SEEDS-2018 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

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Apr 3, 2018 - Publisher: University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190 006, J&K, .... 19 Advantages, Applications and Design Issues of Set: An Overview by Mubashir Ahmad, Gul Faroz .... The inspiration behind the artificial neural network is the human brain that has immense ...... The armband is much bulkier right now,.

Proceedings of National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

2018 Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology

University of Kashmir Srinagar, 190 006, J & K

SEEDS-2018

University of Kashmir

Proceedings of 2018 National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security 3rd and 4th April, 2018

Publisher: University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190 006, J&K, India. Publication Date: 3rd April, 2018 Editor: Dr. M. Tariq Banday Copyright Notice: © All rights are reserved by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190 006, J&K, India.

University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

Preface Endurance and persistence of technological development in all of its dimensions is achieved and maintained by the clear communication and constant sharing of scientific knowledge. All the auspicious discoveries and research findings, hence, need to be communicated to their respective audiences in a time bond manner. The requirement of strengthening and maintaining the scientific integrity in the valley at the same time attracting wide scientific associates from across the globe led to the organization of SEEDS-2018 by the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, from 2nd April to 4th April 2018, chaired in an efficiently professional manner. SEEDS-2018 marked the commemoration of a remarkably diverse and significantly illuminating science event that covered a broad-spectrum of elucidating research ideas addressing the practical, applied, or pragmatic challenges. SEEDS-2018 also focused on the interdisciplinary perspective encouraging the scientifically methodical analysis, bridging the gaps in scientific knowledge, and catalyzing the cross fertilization of ideas indispensable to the understanding and solution of the research problems that exist today. I here take a moment to extend my genuinely heartfelt gratitude to the passionately zealous organizing committee, distinguished reviewing team, research associates, students, and participants in bringing this event to fruition. SEEDS-2018 was envisioned with the objective of providing a colloquium to the practicing researchers, academicians, and students for the sharing of original, new, and quality research, thereby, shaping the future directions of research in various scientific domains especially Electronics, Communication and Computer Engineering. The event commenced with the eminent talks from distinguished keynote speakers from prestigious institutes across the country followed by the scholarly presentations of exuberant researchers. The event also provided an open and interactive platform to the students from various semesters of the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology to present their ideas before all the members of the seminar, hence, amplifying the impact of contribution towards the fine collection of articles in the seminar preceding. The preceding of SEEDS-2018, the eloquent work of authors, is a compilation of 70 abstracts that present the significantly influential and paramount resource towards the science community. I appreciate the sincere efforts of the team SEEDS-2018 and I am deeply obliged to them all. I look forward in anticipation of more such grand events.

Prof. Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi Vice-Chancellor

i University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

Editor’s Note On the cusp of revolution towards sophisticated technological development, an integrated platform for information technology with a backbone support of electronic hardware at the same time ensuring the absolute security is demanded. The critical importance of this novel idea led to the inception of SEEDS in the year 2015 and is improving and rejuvenating constantly year on year since then. 2018 National “Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security”, (SEEDS-2018), fourth in the series was held from 3rd April to 4th April 2018 at the University of Kashmir and offered a window for new perspectives, opportunities and directions to academicians, professional associates, scholars, and students not only to have a good overlook of potential technological advances in contemporary electronic devices, systems and information security, but also focused on the networking aspect of this grand meet. This year, the Seminar was co-located with the 13th Session of the Jammu and Kashmir Science Congress and thus the participants availed the opportunity of a wider research environment and interaction with the co-researchers from various allied areas. This year’s SEEDS had seventy oral presentations contributed by 86 authors on various contemporary topics. There has been a steady increase in the reputation, visibility, readership and abstract submissions in the SEEDS since its birth. SEEDS-2018 provided a primary forum for the clear and constructive advancement and dissemination of original knowledge in the academic and scientific discourse. SEEDS2018 and its proceedings got possible with the support of the invited stellar speakers, the presenters, the participants, the scholars, the students, and the faculty members of the Department. I here take an opportunity to extend my gratitude to all the members for their pioneering and spectacularly successful efforts, support, hard work and dedication. I am also deeply indebted to the members of advisory board of SEEDS-2018 for their diligent guidance and support to the conference. I am also thankful to various administrative units of the University for their cooperation and support that has made the current seminar and its proceedings possible. Being co-located with 13th Session of Jammu and Kashmir Science Congress, the members of its organizing committee showed their extraordinary commitment and assistance to make SEEDS-2018 a success; for which I am highly obliged. I anticipate this event would be of colossal value and would provide myriad avenues to the participating researchers, academicians and students to build research network, share knowledge and promote interdisciplinary research. I wish you all a scientifically productive 2018!

Dr. M. Tariq Banday Head of the Department

iii University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

Presentations 1

Hardware Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks Using FPGA by Wajid Manzoor and

2

Advances in Design and Applications of Spiking Neural Networks by Arshid Nisar and Farooq

3 4 5 6

Recent Trends in Phase Change Memory Technology by Samrah Mehraj and Farooq A. Khanday Stochastic Computing and Its Challenges by Romisa Akhtar and Farooq A. Khanday Noma Based Cognitive Radio for 5G Networks by Subba Amin and G.M. Bhat Development of an Integrated System of Hybrid Power Plant Connected with Existing Power Grid by Ishtiyaq Shafi Rafiqi and Tawheed Jan Shah Efficient Passive Copy-Move Forgery Detection and Localization Technique for Digital Images by Tawheed Jan Shah and M. Tariq Banday Investigating 2D Materials for Nano Electronics by Aadil Tahir Shora and Farooq A. Khanday Gan and Sic: Material Research and Comparative Study by Zaid Mohammad Shah and Farooq A.

7 8 9

Farooq A. Khanday A. Khanday

Khanday

10 Battery Supercapicitator Hybrid (BSH): A Secondary Source of Energy for Electronic Devices by Ubaid Qurashi 11 Construction and Working of Marc Based Visual Prosthesis like Argusii by Parsa Sarosh and Shabir A. Parah

12 Attack Resilient Blind and Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Multimedia Images for Copyright Applications by Nasir N. Hurrah and Shabir A. Parah 13 Smart Antenna by Subreena Mushtaq and Javaid A. Sheikh 14 Quantum Dots and Their Applications by Hilal Ahmad Bhat and Furqan Zahoor 15 Network of Lanthanide (iii) with Dicarboxylate Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Optical and Transport Properties. By Nazir Ahmad and G. M. Bhat 16 Advances in Multirate Filter Banks by Zaffer Iqbal Mir and Javaid A. Sheikh 17 Comparison of STT-MRAM with DRAM and SRAM for Electronic Device Applications by Gul Faroz Ahmad Malik, Mubashir Ahmad Kharadi, Nusrat Parveen and Farooq A. Khanday

18 Conversion of Acoustic Energy into Electrical Energy by Sheezan Fayaz Wani and Farooq A. Khanday

19 Advantages, Applications and Design Issues of Set: An Overview by Mubashir Ahmad, Gul Faroz Ahmad Malik, Khursheed A. Shah and Farooq A. Khanday

20 Configurable Microprocessors for IoT Devices by Ishfaq Sultan and M. Tariq Banday 21 From Cloud to Fog Computing by Mir Nazish and M. Tariq Banday 22 A Study of Waste Management as an IoT Enabled Service in Smart Cities by Tazmeen Nazir Mattoo and M. Tariq Banday

23 Review of Image Compression Standards by Syed Saalim Shabir Bukhari and Shabir A. Parah 24 Automated Ration Machine (Arm) by Sameena Shah, Tanveer Hussain Parray and Shabir A. Parah 25 Digital Logic Function Implementation Using Phase Change Memory by Samrah Mehraj and Farooq A. Khanday

ii v University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

26 A New Multiplexer Design in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata by S. Umira R. Qadri and M. Tariq Banday

27 First Results of the Study of Atmospheric Electric Field Using Electric Field Mill in Kashmir by Shaista Afreen, Gowher Bashir and Nissar Ahmed

28 Synethesis and Investigation of Multiferroic Materials for Magneto-Electric Applications by Samiya Manzoor and Shahid Husain

29 Skinput: The Future of Touch Technology by Ubaid Farooq Gada and Furqan Zahoor 30 Secured Solutions for 6Lowpan Protocol and Their Impact on Its Performance by Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi and M. Tariq Banday

31 A New Fragile and Semi-Reversible Image Watermarking Technique for Temper Detection and Authentication by Nasir N. Hurrah and Shabir A. Parah 32 A Review on Authentication Schemes in Cloud Computing by Saima Mehraj and M. Tariq Banday 33 On Length and Area Biased Levy Distribution by Afaq Ahmad 34 Improved E-Mail Security Using Elliptical Curve Cryptography by Shafiya Afzal Sheikh and M. Tariq Banday

35 Status of Social Websites in Terms of Web Accessibility Versus Psychology with Special Reference to Persons with Disabilities by Abid Ismail and Aeshan Ahmad Dar 36 Convergence of an Iterative Algorithm for a Class of Set-Valued Variational Inclusion by Bisma Zahoor Bagdadi

37 Connect the Dots: Using Web Accessibility Guidelines to Improve the Social Websites on Persons with Disability by Abid Ismail and K. S. Kuppusamy 38 A Study of 6Lowpan Standard and Challenges by Aiman Latif and M. Tariq Banday 39 Secure and Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for Healthcare System Using Magic Rectangle and New Interpolation Technique by Misbah Manzoor Kiloo and Shabir A. Parah 40 A Study of the Feasibility and Scope of Attribute-Based Encryption for Internet of Things by Mudasir Ahmad Dar and M. Tariq Banday

41 Big Data Analytics Applied to Digital Forensic Investigations by Mariya Shafat and M. Tariq Banday

42 Security Attacks on IoT by Syed Suhail Ahmad Simnani, Aaqib Anjum Reshi, M. Tariq Banday and Shabir A. Parah

43 Data Lake Integrity and Governance Challenges by Abdul Wahid and M. Tariq Banday 44 Information Overload: Applications, Causes, Challenges and Ways of Approach for Mitigation by Mohammed Qasim 45 Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: A Comparative Study of Security Issues and Protocols by Faheem Shafi and M. Tariq Banday 46 Blind Digital Speech Watermarking Using Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation for 5G Networks by Sakeena Akhtar and Javaid A. Sheikh 47 Performance Evaluation of Various Signal Processing Techniques for 5G And IoT Networks by Sumina Sidiq and Javaid A. Sheikh

48 Structural Comparison of Various Modulation Techniques for 5G Wireless Communications by Uzma Bhat and G. M. Bhat 49 Study of OFDM and FBMC-OQAM in Frequency and Time-Selective Channel for Optimization of Resource Allocation by Farhana Mustafa and G. M. Bhat 50 Design and Fabrication of Dielectric Resonator Loaded Microstrip Filter for Microwave Communication by Arshid Iqbal Khan and Syed Mujtaba Hassan

vi University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

51 Cross Layer Optimization for Throughput and Impartial Resource Sharing in Wireless Communication Networks Employing Device to Device (D2D) Communication by Arshid Iqbal Khan and Javaid A. Sheikh

52 An Efficient Image Stitching Method for Flying Wireless Image Processing Sensor Nodes by Rouf Ul Alam Bhat and G. M. Bhat

53 Channel Estimation in OFDM System by Injila Mubarik 54 On the Study and Realization of Non-Orthogonal Multi-Carrier Mimo Communication Using FBMC over Fading Channels by Priyanaka Mishra and Javaid A. Sheikh 55 Performance Evaluation of Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing (Sefdm) Technique for 5G Networks and IoT by Ifrah Afzal and Javaid A. Sheikh 56 A Survey on Congestion Control in CoAP by Safia Gul and G. M. Bhat 57 Multi-Rate Decimation Filter Design: Techniques and Challenges by Shahid A. Malik, Nasir N. Hurrah, Shabir A. Parah and G. M. Bhat.

58 Exploiting Reversible Logic Design for Implementing Adiabatic Digital Filters by Muzafar Gani Najar snd Shabir A. Parah

59 A New Technique of Medical Image Transmission over 5G Network Using FBMC by Shifa Showkat and Javaid A. Sheikh

60 Watermarking Techniques for Authentication and Tamper Detection: A Survey by Solihah Gull and Shabir A. Parah

61 On the Study of Future Communication Systems Utilizing Millimeter-Wave and Massive MIMO by Raqeebur Rehman, Zahid A. Bhat and Javaid A. Sheikh 62 On the Study of Micro-Strip Bandpass Filters for Ultra Wide Band Applications by Zahid A. Bhat, Raqeebur Rehman and Javaid A. Sheikh

63 Image Compression and Decompression Based on Probability by Haris Shah, Nimrah Habib and Shabir A. Parah

64 Image Compression Techniques Based on SVD: A Survey by Muzamil Hussan and Shabir A. Parah 65 Integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Development of Quality Education and Curriculum Design by Kawser Mohiuddin and Fayaz Ahmad Fayaz 66 Energy Efficient Adaptive Antenna Systems by Sakib Qadir Sofi, Zeeshan Shafi and Javaid A. Sheikh 67 Project Loon: Balloon Powered Internet Access in the Sky by Sonali Bhat and Farooq A. Khanday 68 Training Deep Neural Networks to Optimize Learning by Farhat Roohi, G. M. Bhat and Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi

69 Low Cost Authentication Using Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) by Mujtaba Y. Kathjoo, Farooq A. Khanday and M. Tariq Banday

70 Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access(NOMA) for Future Radio Access by Madiha Showkat and Javaid A. Sheikh

vii University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Hardware Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks Using FPGA Wajid Manzoor£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9697444512.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-753

Abstract Artificial neural networks have manifested as the modern high-speed computational systems with the advanced capabilities to project and model non-linear systems. The need has grown for low-cost real-time application systems which can be achieved efficiently using artificial neural networks. Technological advances have proposed many solutions to achieve the cost-effective requirement of a computational system. Software implementations of Real-time artificial neural networks have a disadvantage of slower execution in comparison to hardware-based ANNs. Both analog and digital circuits have been implemented using ANNs. Non-linear characteristics of Complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) can be exploited for analog implementation but they suffer thermal drift and lack reprogrammability. Advances in reprogrammable logic enable implementing large Artificial Neural Networks on a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. This is possible because of miniaturization of components that results in increasing data density. The inspiration behind the artificial neural network is the human brain that has immense potential for parallel processing. We can design parallel processing Real-time ANNs using Application specific integrated circuits but they are costly and takes more time to fabricate. The flaw of using ASIC implemented ANNs is the non-programmability. FPGA ensures parallelism along with the upgradability features to introduce more high performing and cost-effective implementations of ANNs. Finally, an example of digital system architecture designed to realize a feedforward multilayer neural network will be presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Hardware Neural Networks, Field Programme Gate Array (FPGA).

