar* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract In 1695, L. Hospital, the famous mathematician, asked another famous mathematician, Leibnitz, “what if the order of the differential/integral is ½?” Leibnitz replied, “it will lead to a paradox, from which one day useful consequences will be drawn”. This is where from the concept of fractional calculus floated in the minds of the mathematicians/scientists. Consequently, mathematicians/scientists started to work on fractional calculus and their applications in different fields. In 20th century, because the world is generally fractional and the behaviour of various physical, biological, chemical, electronic, biomedical, biomedicines, neural etc. systems, laws, and human diseases have been proven fractional, the research in the area of fractional calculus saw a boom. Some examples of such systems are fruits (apple, apricots, plumb, and date fruits), vegetables (potatoes, garlic, and tomatoes), food (milk), electrodynamics, fluid mechanics (ViscoElasticity), quantum mechanics, malaria, cholera, lung cancer, electronic filters, and oscillators, Electro-Cardiography (ECG), ElectoEncephellography (EEG). Besides, characterization of muscle, liver, lung, and spleen tissues have been done in the last decade and so. From the bio-impedance modeling analysis, it has been found that all these organs follow the fractional non-linear dynamics. Therefore, there has been an increasing interest in the field of fractional systems and many prominent institutions/organizations of the country and world are establishing new centers where the scientists/scholars are working on fractional systems. Recently implementation/modeling of fractional systems were put to test for signal processing, biomedical signal processing, control systems, food adulteration tests, image processing etc. and have been found to improve the performance of such systems by a significant amount. In the field of Electronics, scientists are working for the introduction of two new passive elements i.e. Fractional Capacitance and Fractional Inductance abbreviated as “Fractance”. The availability of these fractional passive elements will altogether change the electronic designs and open the gateway for the new advancements in the field. In light of the above, the discussions about the fractional order systems will be carried in the presentation where their implementations and applications will be presented and a light will be thrown on the diverse possible future areas of research of fractional order systems.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Fractional order; Fractance; Bioimepedace; Modelling

42 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 993077. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-037

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Governing Dynamics of VHDL Based Intensity Tracking Solar Panel Junaid Rasool Wani* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Most of the solar panels that are currently in operation are immobile or static i.e. they are unidirectional faced unless manually moved. This leads to the reduction in the panel efficiency, as it does not get maximum intensity light all along. For Example, if the solar panel is facing in the direction opposite to that of the sun it will not get charged, thus defeating the purpose. The concept behind the development of a more efficient solar panel is to scheme and bring into existence a system, which can automatically track the direction of light of maximum intensity. This can be achieved by controlling the panel position in accordance with the sun to receive maximum light. To align the panel in such positions, a stepper motor comes into play. The study reveals that a stepper motor can be commanded to move and hold positions. The main components of this system include a solar panel, LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), CPLD (complex programmable logical device) board with VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description language) inbuilt, stepper motor, and its driving circuit. In this experiment, two LDRs are fixed on the solar panel at two distinct points. LDR is used to detect light and it varies its resistance in accordance with the amount of light it receives. This change in resistance is reflected as change in voltage, which is fed to the CPLD as input. This system is programmed using VHDL. The output from the CPLD is directed to the stepper motor. Thus, the CPLD monitors the voltage level of LDRs and directs the motor operation accordingly or in other words, the variation in the resistance of LDRs due to the variation in the light intensity drives the stepper motor towards normal incidence of light i.e towards maximum intensity. The main purpose of this system is to track the direction of light with maximum intensity, thus the name “Solar Tracking System”. To control the whole system a VHDL based CPLD board programming has been used. The LDR has been used as a sensor to monitor the intensity of light at 30-degree each or 180-degree total. This causes the motor to rotate the panel in the desired direction or angle. Thus ultimately increasing the efficiency of the solar panel.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Solar Tracking System; LDR; CPLD; VHDL; Stepper Motor

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

43 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9018 116905. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-039

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Integrated Biomedical System Design: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospective Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Imran Nazir Beigh* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Last two decades have seen major breakthroughs in the field of healthcare. Several new techniques and systems have been introduced to add comfort to the patients. In this direction, the introduction of human implants has remained a major focus of the researchers. Apart from the fact that some human implants, such as pacemaker and cochlear implant, have been transformed into commercial products, work is going on several new human implants, such as retinal implant. These implants are aimed to give the life support to the patients or even have taken over the natural organs. All these advancements in healthcare/medical field have been possible due to the tremendous developments of VLSI technology. Apart from the diagnostic techniques where the focus is on non-invasive patients stimulus, many new and old implants are researched for improvements in terms of small dimensions, low-power consumption, portability, low/no replacement etc. For all these features, the solution lies in the integrated design of biomedical systems. Therefore, several techniques are being proposed for the integrated biomedical system design where the efforts are made to: reduce the overall area of the biomedical systems on the chip, reduce the power consumption of the system, increase the compatibility with the human body, increase the lifetime of the integrated biomedical systems etc. New developments with regard to physically impaired patients are also emerging where the artificial prosthesis are stimulated by the brain signals to carry on the motor actions like the natural ones. Furthermore, many new techniques are being proposed for interfacing the biomedical systems with the human body. Due to these facts, the biomedical sensor technology is also emerging as one of the thrust research areas of biomedical engineering. In addition, the work is going on to develop biomedical systems without the external battery rather supplied by the bio-potentials of the human body alone. This will eliminate the problem of replacing the biomedical prosthesis, which is one of the major discomforts for the patients right now. In light of the above, the discussions about the integrated electronic systems for Biomedical engineering will be carried out in this presentation where the issues, challenges, and future scope of integrated electronic biomedical system design will be presented.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Systems; Electronic Prosthesis

44 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 730217. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-040

