students narratives

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SOBRECARGA_~. --Emociones_--. --Emociones evaluadas positivamente_--. --Emociones evaluadas negativamente_--. RIGIDEZ_. Cambios en la identidad_~.

Annual Symposium, Freiburg 31 May-2 June 2013, Germany Higher education

Development of emerging adults in higher education:

a qualitative approach to students´ narratives

.

Gloria Nogueiras Alejandro Iborra

Introduction

2011/2012 academic year. First semester

Research context Collaborative learning

( Iborra, Margalef & Samaniego, 2009)

Developmental Psychology Degree in Teacher Training 59 students aged around 18.

Learning and Development of Personality Master in Secondary Education Teacher Training 56 students aged around 25.

Experiential learning focused on the process (Ingarfield, 2007)

Introduction

Research questions

• How will be the learning process lived in a context focused on promoting the students´ autonomy through personal exploration and collaborative work? • Will exist differences in the way of living and managing the learning experience among undergraduate students and master students?

Introduction

Method • Qualitative research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005; Seale et al., 2007; Silverman, 2010)

• Categorical content analysis (Berelson, 1952; Krippendorff, 1980)

• Exploratory and inductive analysis (Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiah & Zilber, 1998)

• Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS )

Atlas.ti5 Method

Participants Undergraduate students: 59 (37 blogs) Master students: 56 (30 blogs) Purposive and criterial sampling (Miles y Huberman, 1991)

Highest marks Blog

4 undergraduate students. 3 women, 1 man. Aged 18. 4 master students. 2 women, 2 men. Aged 25. Method

Blogs

Self-assesment tasks

Method

Data Analysis (I) 1. Open coding (line by line) – free generation of categories

2. Axial coding– joining of categories 3. Increasingly complex coding: integration of categories

4. Conceptual networks Method

Data Analysis (II)

Method

Data Analysis (III)

PRF=motivación Mención al profesor = influencia~

PRF=paciencia PRF=motivación PRF=apoyo

Mención al profesor = influencia~ PRF=favorece aprendizaje autodirigido

is associated with

PRF=paciencia PRF=cercanía~ is associated with is associatedPRF=apoyo with PRF=acompañamiento is associated with

is associatedPRF=cercanía~ with is associated with is associated with is associated with PRF=acompañamiento is associated with --Profesor-is associated with Identidad como profesor~ is associated with --Profesor--

Textos

is part of Yo como caso~

Textos

is associated with

is associated with is part of Estudio de casos~ is part of Trabajo en grupo is associated with

is associated with

Expectativas iniciales~

Expectativas iniciales~

is a --Nuevo sistema--~ is a is a NS=complejidad is a

is associated with

is a is associated with NS=novedad is a NS=complejidad

is associated with contradicts~

is associated with contradicts~

is cause of

--Descoloque--

Expectations Expectativas iniciales~

is associated with

--Descoloque--

--Metodología-is part of

is part of is part of is part of

Forma de dar clase~

is associated with

is associated with is associated with

is associated with

Transición - Desarrollo de la asignatura is associated with

is associated with is associated with

Final de la asignatura~ is associated with

Expectativas futuro

is associated with

Transición - Desarrollo de la asignatura

is associated with

Final de la asignatura~ is associated with

Expectativas futuro

is associated with

is associated with

ME - 11/06/12 Transición situación is associated with final inicial-situación

Nuevas exigencias~

Comienzo la asignatura~ Beginning ofdethe subject is associated with

--Emociones--

NS=libertad

is part of

is cause of

is associated with --Nuevo sistema--~ New system

is part of

+INTERÉS is part of is part of --Emociones evaluadas positivamente-is part of is part of part of is part of is+SATISFACCIÓN +INTERÉS is part of