1 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Advances in Design and Applications of Spiking Neural Networks Arshid Nisar£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9858389707.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-755

Abstract Artificial Neural network is a new generation of information processing paradigm designed to mimic some of the behaviors of the human brain. Recent research trend has given priority to the biological plausible Spiking Neural Networks as a closer speculation to real neurons, which may offer better performance in real-time and adaptable environment. As a powerful model in machine learning inspired by the high-speed computation and communication capabilities of the brain, Spiking Neural Networks have been the underlying foundation for many powerful algorithms with applications in signal processing, cryptography, pattern recognition, image processing etc. A more recent research trend has focused on hardware implementation of these networks in order to overcome the high speed and concurrent calculation complexity of software implementations. Indeed, the main edge of a hardware neuromorphic system lies in its high degree of parallelism, which allows neuromorphic circuits to work on feasible biological timescales, in order to decrease computational complexity and minimize power consumption. However, this approach has its own challenges, such as design process variation, interconnection, input-output bandwidth, and large silicon area usage when considering large-scale systems. Interestingly, the design challenges and restrictions faced by neuromorphic engineers while implementing synaptic learning which is the main part of neuromorphic systems are similar to the ones encountered in biological learning, such as stability, limited interconnection, lack of longtime weight storage, and routing. In this work, the review of various biologically feasible spiking neuron models is introduced. In addition, the several design challenges for implementing spiking based neural networks will be highlighted and possible solutions will also be presented. Finally, the applications of spiking based neural networks will be highlighted. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Spiking Neural Networks.

2 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Recent Trends in Phase Change Memory Technology Samrah Mehraj£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8715023470.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-759

Abstract The extraordinary growth of the electronic devices types and functionality is imposing urgent needs of higher computational speeds, better data transmission bandwidths and most importantly more memory. The current embedded memories are mainly volatile, and suffer from high power consumption limiting their scalability. However, the non-volatile memories can help in overcoming the power consumption. One of such type of non-volatile memory is the Phase Change Memory. Phase Change Memory has entered the electronics market as a random access non-volatile memory technology and is attracting a significant interest due to its non-volatility, better scalability and long-term data retention. Unfortunately, Phase Change Memory suffers from three major drawbacks. Firstly, has higher read latency than Dynamic Random Access Memory. Secondly, writing consumes significantly high energy. Thirdly, it has limited endurance. Phase Change Memory cells are projected to endure 10-100 million write operations. Several recent architectural studies have looked at mitigating these drawbacks of Phase Change Memory in order to make it viable as a main memory candidate. The Phase Change Memory has been researched for a number of years. The phase change memory, as a technology, offers great flexibility in fabricating various device structures and allows different ways of operation. In this work, the general overview of the Phase Change Memory and its recent trends for storing the binary data is introduced. In addition, the several issues of Phase Change Memory will be highlighted and possible solutions will also be presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Memory, Volatile and Non-volatile Memories, Phase Change Memory.

3 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Stochastic Computing and Its Challenges Romisa Akhtar£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8825022712.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-764

Abstract Recent developments in the field of electronics included the introduction of novel nanoscale devices. However, due to the reliability problems with these nanoscale devices, scientists are moving from the conventional deterministic computing towards a fundamentally different technique that is probabilistic in nature, namely, Stochastic Computing. Stochastic computing is an emerging computing technique that was invented in 1960’s as a low cost alternative to conventional binary computing. It is unique in the sense that it represents and processes information in the form of probabilities. In stochastic computing, numbers are represented by random bit-streams known as stochastic signals that are interpreted as probabilities. The main attraction at the time of invention of stochastic computing was that it enables low cost implementation of arithmetic operations using standard logic elements. In addition to their simplicity, stochastic circuits are error tolerant. Stochastic computing provides a significant increase in the parallelism and the reliability of the systems. The main challenges of stochastic computing include the development of an optimized random number generator (used in the generation of stochastic signals) as it occupies most of the integration area or consume a large amount of logical elements. In addition to this, the length of bit stream of a stochastic signal grows exponentially with precision which certainly will increase the computation time. In addition, correlation among the stochastic signals leads to unexpected results. Hence, there is a need of de-correlating these signals which requires additional hardware. In this work, the basic principles of stochastic logic and its variants are introduced. In addition, the several issues of stochastic computing will be highlighted and possible solutions will also be presented. Finally, the implementation of various functions in unsigned classical stochastic logic and the problems associated with stochastic circuits is presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Binary Computing, Fault Tolerance, Probabilistic Representation, Stochastic Computing.

4 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Noma Based Cognitive Radio for 5G Networks Subba Amin£, G. M. Bhat Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7889934577.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-797

Abstract Cognitive radio is a kind of wireless transmissions which helps us to keep track on radio operation behaviour and can provide information about environment, internal state and availibility of spectrum holes. In cooperation of Massive MIMO based cognitive radio in 5G will help us to reduce interference and increase data rate as compared to 4G LTE -A standard systems. The major drawback associated with 4G LTE based cooperative radio is high Signal-to- noise Ratio (SNR) besides high Peak to average power ratio (PAPR). However, in 5G based cognitive systems OFDM is replaced by non quasi orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). NOMA can achieve better spectrum efficiency and can reduce the PAPR. In this paper main focus is given on power optimization over wireless backhaul, which is solved by Lymponov activation function with linear ascending constraints. Stationary KKT condition is used to solve the duality consistency constraints. Moreover, different combination of users are sensed for better spectrum sensing. Results obtained are compared with earlier Langragian dual optimization problem to validate the authenticity of the proposed technique. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, OFDM, 4G LTE, Spectrum Holes, Spectrum Sensing.

5 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Development of an Integrated System of Hybrid Power Plant Connected with Existing Power Grid Ishtiyaq Shafi Rafiqi£, Tawheed Jan Shah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8491893992.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1322

Abstract Renewable energy sources play a significant role in addressing the growing energy demands as compared to the conventional energy sources. Since, renewable energy sources are eco-friendly, easily available and have very less running cost therefore, these sources have gained the attention of power system engineers all over the world. Wind and Solar energy, which are the two main sources of renewable energy are spread on a very large scale, but due to wind speed uncertain behaviour it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Therefore, there is a need to integrate the renewable energy sources like solar-wind hybrid power plant with the existing power grid. In order to integrate the solar-wind hybrid power plant with the existing power grid, power plants must remain synchronous with each other. In this paper, the two main issues of solar-wind hybrid power plant i.e. how to control the frequency fluctuations in wind power plant and how to minimize the harmonics produced through converters in solar power plant are discussed. The presented issues are then analyzed in connection with Flexible AC Transmission System devices such as Static Synchronous Compensator or Static Var Compensator. The whole configuration of power grid connected with solar-wind power plant connected with Static Var Compensator has been designed and modeled using Simulink. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Power Grid, Asynchronous Generator, Static Var Compensator, Photovoltaic Cell, Wind Turbine.

6 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Efficient Passive Copy-Move Forgery Detection and Localization Technique for Digital Images Tawheed Jan Shah£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797997886.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1324

Abstract Copy-Move forgery is one of the most common and serious forgery on digital images that is done using many easy to use and commonly available software applications. In copy-move operation, the main aim of the attacker is to create the feigned image simply by replicating a segment of the image onto another zone in order to conceal the unwanted segment of the same image. Thus, detection of such type of forgery in order to verify the authenticity of the image is one of the significant issues in digital image forensics. Copy-Move forgery detection techniques are broadly classified into active and passive techniques. Unlike active techniques, passive forgery detection techniques do not require any prior information about the image and instead utilizes the available image statistics and content to detect the traces of forgery and thus, passive techniques have a wider range of applications. This paper presents an efficient passive copymove forgery detection and localization algorithm using Pixel Map Comparison which is able to detect image forgery in general. The proposed system has been implemented in PHP. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated in terms of forgery detection time, precision, recall and F-Measure. Further, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the existing methods and the results suggest a substantial efficacy of the proposed algorithm. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Digital Image Forensics, Image Forgery, Copy-move Forgery, Image Splicing, Forgery Detection.

7 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Investigating 2D Materials for Nano Electronics Aadil Tahir Shora£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8825006636.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1387

Abstract The Field Effect Transistor (FET) scaling is the reduction in the size of transistor for increasing the number of transistors on chip. Apart from dimension reduction, device scaling should also enhance the electrical properties, such as switching speed, power, etc. However, in nanoscale FET, apart from Short Channel Effects (SCEs), there is a problem of increased ON resistance in the path of conduction. An efficient option to achieve this goal is the introduction of novel channel materials into FET technology. In this regard, two-dimensional (2D) materials have drawn considerable attention of scientists and device engineers after the discovery of high carrier mobility characteristic of graphene. However, due to the absence of bandgap, graphene has not found place in mainstream electronics. Since then it has been constant endeavor of researchers worldwide to find 2D material with application in semiconductor industry. Over a surprisingly short period of time, entire classes of new 2D materials have been discovered. The purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of 2D materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we have composed a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine the 2D materials as to what extent the 2D materials fulfill the criteria of the list. We will be presenting a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these 2D materials for future prospect in semiconductor transistor applications. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Nano, Eletronics, 2D Materials, FET, Bandgap.

8 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Gan and Sic: Material Research and Comparative Study Zaid Mohammad Shah£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9910563569.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1535

Abstract The materials for Power Electronic industry have been under constant and rigorous research since the last 30 years but Silicon has dominated over other materials all along mainly due to the reason of Si Technology being the most established one for semiconductor devices. The Si Technology becomes non-profitable and complex to implement for manufacturing devices beyond the voltage of 6500V keeping aside that it is unable to produce high switching frequency and cannot operate at temperature above 200oC. It can be concluded that the currently employed converters in the power industry are not highly efficient due to such limitations. Among the other materials that possess properties that can be used in the power electronic devices, Wide Bandgap Semiconductors dominate over other materials. The materials under consideration are compound semiconductors like GaAs, Wide bandgap semiconductors like SiC and GaN and ultra-wide bandgap semiconductors like AlN, Diamond and also Ga2O3. Theoretically, GaN is the optimal material for high-frequency and high voltage operation due to its superior electron mobility and higher breakdown field and saturation velocity, but GaN has a drawback of absence of good quality substrates and a lower thermal conductivity than SiC. SiC devices have been employed practically with SiC diodes already replacing Si based diodes which are a major part of power electronic systems in some countries. However, GaN being a direct bandgap semiconductor, its application in opto-electronics has helped the evolution of this technology especially in the previous 15 years so much so that now devices like GaN based HEMTs and HFETs are nearing their implementation in the power industry. In-spite of being the best considered replacements of Si technology these Wide bandgap materials suffer from a number of drawbacks and limitations which are the basic hindrance in the exponential growth of the application of these materials and their devices. A Study of the various challenges in each material is presented here. The issues which need to be addressed in these semiconductors are categorized according to two criteria, one being the development of techniques and technologies to fabricate optimal material and devices. The other challenge would be to make that technology replace the existing and obsolete ones. This work has been carried out for the study of various materials having potential use in the electronic industry mainly in the fields of high-power, high-frequency and optical devices. The already existing technologies and methodologies for such materials have been researched and compared in order to understand the working and challenges faced for the implementation and large scale commercialization. Also, the focus would be to propose an novel optimized material/device which would be attempting to replace the already existing device in that domain. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Wide Bandgap, GaN, SiC, HEMT, Traps.

9 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Battery Supercapicitator Hybrid (BSH): A Secondary Source of Energy for Electronic Devices. Ubaid Qurashi GDC Sopore Kashmir University

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596424087. E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1583

Abstract Electronic devices needs electrical energy to run and using bulk of electricity has raised the financial stress on the consumers. BSH is a energy storage device which charges quickly and discharges slowly. It contains properties of both batteries and Supercapicitators. BSH can be used as a substitute for current battery systems. BSH also charges by the new method called Energy Pit. Any device used in modern world uses some of the energy and discards the small percentage of it. BSH will create a pit to assemble that energy for a particular period of time and then will use that same energy to charge itself. BSH is smart energy storage device that charges both conventionally and also by Energy Pit method. BSH functions as a normal storage device but can be more efficient if used as a mod for electronic devices. Usage of BSH in developing countries will let electronic devices run for longer periods than conventional battery systems. BSH works on a principle called quantum charging. When BSH charged the Supercapicitator side creates a quantum field which infuses energy into the battery part of it which is chemical in nature. This process is complex but it does the trick to charge the BSH. BSH as storage device can change the future of energy storage unit. Li-ion is a past for energy storage device. BSH works as secondary energy storage device and can also be integrated in the modern solar power system © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: BSH, Battery, Energy, Storage, Device, Quantum.

10 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Construction and Working of Marc Based Visual Prosthesis like Argusii Parsa Sarosh£, Shabir A. Parrah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9697390552.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1602

Abstract The purpose of this review paper is to provide an insight into the various types of visual prosthetic prototypes that have been developed. It will also highlight the engineering details and the underlying principle of operation of the only FDA approved retinal implant called ARGUS II. The human eye is the an organ of sight, which forms the window between the external environment and the brain. The mechanism of vision involves the light which after striking the object enters the eye and is then sent to the brain which perceives it. Light follows a well defined route from the point it enters the eye to the brain and that route is called the visual pathway. However due to some diseases which affect different parts of the visual pathway , there can be a decrease in the perceived light and some diseases may even lead to partial and total blindness. Some of these diseases have absolutely no cure and the patient is left in despair. These patients can be potential candidates for visual prosthesis. A visual prosthesis is a type of an electronic device which tries to provide vision to people who are partially or totally blind. Although there are multiple types of visual prosthetics that have been developed like the ASR or the Alpha IMS etc, there is only one device THE ARGUS II which is the product of the Second Sight Company that is available to patients for use and is characterized as a humanitarian device. The device is the end product of years of scientific research and is very sophisticated, having the latest technology and most efficient components. However the underlying principle of operation, described by Dr Mark Humayun with a team of other experts in the field, is the MARC (Multiple artificial retinal chipset) system, which as the name suggests is a system with multiple components that work together synchronously to provide useful vision to patients. This MARC system has internal and external components and an electrode array placed on the retina which makes it an epiretinal implant. The process involves capturing the image of the scene and stimulating the corresponding electrodes in a manner that corresponds to the external image taken by the camera. This report mainly describes the working of the MARC chip and how it can be used to provide functional vision to patients. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Eye, Prosthesis, Diseases, MARC.