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Anatomization of the Hardware Implementation of Neural Networks Farooq Ahmad Khanday, Nasir Ali Kant* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Neural Networks are the mathematical models that mimic the behavior of the human neurons. They come in the category of intelligent systems, which have the inherent property of adapting in different conditions. These networks have proven to have a high level of capability in solving many complex engineering problems that are beyond the computational range of the conventional procedure. Neural Networks find their applications in almost all fields of science. The key features of Neural Networks are parallel processing, continuous-time dynamics, and global interaction of network elements. We have many examples in open literature showing neural network codes running on Von Neumann Computers leading to the software implementation of Neural Networks. However, in case of the software approach, the holdup to the network speed is due to the processing speed of the machine in addition to the fact that the processing in this case is done sequentially and therefore some or most of the aforementioned key features of Neural Networks are not achieved using software implementation approach. All these features can be fully utilized only by its hardware approach rather than the software one. Thus, it is important to look out for the methods by which one can achieve the hardware implementation of Neural Networks. So far as hardware implementation of the Neural Networks is concerned, it is going at a dawdling pace and there are still few commercially available Neural Networks implemented in hardware. The main reason for this are the complexity associated due to the interconnectivity of neuron cells in the network and the training of these networks, which mostly is done using the software approach. Furthermore, as the complexity increases, the concern shifts towards the power consumption and the voltage of operation. In the aforementioned context, flexibility and power consumption (in order to satisfy a wide range of applications) are the important aspects to be kept into consideration in the hardware implementation of Neural Networks. The designer must thus look for the design technique to achieve the said goal of low-power lowvoltage hardware circuit designs for Neural Networks. Hardware implementation of neural networks can be achieved through analog or digital means. However, analog realization of the Neural Networks provides a fast and power efficient realization compared to the digital realization whereas the feature of flexibility can also be added by employing tunable analog-hardware. As far as power consumption is concerned, there are different techniques already available in the open literature such as companding. The biggest issue that remains is onchip training of the Neural Networks, the solution of which lies in the programmable hardware, that can be later programmed for some specific application as is done in application specific integrated circuit design. In light of the above, the discussions about the Neural Networks and their hardware implementations will be carried out in this presentation and the issues concerning the hardware implementation of Neural Networks will be discussed.

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Artificial Neural Networks; Hardware Implementation of Neural Networks; Integrated Circuit Design

45 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 937561. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-041

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Effect of New Hybrid Techniques on Speech Compression Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Shabir Ahmad Parah, Sakeena Akhtar* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Speech compression is one of the active areas of research in Information Theory for efficient transmission of speech over computer and wireless networks. A new technique for speech compression using combination of Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) with Transform Coding has been proposed and evaluated in this paper. The conventional compression technique based on Linear Predictive Coding has been replaced with two hybrid models; Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Linear Predictive Coding and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Three different speech signals are compressed by linear prediction, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). We compare the performance of different speech compression techniques on test recorded speech signals. It has been found that hybrid technique of Linear Prediction and Discrete Wavelet Transform outperforms other techniques used in the paper. This work shows that wavelet decomposition in conjunction with other techniques such as Linear Predictive Coding is promising compression technique, which make use of the elegant theory of wavelets. The performance has been evaluated using Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Compression Ratio (CR). With improved MSE, PSNR, and CR of the present technique in comparison with other techniques used for the purpose, it can be concluded that the proposed scheme has a lot of scope in wireless communication where bandwidth and Quality of Service (QOS) are two important factors.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Linear Predictive Coding; LPC; Discrete Cosine Transform; DCT; Discrete Wavelet Transform; DWT; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio; PSNR; Compression Ratio; CR

46 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 448199. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-042

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Performance Enhancement of Digital Receivers Using Interpolation Multirate Filter Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Jai Preet Kour Wazir*, Shabir Ahmad Parah, G. M. Bhat Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Multirate Digital Systems employ multiple sampling rates in their processing. Multirate Digital System finds applications in software radios, image compression, antenna systems, and communication. In any communication system, it is preferred to convert very high sampling frequency to processor frequency. Multirate filters have application in Multirate Digital System. This paper presents the design of multirate Cascaded Integrated-Comb filter for better performance in digital receivers. In a communications system, two systems can be working at dissimilar rate, which involves a rate change process. This can be realized by the usage of a decimator or an interpolator. Cascaded Integrated Comb filter has wide applications in low-cost employment of interpolators and decimators. Interpolation is establishment to increase the sampling frequency of the comb signals with respect to the sampling frequency systems. The multirate filtering techniques are extensively used in sampling rate conversion systems and creating filters with equal input and output sampling rates. By using the multistage method, the total number of coefficients is expressively reduced. Cascaded Integrated Comb filter is a multiplier less realization digital filter. The interpolation Cascaded Integrated Comb filter is presented in this paper. QPSK technique is employed. Comparison of Butter Worth and Cascaded Integrated Comb filter is done for better performance of Digital receivers in terms of reduced BER (Bit error rate). The analysis of design is done using MATLAB.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multirate Digital System; Sample Rate; Cascaded Integrated Comb Filter; QPSK; Butter Worth Filter; Interpolation

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

47 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 274966. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-043

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Impact of Cyber Security Challenges and Necessary Preventive Measures on Information Security with Reference to Expansion of Internet Wali Mohd Dara*,Tariq Rasoolb a

Islamic University of Science andTechnology,Awantipora,Pulwama, India Department of Computer Scence, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

b

Abstract In the present scenario when social reliance on cyber space is increasing exponentially with approximately 3.035 billion Internet users frequently using cyber space. This number is increasing after every slice of a second. As world is witnessing widespread system interconnection and dependence of users, organizations, business establishments, healthcare, defense, nuclear manipulations, aerospace, industries, and countries in digital technologies and infrastructure. Societies have fully witnessed transformations into information societies with 60% internet users from developing countries and 45% from the rest of the world mostly young below 30years of age. Therefore, misuse of this gigantic platform has also increased drastically. There are indications as of now felt worldwide about the Cyber threats and attacks. There are also apprehensions that Cyber criminals are trying to penetrate into the critical Networks of National & International importance with the intention of stealing intellectual property like security policies and strategic plans for destructive purposes. In this paper, some important preventive measures are highlighted to safeguard the important assets so that these challenges can be accessed technically. Further, measures are described that can be undertaken at institutional levels through knowledgeable means in order to device and implement a strategy to prevent any threats , so that proper planning and awareness about these challenges is done well in time to avoid and minimize the impact of any such an eventuality (challenges) in future.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cyber Security; Intellectual Property; Technical Institutions; Preventive Measures