+CURIOSIDAD +DISFRUTE +CURIOSIDAD

is part of is part of is part of +MOTIVACIÓN +SATISFACCIÓN is part of +SORPRESA~

is associated with --Dificultades iniciales en el aprendizaje--

+MOTIVACIÓN

+SORPRESA~

DESCONCIERTO~

is associated with is associated with --Dificultades iniciales en el aprendizaje-is associated with is associated with APDZ_PÉRDIDA DE TIEMPO is associated with is associated with Apdz_inutilidad is associated with is associated with

--Descoloque-Initial upset

APDZ_DIFICULTAD

is associated with APDZ_PÉRDIDA DE TIEMPO is associated with APDZ_INCOMPRENSIÓN~ Apdz_inutilidad APDZ_DIFICULTAD APDZ_ESFUERZO

APDZ_ESFUERZO

Trabajo en grupo_~

Diálogo_ is associated with

Explicaciones profesor_

Cambio concepción del profesor_~ is associated with is cause of

is associated Ideas preconcebidas sobre with el profesor_~

Autoevaluación_

is associated with is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

--Metodología_--

Pasado estudiantil_ is associated Ideas with preconcebidas_

NuevasNew exigencias~

is associated with

is associated with

is cause of

Expectativas iniciales_ is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

Nuevas exigencias_

Retrospectiva_

requirements

NS=libertad NS= freedom

--Descoloque--

Comienzo del máster-asignatura_

is associated with

Forma de dar clase_~

--Profesor_--

NS = novelty NS=novedad

is cause of

is cause of

Textos_~

Actividades fuera del aula_enumeración_

Actividades aula_enumeración_~

Transición situación inicial-situación final_~ is associated with Cambio de perspectiva, opinión_ is associated with is associated with is associated with Cambio_ Cambios_tomaisconciencia associatednecesidad with cambios_ Turning point_~ is associated with Evolución_

is associated with

is associated with

Situación final_

is associated with

is associated with Expectativas futuro_ is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

--Emociones_-is associated with is associated with --Emociones evaluadas negativamente_-is associated with is associated withis associated with DESCONCIERTO_ is associated with is associated with is associated with is associated with RIGIDEZ_ DESORIENTACIÓN_ is associated with DECEPCIÓN_ SENTIRSE PERDIDO_ SOBRECARGA_~

Aprendizaje autodirigido_

--Emociones evaluadas positivamente_-associated with is associated is with is associated withis associated with is associated with +SORPRESA_is associated+SEGURIDAD_ with is associated with +MOTIVACIÓN_

+GRATITUD_ +SATISFACCIÓN_

--Experiencia de aprendizaje_--~

Identidad como arquitecto_~

is associated with is associated with

is associated with

is associated with Identidad como docente_~ contradicts

+INTERÉS_

Metáfora de aprendizaje_

is associated with

Evaluación de la identidad_

is associated with

is associated with --Dificultades iniciales en el aprendizaje_--~

is associated with

--Experimentando el aprendizaje_--

is associated with --Reflexionando sobre el aprendizaje_--

+ATRACCIÓN_

Cambios en la identidad_~ is associated with is associated with is associated with

Integración de identidades_~

is associated with is associated with is associated with Cualidad aprendizaje_inutilidad_ Cualidad aprendizaje_poca significatividad_ Cualidad aprendizaje_incomprensión_

Method

is associated with is associated with is associated with Deseo de aprender_ with is associated Aprendizaje significativo, útil_ Vinculación asignatura-vida cotidiana_ Aplicación real, transferencia del aprendizaje_

is associated with

Metaaprendizaje_

is associated with

NO SABER_ INTRANQUILIDAD_

is associated with

is associated with

METÁFORA DE APRENDIZAJE is associated with TOMA DE CONCIENCIA DEL APRENDIZAJE

is associated with

is associated with Explicita un aprendizaje_~

Toma de conciencia del aprendizaje_

is associated with is associated with TOMA DE CONCIENCIA DEL --Reflexionando sobre el aprendizaje-is associated with QUÉ HE APRENDIDO APRENDIZAJE