11 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Attack Resilient Blind and Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Multimedia Images for Copyright Applications Nasir N. Hurrah£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622946887.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1628

Abstract We are living an age of internet which has a put a great impact on our lives and made everybody totally dependent on it. This easily accessible network has transformed the entire world into a global village and in last few decades, there has been an extraordinary increase in the transfer and sharing of digital data like text, videos, images, audio, etc. over it. However, with the advent of modern access technology, multimedia data is more prone to security risks as data can be manipulated and re-transmitted without prior permission. The transmission of digital data through open channel network creates opportunities to the third parties or attackers for accessing data without any permission. The security risks may include copyright violations, piracy, hacking, unapproved production and distribution, information theft and several other signal processing attacks. In such a scenario, development of state of the art algorithms for secure and reliable multimedia content is desperately needed. In the proposed technique, a high level security has been put forth to ensure the security and robustness of embedded data. The embedded data is encrypted using a unique key and a transform domain based hybrid watermarking technique is applied to embed the encrypted data into the coefficients of host image. The proposed technique combines the advantages of Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) along with an encryption technique. The objective of the proposed scheme is to avoid any quality degradation to the multimedia images along with securing the hidden information. The simulation is performed to measure the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) or Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) for imperceptivity and Bit Error Rate (BER) or Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) to test the robustness. The experimental results show very high imperceptivity and robustness with PSNR of more than 41 dB and BER less than 7 dB for proposed watermarking model. Also, the sensitivity is very high such that no watermark is extracted if a single bit modification of secret key is done. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Embedding, Singular Value Decomposition, Integer Wavelet Transform, Copyright Protection, Watermark.

12 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Smart Antenna Subreena Mushtaq£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8713987309.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1648

Abstract In this paper, we present review of the current antenna systems that are being implemented and used in modern wireless technology. The demerits of the conventional antenna system in wireless systems have been presented. The brief overview about the smart antenna systems that have also been presented. The smart antenna system overcomes the drawbacks of the conventional antenna by increasing the coverage area, reducing fading effect and decreasing interference and therefore has been used in modern mobile communication systems. A suitable MUSIC algorithm has been introduced in the paper for the calculation of Angle of Arrival (AOA). The smart antenna system can process signals digitally that is why it is called smart antenna. The antenna adapts itself in such a way that the signals in the desired direction are calculated and are nullified in the undesired direction, thus increases the efficiency and capacity of the wireless communication system. A comparison of switched beam antenna system and adaptive array antenna system has also been presented. The beam pattern goes on changing due to the movement of both user as well as interferer. The performance of the scheme has been evaluated in terms of eliminating multi-path wave propagation and increasing the transmission data rate as well as coverage area of the wireless communication system due to which wireless traffic capacity can be resolved. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Antenna, Music, Angle of Arrival (AOA), Beam Formation.

13 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Quantum Dots and Their Applications Hilal Ahmad Bhat£, Furqan Zahoor Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596396064.

E-mail adess: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1662

Abstract Imagine a medical device that can penetrate through the body of humans to seek and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread, a box no longer than a sugar cube that contains the entire contents of the library of congress USA, materials much lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength, there is flow of current without flow of electrons. All this is possible due to Quantum Dots. As technology moves forward, the need for semiconductors becomes more and more apparent. Conventional semiconductors, however, do not meet our expectations to a certain extent. The main reasons being they are bulky, too slow, and too inefficient. The introduction of quantum dots presents the possibility of not so bulky, quick responsive and more reliable semiconductors. Quantum dots, also referred to as the pseudo atoms, mimic the structure of atoms. These Quantum dots can be adjusted and tuned to suit a variety of applications, such as optics, quantum computation, QCA and in the field of medicine. In Quantum dots excitons are confined in all three spatial dimensions and these quantum dots are basically semiconductor nano-crystals. The fabrication of semiconductor in a small size (approximately few hundred to thousands of atoms per particle) helps in realizing the confinement of quantum dots. As a result of the effects of quantum confinement, the Quantum dots show controllable discrete energy levels which are controllable, thus behaving like artificial atoms. That means the energy bandgap can be varied. Since its inception and first fabrication by Louis E. Brus in the 80’s, quantum dots have attracted interest from a large number of fields owing to the unique properties of these special nanostructures. Speaking in a general sense, the atoms can be referred to as quantum dots, however it must also be noted that summing a number of molecules in a small space results in the quantum dots effects. Adding or removing of an electron results in change of the properties of a quantum dot, thus providing benefits in one way or another. Although, at present Quantum Dots may be still in the early stages of research however, their applications and the benefits which they will bring along has already encouraged companies and governmental organisations to invest heavily in this field. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, Semiconductor, Biomedical, Q&A, Exciton, Bandgap, Nano-crystal.

14 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Network of Lanthanide (iii) with Dicarboxylate Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Optical and Transport Properties. Nazir Ahmad£, G. M. Bhat Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006211436.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1671

Abstract Crystal growth is a heterogeneous chemical process in which conversion from one phase to another phase of a compound is involved. In the field of crystal growth, gel technique has become more popular. Due to its simplicity, it can be used to grow single crystals at room temperature and to suppress nucleation centers the pore size of the gel can be easily controlled. By varying growth parameters the optimum conditions can be achieved for the growth of single crystals. The impact of single crystals is clearly visible in industries like semiconductors and optics. With the invention of lasers, the field of non linear optics touched new heights and practical implementation are visible with the application of non-linear optical crystals in the day today life. The interesting physical properties of lanthanide complexes such as ferroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric, and optical characteristics have focused the attention of current researchers to study these materials in depth with the aim of identifying new materials for practical application. These materials find their place in microelectronic industry as transducers, non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories, infrared sensors, low value dielectric constant materials and tunable capacitors. Due to the natural chiral properties of dicarboxylates, it leads the crystallization into non-centrosymmetric space group when co-ordinated with a metal; which is the primary requirement for any material to show NLO character. In our current study, we have investigated one of the rare earth complexes. Structure sensitive studies were carried out, which includes; XRD, HRXRD, optical and dielectric. The thermal dehydration of the compound was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Growth, XRD, HRXRD, Optical Properties, Dielectric, Thermal Studies.

15 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Advances in Multirate Filter Banks Zaffer Iqbal Mir£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797896561.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1699

Abstract In this paper, a brief description have been reviewed about the techniques in which the multi-rate digital filters, two channel filter bank, M-channel filter bank and poly phase networks are implemented in different fields of advanced communication system during last few decades. The main purpose of this survey paper is to discover the applications of multi-rate advanced channels to polyphase systems in communication utilized as a part of number of fields such as: speech processing, image compression scrambling, adaptive signal processing, image processing, software defined radio, antenna systems, acoustic, video industry etc. To overcome the shortcoming of inter carrier interference (ICI) and also to overcome the drawbacks of adjacent-channel interference (ASI) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) multi-rate systems/filters are used to improve the performance for enlarged computational competence specifically for many applications. The advanced structures, referred to as filtered OFDM, such as time domain-windowing and active interference cancelation (AIC) have been proposed from several authors such as multi rate filter bank systems using fractional derivative constraints, polyphase decomposition and nature inspired optimization. The multi-rate advanced channels and poly phase systems are less difficult quicker and monetary as contrast with already revealed general channels. Today’s the wireless community has begun to explore other advanced multicarrier modulation (MCM) techniques for use in 5G systems, with filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) the most promising one. Hope that this paper will help both academic as well as industrial researchers at one place. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multirate, Polyphase Networks, Fractional Derivative Constraints, Nature Inspired Optimization, Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation.

16 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Comparison of STT-MRAM with DRAM and SRAM for Electronic Device Applications Gul Faroz Ahmad Malik£1, Mubashir Ahmad Kharadi2, Nusrat Parveen3, Farooq A. Khanday4 1,2 4

3

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India Department of Electronics, Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9858390294.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1715

Abstract In most of the electronic gadget, memory articulates highest indispensable components. The economic achievement or disappointment of a memory system can be known by various factors like performance, scalability, reliability, cost etc. All the memory systems use either volatile memories (like DRAM and SRAM) or non-volatile memories (like NOR and NAND flash). These memories are all charge based and have significant advantages but also have various disadvantages as well among which their degradation with scalability is a major concern. Many endeavours have been carried out to mend the above mentioned factors, one of the hopeful effort is Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) MRAM. It is well opted for several applications because of its features viz., it brings the high performance of DRAM and SRAM, consumes low power, are as economic as flash memory and can be scaled to 10nm. The non-volatile nature of STT-MRAM gives it one more advantage of retaining its data indefinitely even when power turns off. However, due to its design issues, many of its advantages are not fully exploited. In this work, an overview of STT-MRAM will be presented where the advantages of STT-MRAM over the conventional SRAM and DRAM will be highlighted. The design issues of STT-MRAM will be highlighted and possible solutions will also be presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: STT-MRAM, DRAM, SRAM.

17 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Conversion of Acoustic Energy into Electrical Energy Sheezan Fayaz Wani£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596366383.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1717

Abstract The sound energy is available at many locations and at most of these places is wasted. However, a possible solution of harnessing this acoustic energy into some useful form will help in solving the energy crisis to some extent. An example can be that the acoustic energy being wasted in factories or industries can be put to use for the benefit of workers if such solution is adopted. This work gives an outline of how acoustic energy being wasted is converted to electrical energy. The complete description of the process and components employed to convert the acoustic energy into electrical energy is presented in detail. In addition, the issues and limitations of such conversion are presented as well. Furthermore, the possible applications of such conversion are also introduced. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Energy Harnessing, Acoustic Energy, Electrical Energy, Piezoelectric Effect, Meta Materials.

18 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Advantages, Applications and Design Issues of Set: An Overview Mubashir Ahmad£1, Gul Faroz Ahmad Malik2, Khursheed A. Shah3, Farooq A. Khanday4 1,2, 4 3

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India Department of Physics, Sri Pratab College, Cluster University, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622796455.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1718

Abstract The ever growing demand for feeble power and less space on chips has been what the IC technology in past couple of decades has been asking for. So far such demands have been met by the progressive curtailment of the MOSFET dimensions. But along with this curtailment some undesirable effects have crept up and have totally hampered the working of these devices at nanoscale dimensions. Of these effects short channel effects, high leakage current, excessive process variation, reliability issues are the prominent ones. Such limitations have forced the modern day researchers to find a substitute technology that could at least merge with the present day MOSFET technology if not fully replace it. SET promises to be that substitute. SETs have been designed by the use of metals, semiconductors and CNTs with the dimensions of just a few nanometers. Single electron devices are based on a quantum phenomenon called tunnelling, which inherently offers many desired advantages over the field effect transistors. The device assembly is such that it offers essential superiority to this device over the MOSFET in nanoscale dimensions. This superiority is based on advantages like less power requirement, high conductivity (due to ballistic transport), high packing density etc. Regardless of all the advantages single electron device technology has not flourished as much as it had promised. The sluggish development of this technology can be owed to the fact that some of the challenges are yet to be fully addressed. These challenges are proving to be a big hurdle in the advancement of this technology. These challenges are comprised of fabrication issues, linkage with the current silicon technology, low temperature operation and randomness of background charge. In this work an overview of SET technology will be offered where the advantages of the SET technology over the conventional CMOS technology will be highlighted. The design issues of SET technology will be highlighted and possible solutions will also be presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: MOSFET, SET, CNTs (Carbon Nanotubes), Ballistic Transport, CMOS.

19 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Configurable Microprocessors for IOT Devices Ishfaq Sultan£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006281319.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1722

Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) involves ubiquitous diffusion of processors consisting of small ICs having sensing and actuation capabilities. These processors combined with embedded microprocessor core(s) are used for control, communication, and information processing. IoT processors face various challenges such as power consumption, limited battery, memory space, performance, cost and security. Besides computation and communication requirements, IoT applications considerably differ in the scale of interaction with the environment. Specific applications enforce additional constraints for IoT processors, such as environment invisibility, ruggedness and timing properties imposed by real time events in the environment they are embedded in. The processor market is faced with a variety of challenges as demands for higher performance coupled with longer battery life and the need for security grow in emerging applications. The new class of processors for smart automobiles, smart cards, smart homes, drones, and connected medical monitoring devices need a step function enhancement in power and performance efficiency composed with intense reliability requirements. The processors running these applications must evolve to sustain the varying requirements emerging out of the new use cases in the electronics market. The configurable and extensible processors are the next generation in the processor family tree. This paper explores how processors have advanced with characteristics such as configurability and extensibility to empower the next generation electronics. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Embedded Microprocessors, Configurability.

20 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

From Cloud To Fog Computing Mir Nazish£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622850350.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1727

Abstract Cloud computing is an emanating and paradigm technology that provides computing as a utility over the internet. It is a collection of highly optimised data centers that provide software, hardware and information resources on a pay-peruse basis. It is becoming the main attraction for business and IT industry as it avoids capital expenditure on additional on-premises infrastructure resources and it scales up or down according to the business requirements. The important features of cloud computing are rapid elasticity, on-demand self-service, resource pooling and so on. Different models for deploying cloud computing as a service have been conferred such as private, public, hybrid and community clouds. The cloud can offer software (SaaS), platform (PaaS) or infrastructure (IaaS) as a service. IaaS provides infrastructure components such as computing power and storage capacity as a service. SaaS offers ready to use applications whereas PaaS provides platform or a run time environment to create and deploy applications. Cloud offers several advantages such as to obviate the requirement of expensive and efficient computers to run the high-end web-based applications, offers improved performance, reduced software prices, more efficient resource utilisation with nearly zero cost for infrastructure investment, virtually boundless storage capacity, anytime and anywhere data access, device independence and many more. However, cloud computing also suffers from certain shortcomings such as requirement of a persistent internet connection, latency, security issues, migration issues etc. To overcome some of its drawbacks, Fog computing emerged as a nascent platform which extends cloud computing to the edge of a network. It addresses the snags faced by cloud computing for instance handling of huge data, latency and bandwidth. Fog is an intermediate layer existing between end devices and the cloud and as such the time sensitive critical data can be analysed, processed and sent back to the end user with latency of a few milli-seconds. Also, since most of the data is consumed locally instead of directing it to the cloud, the bandwidth requirement is greatly reduced. This paper provides an insight about the paradigm shift from Cloud to Fog computing. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cloud, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, Fog.