48 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8803350785 E-mail address:[email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-044

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Performance Evaluation of Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) using Transform Techniques in MIMO-OFDM Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Mehboob ul Amin*, Shabir Ahmad Parah, G.M. Bhat Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Peak-to-average power ratio is regarded as one of the major drawbacks for Multi-carrier Communication. The existence of high peaks in the transmitted OFDM signal results in increase in Bit-error-rate of the system and it can degrade the system performance. Various techniques have been proposed and simulated for the reduction of high peak-to-average value of the transmitted signal. In this paper, we have proposed new techniques of Square root and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for the reduction of PAPR. The OFDM modulator has been implemented by Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). The output of IFFT is given to the OSTBC encoder with variable number of transmit and receive antennas and various Multiple-ary route numbers are defined for various PSK modulations. A novel Selective level mapping method is used for calculating peak-to-average power ratio for every route using Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function. The signal’s complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) for different PAPR values is plotted for graphical depiction of the performance of the proposed technique. DCT and SQRT technique are applied to reduce the PAPR. The SQRT technique provides sufficient reduction in peak and DCT spreads the signal, thereby reducing the peak. The hybrid technique i.e. the combination of two techniques that is SQRT and DCT further helps in the reduction of PAPR and gives us the best possible result. Simulations results shows that the hybrid technique used in this paper gives significant reduction in PAPR as compared to the existing techniques used for the reduction of PAPR.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Output; MIMO; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; OFDM; Discreet Cosine Transform; DCT; Selective Level Mapping; SLM

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

49 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596-127081

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-045

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Migration to Cloud through Microsoft AZURE Abdul Wahid* Islamia college of Science and Commerce, Srinagar, India

Abstract Computing is being transformed to a model consisting of services that are commoditized and delivered in a manner similar to utilities such as water, electricity, gas, and telephony. Cloud computing turned utility computing into a reality. Organizations can pay only for what they use which enables a reduction of the investment in IT and leads to the more efficient use of datacenters, while allowing organizations to focus on the IT services they need to hire. The organizations, which provide these services, are Amazon, Microsoft, Google, VMware, and Salesforce and the services are IaaS, PaaS and SaaS. Out of these top players, we focus on Microsoft that has provided us the cloud service known as “Microsoft Azure”. Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure, created by Microsoft, for building, deploying and managing applications, and services through a global network of Microsoft-managed datacenters. It is easy-to-use administration tool, especially for Windows administration and is quite economical. Unlike IaaS provided by Amazon and PaaS offered by Google App Engine, Microsoft Azure uses the mixed PaaS and IaaS strategy, this paradigm makes developing in the cloud fully flexible. Developers could choose PaaS or IaaS depending on their own needs and when developing cloud applications, three components are mainly used: a) Compute service that runs cloud applications, b) Storage service providing persistent storage and d) Service Bus to exchange messages in a loosely coupled way. Cloud computing reduces maintenance and administration costs of IT, reduces energy consumption, provides better protection against disasters through its fault tolerance mechanisms, such as data replication, redundant connections or multiple datacenters, and access to the information and applications from anywhere and through various devices. Migration to the cloud is, primarily accomplished for non-critical business applications, enabling to assure organizations that their core business will not suffer from migration errors, security faults, or lack of data privacy. This period will allow organizations to gain experience with cloud services usage and will enable research advancements to address remaining issues. This presentation shall discuss Microsoft AZURE, and Cloud, their advantages and procedure to migrate to Cloud through Microsoft AZURE.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Azure; IaaS; PaaS; SaaS; Cloud

50 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 405409. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-046

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security A Review of Novel Trends in Gate-Channel Designs for Efficient FinFET Structures Tawseef Ahmad Bhat* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmi, Srinagar, India

Abstract Over the past few decades, research and development efforts in the area of CMOS and Integrated Circuits are oriented towards downscaling the device dimensions of transistor towards nanometer regime to exploit the growth in the number of transistors per integrated circuit (IC), as predicted by Moore’s law and ITRS. However, maintaining such a growth rate is a major challenge for future scale integration of CMOS integrated circuits (IC’s). It is because the continuous down scaling of conventional planar MOSFETs into the nanometer regime has faced serious technological difficulties, due to various short channel effects (SCE’s) that impinge the characteristics of these devices. The scaling potential of these MOS structures has been further sustained by utilizing various advanced techniques; such as use of high-k gate dielectrics, metal gate stacks, channel mobility enhancements, optimal doping profile design, and vertical channel transistors etc. Among these techniques the transition from planar to vertical channel transistor (FinFET) structure has been looked upon as the most significant way to scale down the transistor well below in the nanometer regime. FinFET is the most promising vertical channel transistor structure, which is formed by a narrow silicon ridge, or Fin that rises up from the wafer surface and rests on an insulating layer of silicon dioxide (SOI structure). The gate drapes across the Fin, giving rise to a multi-gate structure compared to a single gate planar transistor. The multiple gate architecture surrounding its ultra-thin body gives the enhanced channel electrostatic control, leading to much better SCE performance of these devices in the nanometer regime. The present work reviews the development of novel technological trends incorporated in various Gate-Channel designs for efficient FinFET structures. A Study of various electrical characteristics of FinFET and their dependence on device geometrical parameters has been reviewed. A comparative study of various design techniques used in threshold adjustment has been presented. Study of various critical short channel effects (SCE’s) with respect to varying doping density and gate work function for threshold voltage adjustment has been presented. A very critical aspect of parasitic corner effect in FinFET structures is studied with respect to different parameters, such as doping density, gate oxide thickness, and corner rounding.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: FinFET; ITRS; SCE’s; Threshold Voltage; Corner Affects

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

51 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 807256. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-048