--Experimentando el aprendizaje-is associated with --Experimentando aprendizaje-is associatedelwith

is associated with is associated with is associated with is associated with --Reflexionando sobre el aprendizaje--is associated with QUÉ HE APRENDIDO

is associated with APRENDIZAJE AUTODIRIGIDO~ is associated with is associated withis associated with is associated with is associated is associated withwith VINCULACIÓN ASIGNATURA-VIDA COTIDIANA~is associated with is associated with is associated with VINCULACIÓN ASIGNATURA-VIDA APRENDIZAJE SIGNIFICATIVO COTIDIANA~is associated with DESEO DE APRENDER APRENDIZAJE SIGNIFICATIVO

CONSTRUYENDO APRENDIZAJE

Aula virtual_

is part of is part of Yo como caso_~ is associated with Uso nuevas tecnologías_~ is associated with is associated with

Estudio de casos_~

is associated with

is associated with

is associated withBlog_~

is associated with

CONSTRUYENDO APRENDIZAJE DESEO DE APRENDER

is associated with is associated with

is a =NS=complejidad complexity is cause of

NS

Actividad_dibujo como docente_~

is associated with

Comunidad de Aprendices_~

is associated with

+ATRACCIÓN

+DISFRUTE

APDZ_INCOMPRENSIÓN~

is associated with

is associated with

--Experiencia de aprendizaje-is associated with

is part of

+ATRACCIÓN

is associated with contradicts~

is associated with is associated with METÁFORA DE APRENDIZAJE

--Experiencia de aprendizaje--

--Emociones evaluadas positivamente--

is part of

is part of

is associated with

is associated with

is part of is part of

is part of --Emociones evaluadas negativamente-is part of INCERTIDUMBRE is part of is part of is part of INSEGURIDAD is part of is part of NO SABER INCERTIDUMBRE is part of MIEDO is part of INSEGURIDAD DESCONCIERTO~ NO SABER MIEDO

is associated with is associated with is associated with

is associated with

is part of

--Emociones--

--Emociones evaluadas negativamente--

is associated with

is associated with is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

Nuevas exigencias~

Cualidad profesor_favorece aprendizaje Profesor como facilitador_~ is associated with autodirigido_

Blog~ Forma de dar clase~

is part of

ME - 11/06/12 Transición situación is associated with final inicial-situación

NS=libertad NS=novedad

is a

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

is associated with is associated with Cambio

is cause of

is cause of

is a

is associated with Escritura~ Autoevaluación~ is associated with is associated with Blog~ Escritura~

is part of

--Identidad-Cambio is associated with

is associated with

is associated with

Autoevaluación~ Metálogos~ is part of

is part of

--Metodología--

--Identidad-Identidad~ is associated with is associated with is associated with is associated with is cause of

is associated with Comienzo de la asignatura~ is associated with --Nuevo sistema--~

Aula virtual is part of

Trabajo en grupo

Identidad~ is associated with Identidad como profesor~ is associated with

Comienzo de la asignatura~ is associated with

Aula virtual Metálogos~

Estudio de casos~ is part of is part of

is associated with PRF=favorece aprendizaje autodirigido is associated with is associated with

Yo como caso~

APRENDIZAJE AUTODIRIGIDO~

is associated with is associated with METAAPRENDIZAJE Cómo he aprendido~ METAAPRENDIZAJE Cómo he aprendido~

EXPLICITA UN APRENDIZAJE is associated with

is associated with EXPLICITA UN APRENDIZAJE

Results

Context of learning

Teaching methodology Beginning of the subject

Development of the subject

Teacher

Learner´s process

Learning experience End of the subject

Emotions Identity

Results

Learning experience, emotions and identity Beginning of the subject

Initial upset

(Students´ expectations VS Reality )

- Uncertainty, insecurity, fear and confusion - Difficulties in learning - Curiosity, interest

Development of the subject

- Enjoyment, interest, curiosity Transition

- Overload, frustration, mental block -Connections: contents of the subject-daily life

End of the subject

-Satisfaction, motivation, proud Revision and integration Results

-Awareness of learning:learning to learn, learning from others, connection between theory and reality, self-directed learning.