21 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A Study of Waste Management as an IoT Enabled Service in Smart Cities Tazmeen Nazir Mattoo£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419296420.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1743

Abstract The paradigm of Internet of Things (IoT) in the present-day era is being facilitated by incorporating several devices like RFIDs, sensors, cameras and actuators along with the smart devices that monitor and gather ambient information. These smart devices having significant computational capabilities, when embedded in the environment, can lead to a smart city framework. Efficient Waste Collection (EWC) is considered to be the basic service for such a framework. Since IoT provides an advanced platform for various applications in the smart city, an IoT enabled waste management becomes the classic example of services offered in it. Waste management not only involves the collection but also the transportation and disposal of the junk to the desired locations. In this paper, we are specifically focusing on the deployment of IoT components, surveillance systems and a smart Decision Support System (DSS) providing high quality service for an efficient waste management in the smart cities. The DSS performs dynamic route optimization and the collection of wastes on real time basis. The system takes care of inefficient waste collection from inaccessible areas in the smart city. The IoT enabled waste collection endeavours high quality service to the people of the smart city. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Waste Collection, Internet of Things (IoT), Smart City, Surveillance Systems.

22 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Review of Image Compression Standards Syed Saalim Shabir Bukhari£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622436759.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1746

Abstract There has been rapid growth in image compression techniques that lead to various coding standards. The aim is to lowering bit rate with least distortion for storing and transmission of data. Many compression standards are in practice in recent years. Each of these having their own advantages and disadvantages. First was introduced the basic compression standard the JPEG(Joint Photographic Experts Group) followed by the much advanced version the JPEG2000 (Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000) compression standard then the JPEG-LS (Joint Photographic Experts Group – Lossless Standard), followed by the JBIG2 (Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group), the GIF (Graphics Interchange Format), the LZ77 (Lempel-Ziv 77), the PNG (Portable Network Graphics), HD photo, and the TIFF (Tag Image File Format) in order. The JPEG-2000 file format was introduced as an improvement and advancement on the classical JPEG format. The JPEG-2000 would update the JPEG standard to 16-bit from its original 8-bit standard, this is based on wavelet-based method. Unlike JPEG format that have separate compression engine for lossy and lossless techniques, the JPEG-2000 provides a single compression engine for both lossy as well as lossless. Thus JPEG-2000 is a much better compression tool in terms of quality. The working of the compression engine of JPEG-2000 provides a high quality image, even in lossy compression. However, JPEG-2000 is not able to read JPEG files as there is no backward compatibility. Since JPEG images are common, this poses a problem. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Image Compression, Image Processing, JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), Coding Standards.

23 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Automated Ration Machine (Arm) Sameena Shah£, Shabir A. Parah, Tanveer Hussain Parray Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006747739.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1769

Abstract This paper aims at providing a scenario for distribution of essential commodities (sugar, flour, rice, kerosene etc.) to a large number of people through a network on a recurring basis in an automated way. The basic concept is to automate the Public Distribution System. Every time before ration collection, the authorized person needs to go through the verification phase. Once verification is done, the quantity that he has to collect is also logged into the system and the system provides the output in the form of desired subsidized commodity. The project starts with the linking of UID's i.e. aadhaar details of all the family members in the system database. A unique ID is assigned to each family, the family also needs to link a particular bank account with their unique ID. At the time of ration collection, once the biometric parameter (fingerprint in this case) of a specific family member matches with the already linked UID library, the system fetches the details i.e. the allocated subsidized ration details and displays on the LCD screen, the individual then chooses the quantity to be withdrawn by punching in the parameters via the keypad and the system automatically provides the desired commodity and also deducts the amount from their bank accounts. After the transaction gets completed, and SMS is sent to the customer that they have taken the withdrawn amount of quantity and deducted amount is also displayed in the SMS. The system also updates the details of Ration present in the machine at a particular location thereby keeping a record of the subsidized commodities. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Public Distribution System, Unique Identification(UID), Biometric, LCD Screen, Short Message Service(SMS).

24 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Digital Logic Function Implementation Using Phase Change Memory Samrah Mehraj£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8715023470.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1782

Abstract The requirement of saving data or information has made memory an important building block in every field of Technology. The memories like SRAM and DRAM are the main types of memories and provide good performance and storage. However, the big issue with these types of memories is that these memories do not retain the data after the power is switched off. Therefore, the concept of non-volatile memories came which retain data even if the power is turned off. The read only memory and flash memory are also the examples of non-volatile memories but the drawback of read only memory is that it is not re-programmable and the issue of flash memory is the leakage current at low dimensions. The phase change memory is today considered as the leading non-volatile memory, which not only retains data after the power is switched off but can also be re-programmed, with better scalability and performance than flash memory. The phase change memory can also be used to design the logic circuits, which unlike their MOSFET counterparts also have the feature of non-volatility. In this work, the general overview of the Phase Change Memory is introduced. In addition, the implementation of some non-volatile logic functions using phase change memory is presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Memory, Static and Dynamic Memories, Non-Volatile Memory, Phase Change Memory.

25 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A New Multiplexer Design in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata S. Umira R. Qadri£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596434477.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1798

Abstract As transistor geometries are reduced, quantum effects begin to dominate device performance. At some point, transistors cease to have the properties that make them useful computational components. New computing elements must be developed in order to keep pace with Moore’s Law. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) represent an alternative paradigm to transistor-based logic. It has the potential for attractive features such as faster speed, smaller size and low power consumption than transistor based technology. By taking the advantages of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architecture. This paper presents a new designs of 2: 1 multiplexer in quantum dot cellular automata. The proposed work uses novel implementation strategies, methodologies and new formulations of basic logic equations to make the proposed designs more efficient in terms of cell count, area, polarization etc. The operation of the proposed design is verified by QCA Designer where a thorough comparison with the previously reported designs confirms the reliable performance of the proposed designs. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multiplexer, QCA, Nanotechnology.

26 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

First Results of the Study of Atmospheric Electric Field Using Electric Field Mill in Kashmir Shaista Afreen£, Gowher Bashir, Nissar Ahmed Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796295724.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1804

Abstract When we explore the changes in the atmosphere of a region, the vertical electric field is seen to play an important role in characterising the atmospheric behaviour. The electric field is directed downwards normally and in fair weather its intensity is 100- 200 v/m near the ground surface. The changes in the atmospheric electric field values during normal and perturbed weather conditions are very high. To measure the electric field an Electric Field Mill is used. The Field Mill measures the charge induced by the atmospheric field on its metal plate. Field mill consists of rotating shield, connected electrically to ground potential. The sensing plate is alternately shielded and exposed to the atmospheric field. This charge is converted into an amplitude modulated voltage by a charge amplifier and then the sign and magnitude of the electric field is then recovered using a demodulation system. For measuring electric field an Electric Field Mill EFM 100 is installed in the institutional premises of University of Kashmir. This environmentally durable mill can operate both in rain and snow conditions. The focus of the present work is to analyse and investigate how this ground based technique of Electric field Mill performs in different meteorological conditions. Certain figures have been plotted on a very basic level for showing the kind of data being recorded by the Electric Field Mill and attempts of their interpretation have been made. We also try to obtain the universal time diurnal curve of electric field during fair weather conditions called as the Carnegie curve. Using the field mill we may study the departures of Carnegie curve from its average value and relate it to local meteorological conditions and specific atmospheric phenomenon. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Electric Field Mill, Sensing Plate, Amplifier, Demodulation, Carnegie Curve.

27 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Synthesis and Investigation of Multiferroic Materials for Magneto-Electric Applications Samiya Manzoor£, Shahid Husain Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006149428.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1807

Abstract Multiferroics, the materials with multiple ferroic orderings present simultaneously are indispensable from the technological point of view. Of the multiple ferroic orderings, spin ordering and charge ordering are important. The simultaneous magnetization and polarization present in multiferroic materials are explored for various applications like high sensitivity a.c magnetic field sensors and electrically controlled magnetic devices. The coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders can be exploited for magneto electronic devices. The multiple state memory elements where data is stored in both the electric and magnetic polarizations is one of the important application of multiferroic materials which might allow the writing of ferroelectric data bit and reading of the magnetic data simultaneously. To achieve the required applications from multiferroic materials, research is done to enhance the magneto-electric coupling in existing multiferroic materials and synthesize the new multiferroic materials with enhanced magnetization and polarization. With this objective we have synthesized nano-particles of LaFeO3 and Zn doped LaFeO3 by using sol gel auto combustion process. These materials are investigated for dielectric, magnetic and thermal measurements. We have obtained the significant results from our measurements with a strong anomaly around Neel point in dielectric and specific heat measurements of LaFeO3. The anomaly in dielectric measurements is a clear evidence for magneto-electric coupling. The partial replacement of Fe with Zn leads to the distortion of structure with a shift of Neel point towards low temperature. Further work is required to investigate the material for magneto-electric coupling and explore the material for magneto-electric applications. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multiferroics, Memory Elements, Magnetization, Polarization, Magneto-Electric Coupling.

28 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Skinput: The Future of Touch Technology Ubaid Farooq Gada£, Furqan Zahoor Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906169604.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1810

Abstract The main aim of electronics is to have much slimmer and lighter gadgets. Scientists try to scale down the gadgets so that they can become portable. Reduction in size leads to reduction in power consumption and hence more battery life in mobile phones. It has revolutionized our modern day computers and mobile phones. In todays world, the button keypads of mobile phones got replaced by touchscreens and hence the world moves now on our finger tips. The main issue faced with scaling of touchscreen devices is that if we keep on reducing the size of our device, the interaction area of the device will also decrease. The remedy for this is either stop or further scaling down of the touch devices which in turn is contradicting with the aim of electronics, or we need to find an alternative. One such alternative is human skin and the technology which converts human body in touchscreen is Skinput technology. Skinput technology uses a novel concept of using an armband that comprises of piezoelectric sensor arrays which sense the body taps. Whenever a person taps on his skin, some sort of waves are generated which move over the body surface or deeper towards the bone and hence two types of waves were found by scientists, they are - transverse waves and longitudinal waves. The armband senses those waves and directs our device to perform the operation that user wants its device to perform using Bluetooth technology. This technology becomes more interactive if we use a picoprojector with our armband. It really converts human body into a screen or a display. The person can scroll up and down the menus and can move in and out of the folders and apps. This technology has got various issues in itself. The radiations may lead to some skin diseases which we are unaware of. Also a lot of research is needed in this area. The armband is much bulkier right now, they want to create a bracelet like band which will be easy to carry along. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Armband, Acoustics Detection, Picoprojector, Projected Displays, Body Interaction.

29 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Secured Solutions for 6Lowpan Protocol and Their Impact on Its Performance Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419900421.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-511

Abstract The rapidly growing interest in the development of open-source, offers a significant potential to ubiquitous monitoring and control over IPv6 platforms. 6LoWPAN is the backbone protocol at the network layer (Adaptation layer) in Internet of Things. The 6LoWPAN enables the integration of resource constraint devices with the Internet and allows the deployment of IPv6 on Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN’S). It also enables interoperability and userfriendliness when establishing applications related to the highly popular trend of Internet of Things. To achieve the promising goals of Internet of Things with privacy and trust, security should be properly addressed as an integral part at higher layers of the protocol stack. This paper discusses 6LoWPAN protocol, its security issues and the impact of security solutions on the 6LoWPAN protocol. Various security solutions related to the protocol such as IDS, access control, Cryptographic and other related solutions are described. Moreover, the performance of the IoT networks after application of security solutions is discussed in terms of consumption of system resources, network performance and mitigation of attacks on the network. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IoT Security, IoT Protocol, 6LoWPAN Performance.

30 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A New Fragile and Semi-Reversible Image Watermarking Technique for Temper Detection and Authentication Nazir A. Loan, Nasir N. Hurrah£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622946887.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-625

Abstract The facilities and easiness provided online to the users by different government and private agencies have been well acknowledged and are almost used by everyone. For example, the e-health care services provide the patients facility to the remotely diagnose and treat of diseases. This concept of e-health care is now replacing conventional patient to doctor physical interaction health care mode. But there remain some breaches in this system for being perfectly used in medical applications which include integrity and privacy of the patient information exchanged through internet. So for the successful exchange of medical information the system has to ensure that the received medical images were not tempered by the unauthorized users. Time and again researchers and government agencies have put several efforts in order to curb the menace. But due to the continuous information bombardment in several sectors of the life new challenges continue to arise before researchers. Several state of art techniques have been put forward to overpower security and piracy issues. The main focus of the people has been mainly in the sectors of defense, satellite communication, banking, e-commerce and medicine. Still there has been no such technique till now which has completely secured the information exchange and instead the challenges have increased due to the vulnerability of the internet to attackers. So demand of the hour is to put forward a technique which can establish the goals of privacy and security of the subjects exchanging the data. The techniques of image authentication have proven to be best for integrity protection of images. Watermarking has proven to be the prime method in recent times to deal with all the above concerns mentioned. In this regard present work is focused on providing a technique which works well for authentication of the digital information exchanged through a network. This is done by embedding watermark using fragile watermarking technique such that in on application of any attack the watermark will get destroyed. Also due to use of encryption the proposed scheme offers high security to the any kind of signal manipulation attacks. The reversibility is added in the scheme for the purpose of better perceptual quality and matters if and only when the image is received without any manipulation. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Fragile Watermarking, E-Health Care, Image Authentication, Temper Detection, Reversible Watermarking.