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Fault Tolerant QCA Implementations: A Survey F. A. Khanday, Zubair Ahmad Bangi* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA) is a new technology in nanometre scale to circumvent limitations of CMOS technology. Quantumdot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology has a large potential to provide high density and ultra-low power dissipation. These features enable us to develop fast, small and high performance QCA circuits for digital computations. The major impediments in QCA are faults and defects. Therefore, QCA design techniques where the circuits are insensitive to these faults/defects are very important and one of the contemporary areas of research for scientists in the QCA domain. These faults arise because of several reasons. The logic unit in Quantum - dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is the QCA cell, which is composed of four quantum dots where electrons may lie. These infinitesimal nanometre structures are much prone to manufacturing defects as well as other faults and the fundamental characteristics of QCA cell is that it interacts with many neighboring cells and may cause flawed operation. In this presentation, various faults of the Quantum–dot Cellular Automata (QCA) design will be discussed and their fault tolerant solutions will be provided and discussed in detail. The distinction between the conventional and fault tolerant circuits shall be demonstrated by some comparative examples as well.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Nano-Electronics; Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata; QCA; Fault Tolerant Systems

52 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 434488. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-049

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

M. Mustafa, Mohammad Rafiq Beigh* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmi, Srinagar, India

Abstract The endless progress of microelectronics has been a result of the semiconductor industry's ability to scale down the transistor dimensions continuously, which is the fundamental computing component of the modern computer. Clearly, this scaling cannot continue forever because of either technology limits or the adverse effects resulting due to miniaturization below certain limit. One of the challenges to continue transistor scaling is being noticed even today, namely leakage currents through the gate oxide. This leakage current results from quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons from the gate electrode through the oxide and into the transistor channel. As transistors continue to shrink, more and more of these quantum effects will start to overwhelm their operation. Because of the legacy of the transistor, researchers are trying many different approaches to maintain the functionality of the transistor at ever-smaller scales. Instead of continuously struggling to maintain transistor functionality at smaller scales without much success there is a need to find a device that works on a different principle, such that it performance gets improved as its features are reduced rather than worsen, like the transistor. It is believed that the future of emerging research devices will deviate from the conventional scaling and will be driven by functional diversification, a trend also known as “More-than-Moore”. Many emerging research device and architecture concepts have been proposed to replace CMOS transistors and Boolean logic with the promise of better performance, e.g., fast speed, low power, better scalability, etc. Many of them are based on new material properties (e.g., carbon electronics) or alternative state variables for computation (e.g., Spintronic). Thorough benchmark has revealed that few emerging devices and paradigms can surpass CMOS for general-purpose computation. However, some emerging devices and architectures can achieve unique functionalities and superior performance in certain applications. The present paper introduces the recent advances and perspectives in the beyond CMOS era development. The opportunities of functional diversification provided by these emerging research devices and architectures will also be discussed.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Microelectronics; CMOS; Computing; SET; Quantum Computing

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Emerging Devices for More-than-Moore

53 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 741766. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-050

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Performance Evaluation of Multi User DS-SS System over Multipath Fading Channel Using New Gold Code G. M. Bhat, Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, Uzma, Nahiya Malik*, Misbah Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract With the growing advancements in the field of Science and Technology, digital communication systems have become increasingly attractive and thereby facilitated the flexible and cheaper means for a secure and reliable means of data communication. In modern communication systems, spread spectrum is playing an important role due to its various inherent advantages such as noise immunity and due its practical applications such as CDMA based cellular communications. In telecommunication and radio communication spreadspectrum techniques are methods by which a signal generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference, noise and jamming, prevent detection, and to limit density. The work presented in this paper is concerned with the Matlab/Simulink model that simulates the DSSS system with new gold code sequence that has been used to spread the input data. The Gold code sequence has been used to modulate the message signal to produce the corresponding spread baseband modulated signal, which is actually used in much higher proportions for transmission in mobile technologies. In addition, it incorporates a receiver unit, which demodulates the entire received signal with the use of the same Gold code to generate the original message signal. The proposed technique has a lot of scope in various branches of telecommunications including multiuser communication. To combat Multiple Access Interference (MAI) in CDMA systems a new Gold code sequence showing better auto-correlation and cross-correlation than the conventional Gold code has been used in this work. It has been found that the proposed technique shows better performance as compared to conventional technique and the performance has been evaluated on real-time fading channels (Rayleigh and Rician). Moreover, the performance has been computed in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum; Gold Code; Multiple Access Interference; CDMA; Auto-Correlation; Cross-Correlation

54 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596 325050.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-051

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Use of Social Media in Education: A Study with Special Reference to India Muzamil Masood Mattoo* University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Social media in today’s powerful technological era is a tool for common masses that allows people to create, share, and exchange information, ideas, pictures and videos in virtual communities through various networks. Social media is defined as "a group of Internetbased applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and allow the creation and exchange of usergenerated content.” Web-based learning has made educational media content freely and easily available to the students who download reading material, course notes, and other related reference material, watch video lectures, interactive sessions, with a single click of a mouse. This paper attempts to analyze the impact of social media, its current and promising advantages in teaching-learning process in higher education institutions. The paper also analysizes the real classroom examples of how teachers, students and the educational administrators are harnessing social media to create a better teaching-learning process in educational institutions. It also discusses various issues related to basic infrastructure in higher education institutions, policy perspective, and other issues for the effective use of the technology in this age of global learning. The paper further explores student’s use of various social media tools such as Facebook, Google Education, Google Drive, Wikipedia, Blogging, Word clouds, Tag clouds, E-mail learning, Social Networking, Office Online, e-Portfolio, Collaborative Graphic Aids, etc. along with the traditional teaching learning at the higher education institutions. Furthermore, it discusses the idea of creating educational micro-communities and various other channels, which among other include creating ICT literacy community.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Social Media; Teaching-Learning; Education; Social Media Policy on Education; Social Media Framework

*Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 000360.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-053

