Source Apportionment of Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter ...

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Dec 11, 2012 - mine, metal, food, automotive, paper, chemical, wood, petroleum ..... Colorado, USA. N. 28. 41. 83 .... workers and teachers working at schools.

Water Air Soil Pollut (2013) 224:1403 DOI 10.1007/s11270-012-1403-2

Source Apportionment of Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds using Positive Matrix Factorization Hakan Pekey & Beyhan Pekey & Demet Arslanbaş & Zehra Bulut Bozkurt & Güray Doğan & Gürdal Tuncel

Received: 4 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published online: 11 December 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Abstract The objective of this study was to identify potential sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO2, SO2, and O3 in an urban and industrial area of Turkey between May 2006 and January 2007. Personal exposures were determined once per person in 28 adults over a 24-h period. Energy dispersive Xray fluorescence and a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry were used to measure 15 elements in PM2.5, including Al, As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn. The VOCs benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cyclohexane, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, hexane, heptane, nonane, octane, decane, undecane, and dodecane were measured by thermal desorption and gas chromatography/flame ionization. Application of H. Pekey (*) : B. Pekey : D. Arslanbaş : Z. B. Bozkurt Department of Environmental Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli 41380, Turkey e-mail: [email protected] G. Doğan : G. Tuncel Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey G. Doğan Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07058, Turkey

positive matrix factorization to the data obtained suggests that motor vehicles, indoor sources, and industry represent the main emission sources of the investigated chemical species. Six major sources smoking (9 %), industry (15 %), gasoline exhaust (21 %), indoor sources (17 %), diesel exhaust (19 %), and crustal (19 %) were identified. Keywords Personal exposure . VOCs . PM2.5 . Elements . PMF model . Source apportionment

1 Introduction Kocaeli is an industrial city that is geographically positioned in a critical region. Due to its fast industrial development within the last 30 years, Kocaeli is a priority region for studies that will determine the exposure of Kocaeli residents to pollutants. Although Kocaeli is one of the smallest provinces by area in Turkey (eighth out of 81 provinces; 3,626 km2), it has a high population density (second in Turkey; 333 persons per km2) and population growth rate (tenth in Turkey; 2.7 %). At present, >1,000 industrial units are located in Kocaeli, including a large refinery that meets >30 % of the fuel usage in Turkey, a petrochemical complex, a hazardous and medical waste incinerator, LPG filling plants, and many industrial processes in various sectors, such as the textile, tire, machine, mine, metal, food, automotive, paper, chemical, wood, petroleum, tanning, and coal industries. These

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facilities emit a large number of pollutants containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. In addition, the region is influenced by the D-100 highway and the Trans-European Motorway. The size of the area has caused residential and business areas to be near heavy traffic and industrial areas. As a result, the indoor and outdoor air quality of residential and business spaces is directly affected by close and dense industrial activities and traffic conditions. VOCs are organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure under ordinary room temperature conditions. When VOCs are released to the atmosphere, they can participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions to form ground-level ozone and particulate matter which are the main components of VOCs is important. For this reason, the photodegradation and atmospheric photochemistry of volatile organics are important. VOCs originate from the transportation sector, the use of organic chemicals (such as solvents) and crude oil, the use and distribution of natural gas, and in small amounts from waste disposal areas and wastewater treatment plants (Baek et al. 1997; Bardana and Montonaro 1996). Particles with diameters

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