31 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A Review on Authentication Schemes in Cloud Computing Saima Mehraj£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419090377.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1562

Abstract In cloud computing environment, the security of digital resources is the most important issue that hampers its wide spread adoption. Authentication, however, plays a vital role in cloud security, targeting to verify a user’s identity when a user wishes to request services from cloud resources. Moreover, without knowledge of the identity of a principal requesting an operation, it is difficult to decide whether the operation should be allowed. Also, the use of strong authentication methods is imperative in order to avoid unauthorized access to cloud resources. Therefore, a number of authentication schemes have been proposed till date such as authentication using Kerberos, Key Distribution Centre, Public Key Infrastructure, LDAP, Biometric, Graphical and 3D Password, etc. This paper comprehensively surveys the various authentication mechanisms proposed so far in cloud computing. Moreover, the traditional authentication techniques do not sufficiently provide information security against the majority of modern attacks in a cloud computing environment. Therefore, a multi-factor authentication (MFA) scheme is required which confirms any pair of username/password, and also requires a secondary factor such as biometric authentication. Furthermore, MFA is aimed to create a layered defense and make it difficult for an unauthorized person to access a cloud resource. Besides, if one factor is compromised, the attacker still has at least one more barrier to breach before successfully breaking into the cloud resource. This paper concludes with the comparison of various authentication schemes. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Authentication, Kerberos, Multi-Factor Authentication, LDAP.

32 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

On Length and Area Biased Levy Distribution Afaq Ahmad Islamic University of Science and Technology, Awantipoora, Kashmir, India

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596169720. E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1582

Abstract In this article we propose a weighted version of Levy distribution known as Weighted Levy distribution (WLD). We examine the Length biased and Area biased distribution versions of Weighted Levy distribution. Basic properties such as moments, moment generating function (mgf), characteristic function (cf), hazard rate function and measures of uncertainty. Although, our main focus is on estimation from both classical and Bayesian point of view. We briefly describe different classical approaches, namely, maximum likelihood estimator, method of moments, and compare them by using extensive numerical simulations. Next we consider Bayes estimation using non-informative Jeffrey’s prior and informative Inverse Chi square prior under different types of loss function (symmetric and asymmetric loss functions). Furthermore, Bayes estimators and their respective posterior risks are computed and we compared these estimates by using simulation study. Finally, a simulation study has been conducted for comparing weighted Levy distribution with other competing distributions. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Levy distribution, Moments, Entropy, Hazard rate, Maximum likelihood estimator, Moment estimator, Bayes estimator, Prior, Loss function.

33 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Improved E-Mail Security Using Elliptical Curve Cryptography Shafiya Afzal Sheikh£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9469177449.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1593

Abstract In order to secure the email from attacks against its integrity, authenticity and confidentiality and to make it a reliable and secure mode of communication, cryptography has been integrated into the email technology in many forms. Email communication can now take place with complete encryption of the text. Cryptography is also used to digitally sign email messages which ensures its sender verification, message integrity and non-repudiation. Emails can be digitally signed with or without end to end encryption. The encryption of email and digital signatures is done using public key cryptography in which the communicating users possess a pair of public and private keys. They share their public keys with each other and keep the private keys to themselves. The public keys are used to encrypt messages for their owners and private keys are used to decrypt the messages received in encrypted form. The private key is also used to digitally sign the email messages and the public on the other hand is used to verify the signature on the digitally signed email messages. This secure email communication uses a public key cryptography algorithm call RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) algorithm. This paper discusses some of the weak points, drawbacks and attacks against the RSA algorithm which pose a potential threat to the email security infrastructure. It discusses the advantages of using ECC (Elliptical Curve Cryptography) and ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) over RSA algorithm for email security. The ECC and ECDSA have been implemented and tested with email communication using Java language. The performance of the use of ECC and RSA for securing e-mail communication has been compared for different key sizes and the results obtained suggest that the use of ECC not only improves the security of email communication but also improves its processing speed. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Email, Cryptography, RSA, ECC, ECDSA.

34 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Status of Social Websites in Terms of Web Accessibility Versus Psychology with Special Reference to Persons With Disabilities Abid Ismail£, Aeshan Ahmad Dar Pondicherry University

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9487064830.

E-mail address: abidpu2015[email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1613

Abstract Presently, the social identities can be developed and explored among the people by using social websites like Facebook, WhatApp, Twitter, Telegram, Instagram, Viber, etc. Generally, every society consists of two types of persons with respect to abilities called normal as well as abnormal (Persons with Disabilities). So, there is a need to communicate in the society equally in order to bring all types of people closer to each other. In this study, we evaluate the social websites in terms of web accessibility and web usability for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs). Furthermore, Psychological impact on PwDs was explored with respect selected attributes. It was found that the social websites effect PwDs both positively and negatively. Like advertisements, images, navigation, screen readers, text size, font, accessibility features, and privacy, etc. create diverse problems while accessing the sites. This makes PwDs vulnerable to various types of psychological disorders like concentration loss, anxiety, depression, stress, etc. World Wide Web Consortium had proposed the guidelines (WCAG and its versions) for websites to make the web technology accessible for all. There is a need to think about social websites to enhance their social identities positively. Thus, the web administrators and web developers have to focus on these issues so that the main motive of web called equality for all will be maintained. In this way making the technology accessible, the influence of social websites is more effective in terms of their interactions, information sharing, achieving knowledge, emotions, experiences, etc. Hence, in this way progress will be achieved from inaccessibility to accessibility of social websites technologically, which has the positive psychological impact on the Persons with Disabilities (PwDs). © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Social Websites, Web Accessibility, W3C, WCAG, PwDs, Psychology.

35 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Convergence of an Iterative Algorithm for a Class of Set-Valued Variational Inclusion Bisma Zahoor Bagdadi Department of Mathematics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796901187. E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1627

Abstract In this paper, a new class of variational-like inclusion problem involving (H, eta)-monotone operators in Banach spaces is considered. Using proximal operator technique, the existence of solution have been proved and suggested an iterative algorithm for solving the generalized variational-like inclusion problem. Also, the convergence analysis of the iterative algorithm is discussed. The results presented in this paper improve and generalize many known results in the literature. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: (H, eta)-Monotone Operator, Generalized eta-Proximal Operator, Lass Of Variational-Like Inclusion Problem, Iterative Algorithm, Convergence Analysis.

36 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Connect the Dots: Using Web Accessibility Guidelines to Improve the Social Websites on Persons with Disability Abid Ismail£, K. S. Kuppusamy Department of Computer Science, School of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry University, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9487064830.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1652

Abstract Presently, the social identities can be developed and explored among the people by using social websites like Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Telegram, Instagram, Viber, etc. Generally, every society consists of two types of persons with respect to abilities called normal as well as abnormal (Persons with Disabilities). So, there is a need to communicate in the society equally in order to bring all types of people closer to each other. In this study, we evaluate the social websites in terms of web accessibility and web usability for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs). Furthermore, Psychological impact on PwDs was explored with respect selected attributes. It was found that the social websites effect PwDs both positively and negatively. Like advertisements, images, navigation, screen readers, text size, font, accessibility features, and privacy, etc. create diverse problems while accessing the sites. This makes PwDs vulnerable to various types of security problems like hacking, phishing, etc. and psychological disorders like concentration loss, anxiety, depression, stress, etc.World Wide Web Consortium had proposed the guidelines (WCAG and its versions) for websites to make the web technology accessible for all. There is a need to think about social websites to enhance their social identities positively. Thus, the web administrators and web developers have to focus on these issues like basic web accessibility components including securities and privacy, etc. so that the main motive of the web called equality for all will be maintained and secured. In this way making the technology accessible, the influence of social websites are more effective in terms of their interactions, information sharing, achieving knowledge, emotions, experiences, etc. Hence, in this way progress will be achieved from inaccessibility to accessibility of social websites technologically, which has the positive psychological impact on the Persons with Disabilities (PwDs). © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Social Websites, Web Accessibility, W3C, WCAG, PwDs, Accessibility Components.

37 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A Study of 6Lowpan Standard and Challenges Aiman Latif£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622646854.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1739

Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) manifests itself as a next big prospect for the Engineering Society, Organizations and companies as a whole. Internet of Things (IoT) recent growth in communication technology coupled with the development of contemporary applications have made it a well-researched, thorough and developing technology. In today’s world, the main focus is on low-power, low-energy smart sensors which are to be integrated with IPs. An open standard based on RFC 6282 by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) named 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks),a IPv6 protocol based on IEEE802.15.4 standard that permits both integration and connection of wired & wireless networks immaculately and efficiently, well suits ths technology. 6lowpan was initially developed to support the 2.4 Ghz band but later on adapted itself to sub Ghz low power bands like RF, Bluetooth Smart e.t.c. 6LoWPAN offers the wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes with IP communication proficiencies by placing an adaptation layer beyond the 802.15.4 link layer. The adaptation layer implements core functions like fragmentation, reassembling, header compression and decompression and stateless auto configuration. The 6LoWPAN, with open standards, easy learning curve, long lifetime and transparent integration of Internet, is well poised to enhance the fast-growing Internet of Things (IoT) market. This paper deals with the overview of 6LoWPAN technology and the future research challenges associated with it, particularly considering Mobility and Routing. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IoT, 6LoWPAN, IPv6, WSN.

38 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Secure and Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for Healthcare System Using Magic Rectangle and New Interpolation Technique Misbah Manzoor Kiloo£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006787218.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1744

Abstract The proposed scheme under the name Secure and Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for Healthcare System using Magic Rectangle and a New Interpolation technique is a strong contender for providing improvements in present e-healthcare system as it not only provides better medical care facility by reducing the distance between doctor and patient but it also provides enhanced data hiding capability, further keeps the patient record safe and secure and also enables us to secure the transmission by utilizing watermark. The proposed scheme has very high capacity and is capable of hiding Electronic Patient Record (EPR) imperceptibly in gray scale medical images for healthcare applications has been proposed. To ensure the reversibility of medical images a new image interpolation technique has been used to scale up the original image to obtain the cover image. The cover image pixels have been divided into two types: Seed pixels and non-seed pixels. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR) has been embedded only in non-seed pixels while no embedding has been carried out in seed pixels to facilitate reversibility. A fragile watermark has been embedded besides the EPR to make the proposed scheme capable of detecting any tampering of EPR during its transit from transmitter to receiver. The fragile watermark is also used for content authentication at the receiver. At the receiving end, firstly we extract the fragile watermark, if it is same as one embedded, signaling that EPR has not been attacked during transit, EPR is extracted otherwise system uses a re transmission request instead of wasting time to extract the compromised Electronic Patient Record (EPR). For ensuring the security of EPR we encrypt it using magic rectangle. Embedding has been carried out using Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution. The scheme has been evaluated for perceptual imperceptibility and content authentication by subjecting to various image processing and geometric attacks. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system besides being completely reversible is capable of providing high quality stego-images for fairly high payload. Further, it has been observed that the proposed technique is able to detect the tamper. A comparison of the observed results with that of some state-of-art schemes show that our scheme performs better. The proposed scheme provides a huge data hiding capability, the capacity here is 1, 96,608 bits. Further, a high payload of 0.75 bpp(bits per pixel) is achieved using this scheme. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Interpolation, EPR, Magic Rectangle, Tampering.

39 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A Study of the Feasibility and Scope of Attribute-Based Encryption for Internet of Things Mudasir Ahmad Dar£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906520428.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1755

Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) is an ensemble of heterogenous devices and varied technologies. IoT incorporates immense number of heterogenous end systems, which provide open access to selected data for digital services. The abundance of sensors and actuators motivates sensing and actuating devices in communication scenarios thus, enabling sharing of enormous amounts of information in IoT environment and hence, shift security priorities to data access control from a data-centric perspective. Thus, to secure the IoT, it becomes essential to implement a data access control policy that offers the necessary flexibility required to manage a large number of IoT devices. The concept of ABE, sub-classified into Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) and Key Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) fulfills such requirements and offers intended security solutions from a data-centric perspective. In CP-ABE, an access policy is cryptographically enforced on the data, thereby allowing only authorized users with the desired set of attributes to access the data whereas, KP-ABE being dual to CP-ABE in a sense that an access policy based on specified user attributes is enforced into the user's secret key. The proposed work investigates the feasibility of ABE and its multiple variants for data access control in IoT and further suggests the scope of Attribute Based Proxy Re-Encryption (ABPRE) in resource constrained IoT environment. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Sensor, Attribute-Based Encryption, Ciphertext-Policy ABE, Key Policy ABE, Attribute Based Proxy Re-Encryption.

40 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Big Data Analytics Applied to Digital Forensic Investigations Mariya Shafat£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7780940917.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1767

Abstract The cumulative effect of digitization, Internet, communications and the services provided by the same in the form of Cloud computing, Internet of Things and the like has led to the escalation of data in seemingly borderless manner in all of its dimensions and continues to grow due to ubiquitous computing. The data that is available is unstructured, redundant, scrambled, heterogeneous as well as huge in quantity resulting in Big Data characterized by the “V―s of Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity and Value. Big data widens the domain of opportunities that cannot be overlooked as it acts as the gold mine of knowledge that can be digged out using the immense yet evolving techniques available. However, as the technologies mature, there is an accelerated growth in cybercrimes as well. The sources and the volume of data corpora (Big Data) to be investigated related to cybercrimes are immense, leading to serious challenges in digital forensic investigations that increase the backlog resulting in Digital Forensic crisis. Hence, Big Data demands for a different approach to the forensic investigations in actionable time while maintaining the credibility of forensic principles. The proposed work focuses on the survey of how Big Data Analytics and associated techniques are applied to every phase of forensic investigation and how reduction techniques can be or are applied to the associated evidence set for selective imaging of same, thereby, paring down the overhead of unwanted data and filtering out the noise. Consequent upon the above discussion, the proposed work is inclined towards a study to improve the forensic investigation time and reducing the forensic backlogs pertaining to Big Data. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Big Data, Digital Forensics, Backlog, Big Data Analytics, Data Reduction, Filtering.