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

55

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Study of Machine Learning Algorithms for Developing Calibration Model For Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement G.M.Bhata, Bilal Ahmad Malikb, Asma Nazir Naqasha* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India b University Science Instrumentation Center, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Diabetes Mellitus includes several different metabolic disorders that results in impaired blood glucose concentration control due to less or no production of insulin (type-I) in the pancreas or degraded insulin regulation in the body (type-II). To keep the blood glucose level within the acceptable range especially in type-I the affected individuals mainly children need to rely on the regular insulin injections and frequent blood glucose measurements. One of the major issues of the diabetics is the non-compliance of the patients due to invasive procedure of the glucose measurement which could lead to the uncontrolled blood glucose levels and hence hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and later life health complications. This could be addressed by non-invasive glucose measurement that will eliminate the frequent pricking of skin to take the blood sample for glucose test and lessen the pain and sufferings of the diabetics. A lot of work has been done towards the non-invasive glucose measurement to address the calibration challenge but none has been clinically accepted till date. The aim of this work is to come up with the machine learning algorithms for non-invasive glucose measurement acceptable to the clinicians. Various machine learning algorithms coupled with appropriate Digital Signal Processing methods has improved the calibration models by minimizing the Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) in comparison to the traditional techniques such as Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). This paper involves discussion over the acquired results with the existing models and the future perspectives.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Non-invasive; Hypoglycaemia, Hyperglycaemia; Calibration; Machine Learning Algorithms; Standard Error of Prediction; Principal Component Regression; Partial Least Squares Regression

56 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797 098660.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-056

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Deepak Kumar* JJT University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India

Abstract “Bufferbloat” is the growth in buffer size that has led Internet delays to exceed occasionally the light propagation delay from the Earth to the Moon. Manufacturers have implemented large buffers to prevent losses on Wi-Fi, cable and ADSL links. However, the combination of some links’ limited bandwidth with TCP’s tendency to saturate that bandwidth results in excessive queuing delays. In response, new congestion control protocols such as Bit Torrent’s uTP/LEDBAT aim at explicitly limiting the delay that they add over the bottleneck link. There has been a renewed interest at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in using Less-than-Best Effort (LBE) methods for background applications. IETF recently published a RFC for Low Extra Delay Background Transport (LEDBAT), a congestion control algorithm for LBE transmissions. The Low Extra Delay Background Transport (LEDBAT) protocol is a recently standardized protocol that aims to offer a scavenger service (i.e. the goal is to exploit the remaining and unused capacity of a link). LEDBAT is a delay-based protocol mainly defined by two parameters: a target queuing delay and a gain. A new delay-based congestion control for this type of P2P background traffic has been proposed. It attempts to utilize the full upstream capacity in the absence of other traffic, otherwise yields to that traffic. In this presentation, an attempt is made to debate on the recently proposed congestion control algorithms.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Bufferbloat; AQM, LEDBAT;, Queuing Delay; TCP Loss Based Technique

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Slow Internet? More Bandwidth is not the Answer

57 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9812 881611. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-057

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Structural, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Sr doped LaVO4 Rubiya Samad, Sajad A. Mir, Khalid Sultan, Zubida Habib and M. Ikram* Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.

Abstract Polycrystalline bulk samples of La1-xSrxVO4, with x = 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were prepared and investigated in order to observe changes in structural and dielectric properties with the substitution. With diffraction methods a change in crystal structure from monoclinic with space group P21/n to tetrahedral with space group I4m3 was observed for the substituted Sr doped LaVO4. The room temperature Raman spectroscopic, UV spectroscopy and photo luminescent measurements were also carried out to investigate the optical properties of this material. AC conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent measurements were carried out in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range 200 C to 3500 C. The experimental results indicate that both dielectric constant and AC electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature. There is also decrease in the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent with frequency. Study of dielectric behavior of these materials show that there is huge increase in dielectric constant with the increase in Sr content in LaVO4. In all the samples, the resistivity increased with increase in temperature and it reaches maximum at 3000 C and then decreases with further increase in temperature.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Solid State Technique;. XRD; Raman Spectroscopy; UV-Spectroscopy; Dielectric

58 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8717 000375. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-069

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Manu Raj Moudgil* JJT University,Jhunjhunu, Punjab, India.

Abstract Statistical approach of Machine Translation (SMT) is a process of automatically translating one natural language (source language) to another natural language (target language) with some probability. The best translation, of course, is the sentence that has the highest probability. This abstract introduces SMT and the tools needed to develop a Statistical Machine translation system. Many machine translation systems have been developed for Indian languages namely: Anusaarka System, Mantra, AnglaBharti, AnuBharti Technology, Punjabi to Hindi Machine Translation System, Hindi-Punjabi Machine Translation System, Hindi-Dogri Machine Translation System using different approaches, which include direct approach, syntactic approach, and example based approach. Currently, MT research work is focusing on the probability based translation system that is Statistical Machine Translation System. IBM has started work on EnglishHindi translation system using Statistical approach. The key problems in statistical MT are: availability of large parallel corpus, estimating the probabilities of translation, and efficiently finding the sentence with the highest probability. The other problems include sentence alignment, compound words, idiom translation, morphology and out of vocabulary words. Some tools used for development of SMT system are discussed below: Open Source code tools mostly developed in C++ for LINUX/UNIX platforms like Moses, EGYPT, IRST LM, SRILM, PHAROH, Thot, MOOD etc. are being used for developing statistical machine translation systems world-wide. The Moses is the most widely used tool for developing SMT system. MALLET and OpenNLP are Java based tools that can be used on any platform under OSS License. The common tools for developing Translation Model are GIZA and GIZA++. The tools for developing Language Model are SRILM, SLMT, MALLET, YASMET, and IRSTLM. These models are used by specific decoder PHARAOH, ReWrite Decoder, MARIE, Phramer, Ramses, Joshua for language translation. Moses is a statistical machine translation system that allows users to automatically training translation models for any language pair. To do this the user need is a collection of parallel corpus. GIZA++ is a statistical machine translation toolkit that is used to train IBM Models 1-5 and an HMM word alignment model. SRILM is a toolkit for building and applying statistical language models (LMs), mainly use in speech recognition, statistical tagging and segmentation, and machine translation. The process of statistical machine translation as explained by Unnikrishhanan in the development of MTS for English to South Dravidian languages like Malayalam and Kannada. Other tools used at various levels of translation process are: The Stanford statistical parser, Roman to Unicode and Unicode to Roman converter, Morphological analyzer and generators, English morphological analyzer, Malayalam and Kannada morphological analyzers, Malayalam and Kannada morphological generators and Transfer rule file.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Statistical Machine Translation Process and Tools – A Review