41 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Security Attacks on IOT Syed Suhail Ahmad Simnani£, Aaqib Anjum Reshi, Shabir A. Parah, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006400147.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1768

Abstract Internet of Things (IOT) integrates objects with unique addressing schemes to their corresponding platforms via communicating network to create advanced control application systems with minimum human interaction. The association of Sensor networks, Gateways and Clouds create a conceivable IoT Structure which actually in its basic form is defined by the three layer Architecture as Perception, Network and Application layer. The basic requirement of an IOT ecosystem is privacy, fidelity and security since the mark of devices associated is expected to rise to 50 billion by 2020. The individual security lags of the hardware and software components involved comprise to the overall security threat to IoT paradigm. To achieve the fundamental promise of the security, the potential attacks on the layers involved have to be analysed with appropriate solutions to each attack having considered all the constraints (limited hardware, low power, minimum overhead etc.) of an IoT network. The aim is to present a review about the potential attacks in IoT at each level of its basic architecture. The classification of attacks ranging from physical, network, software and encryption level have been discussed while providing insights about their severity and impact over an IoT network. The possible intervention of attacker is exemplified by throwing some light on malicious node injection attack, sinkhole attack where routing information is corrupted to worms being introduced in application layer. The discussion further elaborates on physical layer security under a constrained resource IoT environment and the need for security in the middleware section where protocol for bidirectional communications like Message Queuing Telemetry Protocol (MQTT) are implemented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IOT, Security, Gateways, Application Layer, Middleware, Attack.

42 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Data Lake Integrity and Governance Challenges Abdul Wahid£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419088864.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1775

Abstract Data Lake is a repository for variety of data like structured, semi-structured, unstructured and binary data of very large quantity. It is a type of data layer whose basic function is to clean and validate the data. Data Lake accepts input from variety of sources like legacy systems, data warehouses and analytics systems, third-party data, social media data, stream data etc. and preserves both its lineage and fidelity. The Data Lake is not a tool but a concept or method and in this process the data is moved to the central storage in its raw format which eliminates the direct cost of data transformation. Although the source, need, architecture and the pattern of data are different but the challenges are the same with respect to building a Data Lake and these challenges are Integrity, Governance, and Synchronization, handling the diversified data with low volume and bringing data from various sources to a common pool or central storage. Among them the integrity and governance are very important in terms of unity and security. The aim of this paper is to study these challenges and the approach towards their solutions. In Integrity it is important to ensure the right data is getting at the right time and incorporation of Data Lake with other applications and analytic systems. Similarly when more and more users are coming to the Data Lake the importance of security increases. To solve these problems there is a need for very well-documented policy or guideline regarding the required accessibility, consistency, completeness, and updating of each data and also the built-in mechanisms to track and record any manipulation of data assets present in the Data Lake. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Data Lake, Data Layer, Integrity, Governance, Central Storage, Fidelity, Lineage.

43 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Information Overload: Applications, Causes, Challenges and Ways of Approach for Mitigation Mohammed Qasim Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906426345. E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1786

Abstract When the information is too much to cope up with or adjust with, we called it information overload. It may affect one and all who go through it. When a person is flooded with the information beyond his/her capacity of assimilating it, simply one is over loaded with information that leads to overburdening of the mind. The person might be unaware that he/ she is overloaded with information until the symptoms of weariness begin to come along. In the past few years the technology part has developed so fast to be beyond ones imagination and pace. Every fraction of a second there is an innovation and by the growing usage and ability to use modern techniques by every Tom, Dick and Harry it has created information glut. Undoubtedly this flood of information will bring down the decision making potential. It has already caused loss of trillions of Dollars in the developed countries which has direct impact on the development of third world countries. It is observed that a human being can do its best with the information he receives upto a certain limit and can perform well if he is able to gather, understand and absorb the information he is provided with but once he is gigantically drowned with the information which is beyond his perceptual experience and acculturation the things will definitely take the untoward turn instead of gaining we loose. One certainly needs to overcome this problem of excessive information which leads to information overload. Different enterprises have invested in bulk to find ways and means of combating the menace of information overload. The technical solutions like BIS or semantic technology are widely experimented upon. These technical approaches may reduce the density of information overload problem. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Information Overload, Decision Making, Semantic Technologies.

44 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: A Comparative Study of Security Issues and Protocols Faheem Shafi£, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622508436.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1787

Abstract Wireless sensor network contains thousands of sensor nodes used to detect and monitor certain physical entity such as pressure, humidity, temperature, etc .When compared to wired network, WSNs provide an easy placement and better flexibility and makes an efficient way of communication between nodes. Every kind of an activity to perform consumes some energy, these sensor nodes requires some energy for communication and hence are battery operated. Internet of things is a much broader concept of WSN. In IOT, WSNs are connected to internet so that information is only available in real time. Today, IOT is used in everything whether it will be in smart grid, smart home, etc every smart things require connection to internet. WSNs are having a wider variety of applications in real world which is possible like in military, industrial, etc, while IOTs are having much broader application domain from simple smart home to complex industrial applications. This Paper discusses the evolution and use of WSNs within the broader context of IoT, and provides a review of their underlying applications and technologies including protocol stacks. It presents a comparative study of architectures of WSNs and IoTs, an analysis of standardization for both. This paper concludes with the comparison between the two contemporary approaches of device to device communication on their key security issues. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: IoT, WSN, IoT Security, IoT Protocols, IoT Networks.

45 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Blind Digital Speech Watermarking Using Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation for 5G Networks Sakeena Akhtar£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9906475295.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-533

Abstract Today’s world is a world of Social Networks with millions of people sharing valuable information over the Internet. However there are certain issues related to the privacy and security of a user while sharing information through a social network especially when the shared information carries multimedia content like images, video, audio/speech. The security issues such as integrity and data authentication can be fulfilled using various Digital Watermarking Techniques. In this paper, a new method of blind digital speech watermarking for 5G networks has been proposed and implemented using Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation. Based on various advantages provided by FBMC like spectral efficiency, it is supposed to be a major player in 5G communications. Indeed 5G communication systems and beyond do not only offer high data rates, but they are also anticipated to do that in energy efficient way. For authenticity a watermark logo has been embedded into a speech signal which is being processed and modified by FBMC, the processed signal is passed through an AWGN channel. The experimental results thus obtained clearly show that the embedded watermark is extracted successfully with less BER and the reconstructed speech signal has much better audio quality as well. Hence we conclude that the proposed technique of blind digital speech watermarking using FBMC transmission can prove to be an enabling technology for the effective utilization and the acceptance of opportunistic 5G networks. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Social Networks, Privacy, Security, Multimedia, FBMC, 5G, BER.

46 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Performance Evaluation of Various Signal Processing Techniques for 5G And IOT Networks Sumina Sidiq£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006900949.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-665

Abstract The wireless systems have been fuelled by the need for increased throughput. The larger data rate needs have led us from 2G systems to 4G systems with data-rates evolving from tens of kbps up to current state of the art tens of Mbps. Focussing on the modulation schemes, the transitions have been from binary modulations such as the Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK), used in the 2G GSM systems to Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) schemes used in 4G systems. However this will not be the cause for 5G networks, there will be no dominant performance metric that defines requirements for 5G techniques. Instead, a number of new signal processing techniques will be used to constantly increase service rates. There will be a new emphasis on greatly increasing capacity, coverage, efficiency (power spectrum and other resources), flexibility, compatibility, reliability, and convergence. Unlike previous generations of cellular networks, 5G systems will have to accommodate a variety of services and of emerging new applications such as; Very large data-rate wireless connectivity, Internet of things (IoT), Tactile Internet etc. 5G wireless technology is developing at an explosive rate and is one of the biggest areas of research within academia and industry. From an algorithm and implementation perspective, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive and highly coherent treatment of all the signal processing techniques that enable 5G and IoT systems. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: 2G, 3G, 4G, Signal Processing Techniques, 5G, IoT.

47 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Structural Comparison of Various Modulation Techniques for 5G Wireless Communications. Uzma Bhat£, G. M. Bhat Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596090421.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-676

Abstract The ever expanding field of wireless communication has given birth to various generation of the communication. The work being focused nowadays will eventually culminate in 5th generation of the wireless communication. The paper presents a brief overview of various multi-carrier modulation schemes like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) and Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC) that have been included in 5G. The structural similarities and differences have been mentioned. OFDM is one of the most widely used modulation technique. It is being used in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE advanced because of its simple receiver and transmitter design. However, the advantage of the OFDM can be useful only when the orthogonality is maintained. In case the orthogonality is not sufïciently warranted by any means, its performance may be degraded due to intersymbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI). Thus OFDM demands strict synchronization to exactly detect the start and end of a symbol. Cyclic Prefix is needed at the end of each symbol to avoid Inter Block Interference (IBI) which makes OFDM structurally less efficient. Because of these flaws various other modulation techniques have been reported in the literature. UFMC and FBMC are two such techniques. FBMC has evolved from the conventional OFDM in which the inherit disadvantages of the OFDM are addressed by high quality filters that avoid both ingress and egress noises. In FBMC each subcarrier is individually filtered, resulting in reduction of ICI. However, filter length is much greater than OFDM systems making it unsuitable for short bursts data transmission. UFMC is a novel multi-carrier modulation technique having advantages of OFDM and FBMC. In OFDM, one filter is applied on the entire band whereas in FBMC, filters are applied on each subcarrier individually. In UFMC, filter is utilized on sub band blocks, i.e. groups of subcarriers. This allows reducing the filter length considerably as compared to FBMC. So, UFMC is less complex like OFDM and provides better sub carrier separation like FBMC. Various issues about the choice of modulation method to be used, are to be taken care of which include required performance, computational complexity and spectral efficiency. The utilization of the modulation techniques depends upon the field of application and thus choice should be made accordingly. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multicarrier Modulation (MCM), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Universal Filtered MultiCarrier (UFMC) and Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC), Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI), Inter-Channel Interference (ICI).

48 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Study of OFDM and FBMC-OQAM in Frequency and TimeSelective Channel for Optimization of Resource Allocation Farhana Mustafa£, G. M. Bhat, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8803978992.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-788

Abstract FBMC is a multicarrier modulation technique used in 5G communication system. In 5G communication systems, more focus is given on spectral efficiency besides data rate, because of using filters instead of cyclic prefix. In this paper the focus has been given to study the performance of OFDM and FBMC in both time selective and frequency selective channel and the performance has been considered in terms of BEP for one and two tap equalizers. The Equalizer equalizes the channel condition. Hermite type equalizer has been used in FBMC. Noise is supposed to be Gaussian. Also a comparison is made on the effect of velocity of two channels with different delay spread over bit error rate. Different modulation schemes are compared either in time selective channel or frequency selective channel. Thus, the focus has been on study of different modulation schemes that are compared both in time selectivity and frequency selectivity. The bit error probability has been chosen as an important parameter. Further the purpose of the study is to perform a simulation of time invariant FFT OFDM and wavelet OFDM and compare it with simulation in time and frequency domain of FFT and wavelet FBMC. Also study of the spectral efficiency of wavelet FBMC and FFT FBMC has been made to arrive at better resource allocation in 5G communication systems. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: OFDM, FBMC, BEP, FIR Filter, MCM.

49 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Design and Fabrication of Dielectric Resonator Loaded Microstrip Filter for Microwave Communication. Arshid Iqbal Khan£, Syed Mujtaba Hassan Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419153344.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-940

Abstract Dielectric-resonator filters find applications in wireless base stations because of high Quality (Q) factor and compactness. In comparison with any other known filter technology Dielectric resonator offer high Q values with a relatively high Q/volume ratio. Dielectric resonators can operate at various modes. This paper presents the design and fabrication of dielectric resonator loaded micro strip filter which can be used for dual band communication involving Low pass and Band pass filtering schemes. The filter can be constructed by placing dielectric resonators with high Quality factor on transmission line and the resonators are so placed that there exists maximum mutual coupling between them. The objective is to achieve high Quality factor with miniaturized design. The designed Low pass filter has cut-off frequency of 5.6 GHz and stop band at 5.2 GHz. Also the Band pass filter is designed with pass band of 8.6 to 9.8 GHz. The proposed filter has bandwidth of 1.2 GHz and quality factor of around 8000, and is thus suitable for microwave communication. The size, location and shape of the dielectric surely affects the impedance matching of a microwave circuit. We also consider three dielectric resonators of cylindrical shape excited with a simple microstrip line. A match combination of dielectric resonators and microwave circuit can be merged together in order to produce a wideband device as well as increasing the transmitting power and hence reduce the insertion loss. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Dielectric-Resonator, Q Values, Mutual Coupling, Microwave Communication, Miniaturized Design.

50 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Cross Layer Optimization for Throughput and Impartial Resource Sharing in Wireless Communication Networks Employing Device to Device (D2D) Communication. Arshid Iqbal Khan£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419153344.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-954

Abstract Device to Device (D2D) technology brings substantial benefits to system throughput, energy efficiency and network offloading. It involves replacement of two or more adhoc links between the Base Stations (BS) and the cellular User Equipments (UEs) in to a single adhoc link between the BS and a parent UE. The parent UE communicates the network resources to other D2D enabled UE in near proximity without involving the role of the base station. However, as D2D UEs can cause interference to cellular UEs, the cooperative scheduling, allocation of spectral resources and power to D2D communication need intricate coordination. In this paper cross layer optimization is proposed for both system throughput and equitable sharing of resources for each D2D UE. Moreover a cooperative time domain scheduling and spectral resource allocation scheme is carried out. Based on the concept of UE’s battery lifetime, it is proposed that an auction-based algorithm for channel resource and power allocation of D2D communication is vital. Finally, we accomplish computer simulations to learn the performance of the proposed algorithm. The system includes two types of UEs, D2D UEs and cellular UEs. The D2D UEs are in pairs, each involving one transmitter and one receiver equipped with a single omnidirectional antenna. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Cooperative Scheduling, Cross-Layer Optimization, Stackelberg Game Framework, Leader-Follower, Omnidirectional.

51 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

An Efficient Image Stitching Method for Flying Wireless Image Processing Sensor Nodes. Rouf Ul Alam Bhat£, G. M. Bhat Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797720878.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1141

Abstract With the revolution of internet of things, Wireless sensor and actor networks, flying robotics has also dived in by an interesting factor. The flying sensor nodes are ubiquitous in aerial image acquisition and processing with tremendous applications in civil, military and scientific areas. But, the prime problem with the flying nodes is the power consumption and the battery life, so maximum of the research is motivated to design and develop low power and efficient algorithms at all levels of abstraction. A big class of applications for flying nodes is aerial image acquisition and processing of which image stitching is a foundational task. Although there are lots of efficient image stitching algorithms being implemented by other applications like Google earth but being computationally intensive, they take all the juice from the battery of the node. In this paper a hardware approach instead of a software one is proposed wherein two cameras instead of one are used to do the stitching efficiently. The cameras are fitted in such a way that they acquire images at different angles and after simple comparison are stored for further processing. The two camera approach reduces the complexity of the algorithm to a level that the power required for acquisition by the second camera is also brought within budget. Moreover the two cameras can be used for other applications like three dimensional photography, depth sensing etc. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Image Stitching, Flying Robotics, Aerial Image Acquisition.

52 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Channel Estimation in OFDM System. Injila Mubarik£ Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NIT Srinagar

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797828831.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1343

Abstract Wireless communications had its beginning at the turn of 20th century with the invention of radio. Since then, the power of instant communication over the long distance has transformed society & made the world a smaller place. With 4G LTE, Wi-Fi & other technologies, computer data networks have brought wireless communications into 21st century. Wireless mode of communication provides a great deal of mobility, flexibility & are less expensive to install & maintain. A defining characteristic of the wireless channel are the variations of the channel strength over time and over frequency which may have deteriorative effects on the data being transmitted. There are roughly two types of fading- frequency flat fading and frequency selective fading. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely adopted in modern wireless communication systems to mitigate the effect of frequency selective fading & is considered as a promising choice for future wireless communications systems due to its high-data-rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency. OFDM has been adopted in digital audio broadcasting (DAB), digital video broadcasting (DVB), digital subscriber line (DSL), and wireless local area network (WLAN) standards such as the IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n. It has also been adopted for wireless broadband access standards such as the IEEE 802.16e. To predict the general behavior of the channel, estimation techniques are adapted. Channel Estimation is the process of characterizing the effect of the physical medium on the input sequence. It is an important and necessary function for wireless systems. Even with a limited knowledge of the wireless channel properties, a receiver can gain insight into the data sent over by the transmitter. Channel estimation is also necessary for diversity combining or interference suppression where there are multiple receive antennas. Principle of Estimation are used in a variety of wireless systems such as- Wireless sensor Networks(WSN), Cellular systems, MIMO-OFDM systems. In this paper, I will present a brief survey on few channel estimation techniques for OFDM systems. Two broad classification of Channel estimation techniques are: i) Based on Channel frequency response(CFR)- Pilot based techniques. & ii) Parametric model(PM) based channel estimation-suitable for sparse channels. The main focus of my research in this paper is to reduce the complexity in estimating the channel with high accuracy. It will be based on one of the methods of low rank approximations- SVD(Singular Value Decomposition). © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: OFDM, Channel Estimation, Pilot Allocation, LS method, LMMSE Method, SVD.

53 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

On the Study and Realization of Non-Orthogonal Multi-Carrier Mimo Communication Using FBMC over Fading Channels Priyanaka Mishra£1, Javaid A. Sheikh2 1

Sanhigginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Srinagar, India. Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

2

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7905827411.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1590

Abstract In this paper, a new non orthogonal multi-carrier over fading channel is presented to improve the performance and reliability of the communication systems. In the proposed technique both the signal processing technique and MultiInput and Multi- Output has been combined. By using the Filter Bank Multicarrier signal processing technique with the MIMO multi- antenna systems, we propose new detection technique which uses linear signal processing technique instead of non-linear in case of conventional MIMO systems. Therefore the complexity and power requirement of the proposed technique is very less. Moreover, the spectral efficiency of the proposed technique is better than conventional one due to less number of unwanted spectral lobes. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of various parameters like Bit Error Rate (BER) and Spectral efficiency. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: MIMO, FBMC, Rayleigh Fading, Spectral Efficiency, BER.

54 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Performance Evaluation of Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing (Sefdm) Technique for 5G Networks and IoT. Ifrah Afzal£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596509825.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1706

Abstract The OFDM based wireless communication requires strict synchronization among the carriers to maintain orthogonality. The mismatch in synchronization among the carriers present in the multicarrier system i.e., OFDM leads to inter carrier interference (ICI) or inter symbol interference (ISI). In this paper we evaluated the performance of Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing (SEFDM). The proposed signal processing technique is quite useful in spectral thirsty 5G networks and Internet of Things (IoT). The proposed technique is non orthogonal, multicarrier waveform technique that provides improved spectral efficiency by packing the subcarriers at a rate less than the symbol rate. A block of N modulating symbols constitute an SEFDM symbol, and these N modulating symbols considered generally are quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) complex symbols. In the proposed technique the complex symbols are modulated on one of the SEFDM’s non orthogonal overlapped subcarriers. It has been observed that in the proposed scheme, the transmission bandwidth is less than as compared to OFDM for a given bit rate. As such the bandwidth compression factor for SEFDM will be smaller as compared to OFDM. Hence in the context of future wireless systems (5G and beyond) and IoT, SEFDM will offer sufficiently great and remarkable bandwidth saving advantages. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: OFDM, IoT, ISI, 5G, SEFDM.

55 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A Survey on Congestion Control in CoAP Safia Gul£, G. M. Bhat Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006833821.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1723

Abstract The constrained application protocol (CoAP) one of the popular a light weight application layer protocol which works over UDP (user datagram protocol) has been designed by international engineering task force (IETF) CoRE working group keeping the same RESTful principle as that of HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) into consideration for Internet of Things (IoT). Since IoT has become the reality and in coming decades there has been a steady increase in number of constrained devices connected to the internet then there are people on the planet. Since constrained nodes are unable to communicate with constrained resources of limited battery, computing power, little memory and limited bandwidth therefore the risk of network congestion in internet of things (IoT) is very high. So congestion is considered as one of the major performance degradation factor for IoT where packet loss is increased and results in high packet retransmission. So this poses a new challenge on the design of congestion control mechanism by COAP. Many researchers are proposing different schemes to solve the congestion control: basic congestion control mechanism by CoAP, advanced congestion control (COCOA) an internet draft proposal, COCOA+. A comparison of these congestion control schemes of CoAP will be under survey in this paper. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Constrained Application Protocol, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Internet of Things, Congestion Control and User Datagram Protocol.

56 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Multi-Rate Decimation Filter Design: Techniques and Challenges. Shahid A. Malik£, Nasir N. Hurrah, Shabir A. Parah, G. M. Bhat Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7889425280.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1731

Abstract With the need of hand-held and portable personal communication systems growing day by day the design of small size, low power and high performance devices is also growing. Therefore, it is required to have an efficient, reliable and flexible signal processing. Moreover, due to the fast progress and rapid scaling of CMOS technology, digital signal processing (DSP) systems have almost replaced analog ones. Analog to digital converter (ADC) forms an important section of a signal processing system and it may be a continuous or a discrete type. Currently an efficient choice for data converters is an oversampling ADC due to its small silicon area, low power consumption and higher resolution unlike traditional ones having Nyquist frequency limit. The oversampling ADCs sample analog signal with higher sampling rate than Nyquist rate, which is usually expressed through OSR. Also, particularly they are favoured for high speed applications as they are relatively simple and possess resistance against component mismatch and circuit errors. With the speedy evolution in the signal processing oversampled Sigma Delta and IC technology, ADCs have grow to be the total alternative among the proficient data converters due to their adept architectures and simplicity of implementation in VLSI technology. Their effectiveness lies in the schemes to reduce area, power consumption and the ways to improve frequency response exclusive of putting any stress on design cost and compatibility factor. Their own issues need to be optimized or to be improved in order to run closely for being compatible for the efficient designs. Multi-rate filters are one among class of filters which have diverse sampling rates at different stages of the filtering process. These consist of decimators, interpolators, and narrow-band low-pass filters that are used for decimation and traditional low-pass filtering. To meet up the demands of an efficient decimation filter design it needs improvement in some areas being the important block in the ADCs. In this paper, we provide a review of ADCs, different techniques of decimation filter design and different architectures with practical issues, solutions and trade-offs. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Multi-rate, Sigma Delta ADCs, Decimation Filter, OSR.

57 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Exploiting Reversible Logic Design for Implementing Adiabatic Digital Filters Muzafar Gani Najar£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797128305.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1742

Abstract In today’s world where energy saving is big design target, due to increase in power independent devices, especially where battery endurance is preferred over speed. Adiabatic circuits for such cases provide promising alternative. These circuits are extremely energy efficient but instead lag in speed. Reversible computing provides full potential to explore adiabatic design. Which is not possible in case of conventional circuits consisting of NAND, NOR, OR, etc. If CMOS technology reaches to its limit in reducing power consumption, adiabatic circuits are best alternatives. These circuits require more area but instead consume less power. Adiabatic circuits perform computations in power efficient manner. Thus for systems which rely on more battery endurance, low speed (general computation purposes), the adiabatic design provides ideal trade-off. Even though full potential of adiabatic circuits could not be exploited in conventional circuits e.g ECRL (efficient charge recovery logic) as it rely on irreversible logic functions OR, AND, NAND etc. So there arises a need of reversible computing. Reversible logic provides explicit control over discharge path which helps to reuse charge from capacitor. Design methods for reversible circuits received significant interest motivated by emerging technologies such as spintronics, trapped ion, linear optics/photonics, superconducting circuits, quantum dots etc. In this work a thorough analysis of different design issues will be done for implementation of power efficient adiabatic digital filters. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Adiabatic Circuits, Digital filters, Reversible Computing.

58 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

A New Technique of Medical Image Transmission over 5G Network Using FBMC Shifa Showkat£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596148833.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1751

Abstract With the deployment of 5G by 2020 and consequent increased connectivity, the total outlook of various technological fields would undergo exceptional changes in terms of speed and bandwidth. 5G technology has paved way for excellent healthcare systems which aim at being faster having decreased latency and at a lower cost, resulting in emergence of new Telemedicine or E-health system. The principle objective of 5G in healthcare would be personalization of healthcare systems, that would include continuous collection and monitoring of patient specific data, analysis of the received data and transmission of the processed information to the patient. Therefore 5G network will revolutionize accessibility in data and medical treatments due to enormous amount of available bandwidth and low latency. In this paper, FBMC, a 5G signal processing technique has been employed for medical image transmission. The combination of filter banks with OQAM modulation leads to maximum bit rate without having to fulfill the requirement of guard time or cyclic prefix as in OFDM. The simulation has been carried out on matlab using standard dicom image. The performance parameters have been calculated using BER,PSNR. From the analysis of the result, it has been observed that the proposed technique is spectrally more efficient as compared to OFDM system and would prove a boon to healthcare. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: 5G,Telemedicine, E health, dicom Image, OFDM, FBMC, Filter Bank.

59 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Watermarking Techniques for Authentication and Tamper Detection: A Survey Solihah Gull£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9797786481.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1773

Abstract Present world is highly dependent on internet and almost everyone is sending/receiving data over internet at tremendous rates than ever before. Many a times we need to transfer some sensitive data like electronic patient record, electronic evidences, biometrics of a criminal etc., to the destination with this intention that the data in transit may not get damaged or destroyed due to intrusion and hence may reach to the destination without being tampered. This means that we have to preprocess the sensitive data before being transferred over internet and thereby increase its protection. This can be done by using various data manipulation tools like Cryptography, steganography, watermarking, etc., and many such techniques have been proposed round the globe. Cryptography is a data protection technique which disguises the data visually and statistically. Its drawback is that once decryption key is known then the data is no more protected. Further, the transfer of data in obscure nature make the data more prone to security threats compared to the data hidden within a cover medium imperceptibly. So for secure transmission of sensitive data information hiding plays a vital role. In steganography the sensitive data is hidden in host medium without leaving a trail of information to human visual system. Both steganography and cryptography protect data from being tampered during transit but do not authenticate the data once the data is tampered. In this work we have also presented an improved watermarking technique based on pixel domain for authentication and tamper detection. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Embedding, Steganography, Authentication, Cryptography.

60 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

On the Study of Future Communication Systems Utilizing Millimeter-Wave and Massive MIMO Raqeebur Rehman£, Zahid A. Bhat, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622768388.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1776

Abstract A number of technologies are being explored for the 5G communication era. The aim is to come up with a cellular network that eventually pushes forward the demerits of legacy mobile systems with all the available performance metrics’ dimensions. In addressing the 5G target design, the information theory suggests the three key approaches to achieve the increase in system capacity: ultra-dense networks (UDN), large portions of newly available bandwidth, and high spectral efficiency. Fortunately, millimeter-wave (mmWave) and massive MIMO provide an efficient way to harness all of these approaches to provide a platform constituting a wireless network of small cells and providing very high-speed data rate. It provides opportunities to significantly raise throughput, enhance spectral and energy efficiencies and increase the capacity of mobile networks using the joint capabilities of the huge available bandwidth in the mmWave frequency bands and high multiplexing gains achievable with large antenna arrays. Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO shows its debut as a technology that combines the prospects of the huge available mmWave bandwidth on the one hand and the expected gains from massive MIMO antenna arrays on the other. In this paper, the initial outcomes of extensive research on mmWave massive MIMO and emerging trends together with their respective benefits; challenges and proposed solutions are presented. This survey highlights the current trends, evolving research issues and future supervisions on mmWave & massive MIMO as a technology that will open up new faces of services and applications of fifth generation cellular networks. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: mmWave, Massive MIMO, 5G Technology, Spectral Efficiency, Performance Metrics.

61 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

On the Study of Micro-Strip Bandpass Filters for Ultra Wide Band Applications Zahid A. Bhat£, Raqeebur Rehman, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 8825062331.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1778

Abstract In last few years, numerous microwave filter designs with band-pass effect have been projected for ultra wide-band (UWB) applications. Among a range of microwave filter design, micro-strip filters are frequently used by researchers because of being light weight, low profile, easy to fabricate and low cost. Conventional micro-strip filter can be in any shape whether circular, rectangular or elliptical but some alteration or supplementary variation in their basic design can be made for diverse purposes for example notch response and tunable characteristics to eradicate undesired signal. In this paper we presented a review and study of filter design for band-pass filter and discussion about various designs with different methods or techniques used with a view to carry out tunable capabilities and achieve the wide-band application range. The work will be examined and critically analyzed in terms of return and insertion losses, selectivity, bandwidth and tuning. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Micro-strip Patch, UWB, Notch Response, Insertion Loss.