Keywords: Statistical Machine Translation; Moses; Morphological Analyzers; SRILM

59 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9417 084332. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-092

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Open School: An M-Learning App for Android M. Tariq Bandaya, Gulzar Ali Sofib* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India b Indra Gandhi National Open University, Regional Centre, Srinagar, India

Abstract Literacy is the foundation to capacity building and has been recognized as human right by the UNESCO. It is fundamental to individual development, with ample benefits for individuals, families, communities, and nation. In today’s society, children of different social backgrounds do not get equal opportunities to learn and reap its benefits as many of them are still denied their right to education. Strategies focused on sustained literacy exposure for extremely marginalized (economically, educationally, geographically, and technologically) indigenous children who have no consistent access to a formal education system are evolving. In developing countries like India, most students are unable to complete their schooling. In literature, Mobile learning is stated as "any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when consuming, interacting with, or creating information mediated through a compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular basis, has reliable connectivity, and fits in a pocket or purse". The extensive use of mobile technologies has led to increase in interest in mobile learning. This presentation will discuss collaborative teaching tools, and salient features of m-Learning to assist the learners at self-pace in an interactive manner by instant availability of content on demand. It shall discuss the design of Open School, a tool to complement the efforts of teachers to integrate technology in learning and link students with Internet in educationally productive ways and provide them a stimulating, positive, and enjoyable environment to study. The tool permits download of data of various types such as pdf files, videos, audio recordings, simulations, images, etc. Learning with Open School tool is a focused learning tool, wherein contents of interest can be revised, and discussion via posting question and answer can be held. The learners have the option to choose learning content based on their interest, thus making learning learner-centric. Unlike many such tools, it can be used in both offline and online modes, therefore learner from far-flung area where Internet connectivity is poor and cannot afford regular Internet connectivity can take advantage of m-Learning.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: M-Learning; App for Android; Educational App; Open Schooling; Mobile Learning

60 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9469 391948. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-099.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Biometrics of Vision: A Comparative Study of Iris & Retinal Biometric Techniques M. Tariq Bandaya, Shakeel Ahmad Darb* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India b Indra Gandhi National Open University, Regional Centre, Srinagar, India

Abstract A biometric system provides automatic recognition and authentication of an individual based on unique physiological or behavioral features or characteristics possessed by that individual. Among all biometrics in use today, vision biometrics offers highest level of uniqueness, universality, permanence, and accuracy. Currently, vision biometric (Iris and Retina) recognition techniques are the most reliable and accurate recognition and authentication techniques. Since the patent awarded work of Leonard Flom and Arin Safir in 1987 for describing methods and apparatus for iris recognition on visible iris features, researchers have worked on iris based identification and authentication and have achieved great progress. Dr. John Daugman of Cambridge University later developed the algorithms, mathematical methods, and techniques to encode iris patterns and compare them in an efficient manner. All commercial applications currently implement Daugman's patented techniques, and currently licensed and marketed through Iridian Technologies, Inc. of Moorestown, New Jersey and Geneva, Switzerland. Before the development of iris scanning, retinal scanning devices were commercially available and utilized in military and other high security applications. Two famous studies confirmed the uniqueness of the blood vessel pattern of retina. In 1935, Dr. Carleton Simon and Dr. Isodore Goldstein laid out that every retina possesses a unique blood vessel pattern. They later suggested that the use of photographs of these blood vessel patterns of retina as a means of identifying people. The second study conducted by Dr. Paul Tower in the 1950’s has discovered that even among identical twins, the blood vessel patterns of the retina are unique. Eye Dentify Inc., created in 1976 was the first major vendor for the research/development and production of retinal scanning devices. The first true prototype of a retinal scanning device developed in 1981 used infrared light to illuminate blood vessel pattern of the retina. Using fundus cameras and other required apparatus Hill who developed several patent owned algorithms, initially examined the applications for the biometric identification and verification. Despite these convincing properties of iris and retinal biometrics, they are not been in widespread use. Moreover, humans have more or less a natural ability to recognize individuals staring at the person's eye. So, it is interesting to investigate as to what extent the eye based biometrics (iris and retina recognition) are capable of distinguishing individuals, and what factors are there, which hinder the adoption of these technologies. The main aim of the work emphasized in this presentation has been to investigate the two biometric traits (iris and retina), conduct a comparative analysis, and identify the working applications and future possibilities towards their ubiquitous use.

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Biometrics; Iris; Retina; Recognition; Identification; Authentication.

61 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 555121 E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-101.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Homes: A Design Prospective M. Tariq Bandaya, Munis Khanb* a

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India b School of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SMVD University, Katra, India

Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the networked interconnection of objects of diverse nature, such as electronic devices, sensors, and physical objects as well as virtual data and environments. It enables everyday objects to be equipped with sensing, processing, identifying, and networking capabilities, which helps them to communicate with each other. The IoT devices are ubiquitous, context-aware and thus enable ambient intelligence. The IoT involves integration of different technologies such as Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), EPC (electronic product code) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to make data sharing and machine-to-machine communication possible. Under the new paradigm of IoT, RFID has become an important enabling technology. In this network, in order to create common operating picture (COP), sensors and actuators are blend seamlessly to share information across platforms. Fuelled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling device technologies such as RFID tags and readers, near field communication (NFC) devices and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and has become the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated “Future Internet”. Smart homes is one of the many growing applications of IoTs. Smart homes offer better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. They optimize user comfort by using context awareness and predefined constraints based on the conditions of the home environment. This presentation proposes an architecture for Home Automation System (Smart Homes) and its implementation using ZigBee and RFID technology. The ZigBee wireless technology is useful for implementing short distance, low complexity, low power consumption, low data rate, and low cost wireless networks. It also discusses the integrated network architecture and the interconnecting mechanisms for reliable measurement of parameters by smart sensors and transmission of data via Internet to create real time awareness RFID enables machines to identify objects, read their status, and communicate with the nearby Smart Objects.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IoT; Internet of Things; Smart Homes; RFID; WSN