62 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Image Compression and Decompression Based on Probability. Haris Shah£, Nimrah Habib, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9858524895.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1785

Abstract The field of image compression has gone through rapid growth during the past thirty years, leading to various coding standards. The main goal of continuous efforts on image coding standardization is to achieve low bit rate for data storage and transmission, while maintaining acceptable distortion. One of the techniques that can be used to compress the image is the Probability method. In this method the two LSB bits are sliced at the sender end and the receiver keeps the track of these sliced bits of all the frames i.e., keeps the track of two LSB planes. Then the probability of these two LSB planes is calculated. The bits having the highest probability of occurring are transmitted to the receiver which are then padded to the rest of the planes. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Compression, Bit Plane Coding, Probability, Redundancy, Lossy Compression.

63 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Image Compression Techniques Based on SVD: A Survey Muzamil Hussan£, Shabir A. Parah Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9086958970.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1795

Abstract With the rapid advancement in technology, multimedia content of digital information is increasing day by day. The exchange and reproduction of digital content has become easier and faster which mainly comprises of either pictures or video frames. Memory space and bandwidth is the large requirement for storage and transmission of these images. To overcome this problem, we reduce the storage space required for these images which can be done by compressing the image while maintaining acceptable image quality. Various methods are available for compression of images like transform coding, fractal compression, area encoding, Singular Value Decomposition etc. Here our focus is on SVD, how SVD is applied on images, the methodology of image compression using SVD. SVD is a technique in which the storage space of image is reduced without degrading the image quality. SVD gives good compression results with less computational complexity compared to other compression techniques. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Image Compression, SVD, Memory Space, Bandwidth.

64 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Development of Quality Education and Curriculum Design Kawser Mohiuddin£, Fayaz Ahmad Fayaz NIELIT, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology - Govt. of India.

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 7006041959.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1814

Abstract Artificial Intelligence has greater ability to revolutionize the entire education setup worldwide and the education sector is potentially ripe for innovation. The AI technology will boost and overhaul the entire education system, and the advancement of artificial intelligence may be able to provide that awaiting innovation in this sector. An AI enabled education system can do way more to identify and target their individual strengths and weaknesses, and teachers will get assisted and aided by AI in order to have a greater volume of impactful teaching time with students. The entire education system across the globe can get huge benefit from the proper integration of artificial intelligence and it can provide a huge benefits to aid colleges & universities besides it will help to personalize education for their students. It seem hardly possible for a tutor to offer deep and personalized teaching to every student, while as the AI can provide such type of personalized teaching and teachers will be at ease and can provide additional information to the students. AI also helps teachers with some of their more tedious tasks. Presently teachers have to spare huge time to grade their students, manage assignments and papers besides doing many other sorts of official work and bookkeeping. With the appropriate application and integration of Artificial Intelligence, teachers can save much of their time and the saved time can be utilized to enhance the knowledge of the students. AI will automate menial work of a teacher. Special AI programs once integrated into colleges or universities can help students to study coursework frequently besides they can identify other essential tasks of the interest. AI programs can be able to automate majority of the hard and menial tasks that are being handled manually by all the teachers worldwide. Integration of Artificial Intelligence will surely enhance the entire education setup through its standard procedure to rationalize all tasks of a teacher essentially the development of curriculum as per the track and requirements in an orderly manner. AI will revolutionize the entire education and training sector once integrated and implemented efficiently in all the schools & universities worldwide. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: AI, Teacher, Education, Automation, Curriculum Design, Student, Grading.

65 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Energy Efficient Adaptive Antenna Systems Sakib Qadir Sofi£, Zeeshan Shafi, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796754199.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1823

Abstract Modern communication systems have seen an exponential growth of global data traffic that has forced utilisation of more and more energy which needs to be addressed. Implementation of Adaptive antenna is a promising technique to achieve energy efficiency in our communication systems that can be inferred after analyzing energy efficiency in antenna selection OFDM-based systems. The Conventional Antenna selection approaches used in OFDM system, including per-subcarrier selection (where antennas for each sub carrier are selected independently) and bulk-selection (where same antennas are used for all subcarriers), suffer significant loss in energy efficiency. Adaptive antenna selection scheme will facilitate attainment of better energy-efficiency where both the number of active RF (radio frequency) chains and the antenna indices are selected depending on the channel condition. This selection scheme could be implemented by exhaustive search. In addition to this, development of suitable Algorithm that achieves a near optimal performance with much lower complexity when there are a large number of antennas compared to the (optimal) Exhaustive search method. Moreover, Implementation of Adaptive antenna systems will cover large area and save some amount of transmitted power because it focuses in desired direction in accordance with mobility of nodes while Omni-directional antennas cover small area & needs large transmitted power as compared to Adaptive Antenna System. This work is based on the analysis of energy loss in conventional antenna systems and need for implementation of adaptive antenna based systems to achieve high energy efficiency. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Adaptive Antenna, OFDM, Energy Efficiency.

66 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Project Loon: Balloon Powered Internet Access in the Sky Sonali Bhat£, Farooq A. Khanday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9596517879.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1825

Abstract Most internet users across the globe view the world as world of internet. If something we know about the internet, it is that it has become such an important part of our lives, that one can hardly imagine life without internet. But still in today's world two among three people do not have access to internet. This lack of internet in certain places especially in rural and remote areas is a serious disadvantage. Project loon, a balloon powered internet provides internet access to the remote and rural areas, the technology simply transmits the signals from user to the balloon in the sky, the balloon then sends the signal to the next neighboring balloon and finally the balloon close to the user sends signal back to the user who receives the signal with the help of special antennas attached to the buildings, and the user enjoys the internet connectivity at a speed equivalent to 3G networks. These balloons are launched from the earth’s surface at an altitude of about 3000km from earth’s surface in the stratospheric layer of atmosphere. This technology is backed by the Google to provide connectivity to the areas with no internet access mostly to rural, remote and undeserved areas. People mostly loss internet connectivity during natural disasters but with this technology provides a gateway to the people that they can have internet access even during any natural eventuality. The said technology is facing global challenges, in respect of the security concerns and also the timeframe for the visibility of these balloons is not more than 22 days. However, the Google technologies are working on it to overcome such challenges. This technology is even cost effective as compared to the internet facilities being utilized from the various satellites. The cost involved in the said technology is specifically confined in the launching and maintenance of the balloons. This technology, therefore, helps to provide internet access to the remote, rural and undeserved areas and may also help people to remain interconnected through internet even during natural disasters. This technology can prove a very useful tool in coming years in respect of Internet services. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Project loon, Internet, Edge of Space, Stratosphere, Special Antennas.

67 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Training Deep Neural Networks to Optimize Learning Farhat Roohi£, G. M. Bhat, Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi Institute of Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9419074595.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1826

Abstract Learning is the capability to adopt or adapt a behavior on the basis of certain inputs. This learning happens on the basis of processing of inputs to develop understanding which is used for current and future actions/decisions. Natural learning happens in this way every day by processing the inputs and experiences to learn new behaviors and modify the existing ones, but for machines to learn this way is hard and complex. While in humans learning happens naturally with the help of neurons, the machine learning happens on the basis of data analysis with the help of artificially developed neurons connected in a network to mimic natural neural network. In order to imitate the human learning capability, in the field of artificial intelligence, neural networks are being developed with the capability of continuous and deep learning by having more number of layers in the network. Such deep networks rather than shallow networks have capability of deep learning. Deep learning, a subset of a more general field of artificial intelligence/machine learning, involves active search for meaning and understanding. Whereas traditionally computers are given a massive set of rules to solve problems and make calculations, in deep learning computers are given models with the capability of evaluating examples and a small set of instructions to modify the model in case a mistake is committed. This field has gained currency in recent past and scholars are working to make simple otherwise complex algorithms to optimize the problem solutions and calculations. This complexity has created a disconnect between theoretical design/analysis and real-time processing. The main focus of this work is to use a deep neural network to optimize learning by treating the input and output of an algorithm as an unknown non-linear mapping problem. The idea is that only a small number of simple operations are required to pass inputs through a deep neural network, therefore, optimization can be achieved in real time. In this work a group of learnable optimization algorithms are developed which are followed by empirical examples from the field of imaging and classification to demonstrate that deep neural networks are superior in computational time and optimization. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Learning, Deep learning, Artificial Neural Network, Classification.

68 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Low Cost Authentication Using Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) Mujtaba Y. Kathjoo£, Farooq A. Khanday, M. Tariq Banday Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9622772777.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1830

Abstract Ubiquitous computing is progressing rapidly and it drives the need of authenticating mobile devices. The authentication involves authenticating devices connecting to it and being authenticated by other devices. It also deals with handling of private information. Indeed, ubiquitous devices have become a unified platform capable of conducting financial transactions, storing a user’s secure information, acting as an authentication token for the user, and performing any other secure applications. The current best practice for providing such a secure memory or authentication source in such a mobile system is to place a secret key in a nonvolatile electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) or battery backed static random-access memory (SRAM) and use hardware cryptographic operations such as digital signatures or encryption. However, this approach is expensive both in terms of design area and power consumption. This work presents Physical Unclonable functions (PUFs) as a promising innovative primitive that are used for authentication and secret key storage without the requirement of secure EEPROMs and other expensive hardware. This is possible, because instead of storing secrets in digital memory, PUFs derive a secret from the physical characteristics of the integrated circuit (IC). Further, the various advantages of employing Physical Unclonable Functions over standard secure digital storage will also be presented. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: Physically Unclonable Functions(PUFs), Device Authentication, Hardware Cryptography.

69 University of Kashmir

National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

3-4 April 2018

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access(NOMA) for Future Radio Access Madiha Showkat£, Javaid A. Sheikh Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

£

Presenting Author. Tel.: +91 9796991858.

E-mail address: [email protected]

ID: SEEDS-2018-1831

Abstract Earlier cellular communications had technologies like multiple access e. g FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA. But today NOMA is used for higher energy efficiency and quickness required for emergencies. It is good for power domain user multiplexing schedule for future radio access. It provides better trade-off between system efficiency and fairness of users compared to what OMA (Orthogonal Multiple Access) provides. So, we can say NOMA is expected to exploit near -far effect for which cellular environment provides evidence. In NOMA, we describe the basic principles of NOMA in downlink and uplink and then use NOMA scheme whose base station is having multiple antennas. It is used in 5G communication systems which helps to achieve significant capacity gains and performance of system throughput. To achieve capacity region multi-using, Successive Interference Cancellation(SIC) is used. MUST (Multi-User Superposition Transmission) is another name for NOMA. MATLAB is used for simulation of NOMA. © 2018 Published by University of Kashmir, Srinagar. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Keywords: SIC, NOMA, OFDM.

70 University of Kashmir

SEEDS-2018

Author Index Author Name Aadil Tahir Shora Aaqib Anjum Reshi Abdul Wahid Abid Ismail Aeshan Ahmad Dar Afaq Ahmad Aiman Latif Arshid Iqbal Khan Arshid Nisar Bisma Zahoor Bagdadi Faheem Shafi Farhana Mustafa Farhat Roohi Farooq A. Khanday Fayaz Ahmad Fayaz Furqan Zahoor G. M. Bhat Gowher Bashir Gul Faroz Ahmad Malik Haris Shah Hilal Ahmad Bhat Ifrah Afzal Injila Mubarik Ishfaq Sultan Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi Ishtiyaq Shafi Rafiqi Javaid A. Sheikh

K. S. Kuppusamy Kawser Mohiuddin Khursheed A. Shah M. Tariq Banday

Mariya Shafat Mir Nazish Misbah Manzoor Kiloo Mohammed Qasim Mubashir Ahmad Mubashir Ahmad Kharadi Mudasir Ahmad Dar Mujtaba Y. Kathjoo Muzafar Gani Najar Muzamil Hussan Nasir N. Hurrah Nazir Ahmad Nimrah Habib

Page Number(s) 8 42 43 35, 37 35 33 38 50, 51 2 36 45 49 68 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 17, 18, 19, 25, 67, 69 65 14, 29 5, 15, 48, 49, 52, 56, 57, 68 27 17, 19 63 14 55 53 20 68 6 13, 16, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 59, 61, 62, 66, 70 37 65 19 7, 20, 21, 22, 26, 30, 32, 34, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 69 41 21 39 44 19 17 40 69 58 64 12, 31, 57 15 63

Author Name Nissar Ahmed Nusrat Parveen Parsa Sarosh Priyanaka Mishra Raqeebur Rehman Reyaz Ahmad Mathangi Romisa Akhtar Rouf Ul Alam Bhat S. Umira R. Qadri Safia Gul Saima Mehraj Sakeena Akhtar Sakib Qadir Sofi Sameena Shah Samiya Manzoor Samrah Mehraj Shabir A. Parah Shafiya Afzal Sheikh Shahid A. Malik Shahid Husain Shaista Afreen Sheezan Fayaz Wani Shifa Showkat Solihah Gull Sonali Bhat Subba Amin Subreena Mushtaq Sumina Sidiq Syed Mujtaba Hassan Syed Saalim Shabir Bukhari Syed Suhail Ahmad Simnani Tanveer Hussain Parray Tawheed Jan Shah Tazmeen Nazir Mattoo Ubaid Farooq Gada Ubaid Qurashi Uzma Bhat Wajid Manzoor Zaffer Iqbal Mir Zahid A. Bhat Zaid Mohammad Shah Zeeshan Shafi

Page Number(s) 27 17 11 54 61, 62 30 4 52 26 56 32 46 66 24 28 3, 25 11, 12, 23, 24, 31, 39, 42, 57, 58, 60, 63, 64 34 57 28 27 18 59 60 67 5 13 47 50 23 42 24 6, 7 22 29 10 48 1 16 61, 62 9 66

SEEDS-2018 @University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Proceedings of National Seminar on Electronic Devices, Systems and Information Security

2018

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology University of Kashmir Srinagar, 190 006, J & K