62 *Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 745527. E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-102.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Microcontroller based Advanced Vehicle Accident Detection and Prevention System Rouf ul Alam Bhat, Javaid A. Sheikh, Misbah*, Nahiya Malik Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract With the advancement in the field of technology, our life has become easier but at the same time the negative effects cannot be neglected. The number of deaths and fatal injuries from the traffic accidents has been increasing rapidly in the last decade. According to a recent survey captioned as “road accidents survey” conducted by J&K traffic police in 2012 , the number of deaths in J&K state due to traffic accidents outnumber the deaths due to various other causes. Inspite of the immense loss of life due to such accidents, driving still remains an inevitable part of daily routine. Therefore, an urgent need is to prevent such accidents and if an accident happens, its immediate detection must be ensured to provide quick rescue. In this context, the work presented in the paper comprises of two parts: Accident Prevention & Accident Detection. In the first part i.e., Accident prevention, an array of sensors has been used to detect the probability of occurrence of an accident. The main requirement is that the two vehicles should never have any physical contact, so the concept of safe limits has been used. The safe limits are monitored continuously by the controller and an alarm is signaled to the driver through various media like vibration, flashlight, or a buzz. The second part i.e., Accident Detection is implemented using number of sensors that detect the accident. A network of continuity sensors, tilt sensors, temperature and jerk sensors etc. have been used which upon sensing the accident activates the call back system or automatic dial system calling a particular rescue number already stored in the system and thereby helping in immediate rescue operation.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Accident Prevention; Proximity Sensor; Buffer; Microcontroller (AT89S52); Tilt Sensor; Continuity Sensor

z

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

63 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8715 941800.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-103

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Digital Video Watermarking Using Low-Middle Frequency Bands Based on SVD and 3-level DWT Techniques Haweez Showkat*, Nadiya Mehraj Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract In order to maintain the copyright of some work with its owners, robust digital watermarking has become a challenge to researchers. Watermarking is the technique of hiding digital information in a carrier signal; the hidden information may, but does not need to contain a relation to the carrier signal. Digital watermarks may be used to confirm the validity of the carrier signal. In this paper, we offered SVDDWT based Video Watermarking using Low-Middle frequency bands. The work presented in this paper has been carried out on a single watermark image using SVD-DWT robust digital video watermarking technique. The benefits of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and three level Discrete Wavelet Transform (3 Level DWT) are being used as a basic approach to carry out the work. Low and Middle frequency bands are used for entrenching watermark as they offer more robustness against geometric spasms such as cropping, rotation etc. The two parameters such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Correlation Coefficient (CC) under various noise attacks such as Gaussian and Salt & Pepper, geometric attacks like rotation and cropping are used to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results shows that SVD and 3-Level DWT has improved results as compared to the 2 level SVD-DWT hybridization, standalone DWT , SVD, DCT and other known methods.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Correlation Coefficient; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Singular Value Decomposition; Watermark

64 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797-258902.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-104.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

G. M. Bhat, Farhat Roohi* Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Of late, the field of artificial intelligence has been the attraction of both academia and practitioners given its attempt to mimic the intelligence of human brain. However, compared to the precise information of computers most of the real phenomenon are based largely on imprecise human reasoning. This makes it mandatory that while modeling such a process imprecision should be incorporated to make it reflect human reasoning in real sense. Even though attempts are being made to model this characteristic but still the most challenging requirement of AI is to model the imprecision and self-learning characteristics of a real phenomenon. In this direction fuzzy logic, being akin to human thinking, offer an effective way to model such a system. It has the capability, like human brain, to work with uncertainty and imprecision by using linguistic rules. In fuzzy systems imprecision is incorporated by using membership functions, which map a smooth transition from “belonging to a set” to “not belonging to a set” thereby incorporating uncertainty. The parameters and shape of the membership function is defined by using expert knowledge and then fuzzy inference system by using fuzzy reasoning and inference mechanism, generate an appropriate output. Fuzzy inference systems are inference procedures that obtain conclusions from a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules and known facts. Thus, the basic structure of fuzzy inference system rests on fuzzy set theory, fuzzy if-then rules, and fuzzy reasoning and many of the AI uses are based on fuzzy inference systems due to their ability to process imprecise data and ambiguous concepts. Identification of a set of rules for any continuous system has made fuzzy rule based systems universal approximators in the sense that such rules may either be obtained from the opinions of experts or may be extracted from raw data by automatic learning. However, use of experts in identification of rules is not only cumbersome but may lead to variation and/or bias in comparison to the alternative way of rule identification from data automatically. Several approaches to automatic learning have been analyzed so far by the researchers, which has two main aspects: structure identification and parameter identification. While structure identification tries to detect the linguistic label of the variables in the rule, the parameter identification gives the degree for each rule, indicating how well this rule matches the process. Against this backdrop, the current study attempts to provide a framework for auto-generation and self-learning of fuzzy rules from data with the help of neural networks to make artificial intelligence systems more representative of the real phenomenon.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Fuzzy Inference System; Artificial Intelligence; Rule Generation; Neural Network

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Fuzzy Learning Model and Artificial Intelligence

65 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419 425111.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-105.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

A Hybrid Approach for Cloud Bandwidth and Cost Reduction System using Predictive Acknowledgements Syed Sajid Hussain* Department of Computer Science Engineering , Bharath University, Chennai, India

Abstract Tremendous and efficient improvement in the computational world have been witnessed during last few years. One of the area that is leaving its footprints is cloud computing. One of the main trending issue in this computing is traffic redundancy elimination (TRE). Cloudbased TRE needs to apply a judicious use of cloud resources so that the bandwidth cost reduction is optimized together with the additional cost of TRE computation. In this presentation, Hybrid PACK (predictive acknowledgements) regarding TRE systems, an approach that is suitable for cloud computing customers is proposed. Unlike other techniques PACK’s main advantage is its capability of offloading the cloud-server TRE effort to the end clients ,and hence minimizing the overhead and processing costs induced by the TRE algorithm. In the present scenario, the server keeps track of all the end clients. However, this is not the case with the PACK because in this proposed mechanism, a client can manage his own status and hence the server is offloaded. This makes the PACK suitable for pervasive computing. PACK is based on a novel TRE technique, which allows the client as well as server to use newly received chunks to identify previously received chunk chains, which in turn can be used as reliable predictors to future transmitted chunks. A hybrid implementation of the PACK in which there is an active involvement of client and server is presented in this work. Moreover, the chunking signatures are done using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA 2) in order to process variable size of chunks.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Predictive Acknowledgement; Traffic Redundancy Elimination; Caching; Cloud Computing; Network Optimization

66 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906 849440.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-110.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Musavir Ahmed* Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Abstract Manual segmentation/annotation of a speech object in PRAAT is a painstaking and time-consuming process. If the object is a long sound file, the task of annotation becomes further cumbersome. Even though the TextGrid object of PRAAT provides a multi-tier segmentation system, meaning a sound file can be segmented into sentences, words, syllables, and phones, processing time for manual labelling and segmentation remains a major hurdle. EasyAlign is an automatic tool used in PRAAT that aligns speech from an orthographic transcription. The tool has been developed by Goldman (2011). The tool was originally developed for French and later on English was included, and recently Spanish and Taiwan Min have been added. The tool “consists of a group of tools to successively perform utterance segmentation, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion and phonetic segmentation. The whole process starts from a sound file and its orthographic (or phonetic) transcription within a text file or already in Praat’s TextGrid format” (Goldman, 2011). The paper proposes to develop the segmentation tool for Kashmiri language using the free EasyAlign. The process requires a recorded speech of few hours, a list of phonemes of Kashmiri and a grapheme-phoneme conversion tool. For training part, the tool relies on Hidden Markow Model (HMM) based HTK for acoustic modelling. Automatic segmentation/annotation has several applications. It is an important pre-processing step for several advanced speech processing research including speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition etc.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: PRAAT; Annotation; TextGrid, EasyAlign; Kashmiri

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Automatic Annotation in PRAAT for Kashmiri using EasyAlign

67 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 91 9419 023260.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-111.

UGC Sponsored National Seminar On

Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

PG Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Internet Usage in Higher Education: Needs Analysis and Satisfaction T. R. Jana*, Musavir Ahmedb, M. Tariq Banday Department of Statistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India Department of Linguistics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

b

Abstract In the face of ever-growing applications of internet in the multiple domains of modern day society, the impact on teaching and learning process is profound. Recognizing its relevance in teaching and research, institutions of higher learning all over the globe including University of Kashmir have connected to the Internet through multiple links to provide its access to the stakeholders. This study attempts to determine the extent to which Internet users make use of the Internet in the campus by analyzing the various many needs of the community, besides gauging their education and research gratification they derive from its current use. It also examines the usage of online facilities such as e-journals, University research paper report, e-learning tools, online admission, and student/scholar experience, antiplagiarism software’s and other facilities available on the internet. Furthermore, it underscores the factors constraining the desired satisfaction of various stakeholders viz, faculty, research, post graduate and undergraduate students, and the supporting staff. Towards the concluding part of the paper, a set of suggestions have been propounded to minimize the identified limiting factors.

© 2015 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Higher Education; Internet Usage; Needs Analysis; Internet usage Satisfaction.

68 *

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622 461403.

E-mail address: [email protected] Abstract ID: SEEDS-112.

Author Index A. H. Mir A. K. Chaturvedi Abdul Wahid Abdul Quaiyum Ansari Afaq Alam Khan Akash Singh Amrutha Bv Sastry Anand Bharadwaj Bv Sastry Anusha Joshi Asif Iqbal Kawoosa Asma Nazir Naqash Bilal Ahmad Malik Brajesh Kumar Kaushik Chaman Verma Deepa Shivanand Chabbi Deepak Kumar Farhat Roohi Farooq Aadil Rather F. A. Khanday G. Mohiuddin Bhat Gulzar Ali Sofi Hadia Amin Haweez Showkat Iftikhar Hussain Bhat Imran Nazir Beigh Jaipreet Kour Wazir Javaid Ahmad Sheikh Javeed Iqbal Reshi Junaid Rasool Wani Khalid Sultan M. Ikram M. Mustafa M. Tariq Banday Manbir Sandhu Manu Raj Moudgil Mehboob Ul Amin Misbah Mohammad Rafiq Beigh Mohammad Rafiq Dar Muhammad Rayees Bhat Mohammad S. Hashmi

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Author Name Munis Khan Musavir Ahmed Muzafar Ahmad Sofi Muzamil Masood Mattoo Nadiya Mehraj Nahiya Malik Nasir Ali Kant Nida Ul Amin Prasun Shrivastava Preeti Rai Purnima Rafi Ahmad Khan Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi Rouf Ul Alam Bhat Rubiya Samad S. Umira R. Qadri Sajad A. Mir Sakeena Akhtar Sameer Sadiq Sofi Sanjay Dahiya Santanu Chaudhury Shabir A. Parah Shafiya Afzal Sheikh Shakeel Ahmad Dar Sidra Effendi Simranjeet Singh Subir Kumar Sarkar Suprita K Syed Ishfaq Manzoor Syed Sajid Hussain T. R. Jan Tahir Hussain Bhat Tariq Rasool Tawheed Jan Shah Tawseef Ahmad Bhat Umer Ashraf Uzma Vinay Shukla Wali Mohd Dar Wasim Ahmed Parray Zubair Ahmad Bangi Zubida Habib

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SEEDS-2015 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

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Proceedings of UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

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