Learning experience, emotions and identity Beginning of the subject

insecurity, fearwe and confusion Everything seems odd,- Uncertainty, very different from the things were used to. It seems that Initial upset anyone evaluates us, that everything is in our hands. NLG1F (Students´ - Difficulties in learning

expectations VS - Curiosity, Realitynew, ) Like anything it has a part thatinterest generates fear and uncertainty because you do not

know what it will happen, and other part that is interesting and appealing. SAM1F

Development of the subject

- Enjoyment, interest, curiosity Nowadays I feel as falling between two stools. LVM2F Transition

- Overload, frustration, mental block

The more contextualized and practical for teaching a text was, the more interest to -Connections: of the subject-daily life read itcontents I had. EAE2F

End of the subject

proudinitiative, a commitment not I began to perceive that-Satisfaction, I was expectedmotivation, to have a personal toand the teacher and his subject, but to myself andtomy own learning. Revision -Awareness of learning:learning learn, learning JPM2M integration

from others, connection between theory and reality, Now I start enjoyingself-directed and I think that I can be proud of having bet on it. ALG2M learning.

Results

Learning experience, emotions and identity Beginning of the subject

insecurity, fearwe and confusion Everything seems odd,- Uncertainty, very different from the things were used to. It seems that Initial upset anyone evaluates us, that everything is in our hands. NLG1F (Students´ - Difficulties in learning

expectations VS - Curiosity, Realitynew, ) Like anything it has a part thatinterest generates fear and uncertainty because you do not

know what it will happen, and other part that is interesting and appealing. SAM1F

Development of the subject

- Enjoyment, interest, curiosity Nowadays I feel as falling between two stools. LVM2F Transition

- Overload, frustration, mental block

The more contextualized and practical for teaching a text was, the more interest to -Connections: of the subject-daily life read itcontents I had. EAE2F

End of the subject

proudinitiative, a commitment not I began to perceive that-Satisfaction, I was expectedmotivation, to have a personal toand the teacher and his subject, but to myself andtomy own learning. Revision -Awareness of learning:learning learn, learning JPM2M integration

from others, connection between theory and reality, Now I start enjoyingself-directed and I think that I can be proud of having bet on it. ALG2M learning.

Results

Discussion Challenging learning context, new requirements Upset (students´ expectations VS reality) Desestabilization of a former model for giving meaning

Trigger of a change process…?

Starting to transit towards a more complex mental organization Discussion

Living a challenging learning experience Intern experience of a developmental change can be overwhelming and painful, since it implies feeling that some former allegiances and devotions are risked (Kegan, 1980, 1994) Students have to relativize their relation with the teacher, taking responsibility on becoming active protagonists of their own learning (Baxter Magolda, 2004) -From the third to the fourth order of consciousness - Towards self-directed learning (Kegan, 1994)

From the third to the fourth order of consciousness (Kegan, 1994) – Differences among undergraduate and master students Different ways of organizing and making meaning of the experience. Differences in the way of managing the challenges met.



Undergraduate students: third order that starts to be destabilized? Higher intensity of the initial upset, lower tolerance to negative emotions as uncertainty, greater dependence on the teacher.



Master students: transition towards the fourth order? It implies “the exercise of critical thinking or the ability to examine oneself and one´s culture to know how to separate what is felt, what is valued and what is wanted from what should be felt, should be valued or should be wanted” (Kegan, 1994, p. 309).

Learning does not mean moving away from the previous learning, but changing the intention. We have to remember that we are not a diploma, but complex human beings who can manage different beliefs at the same time according to what is learnt or to what happens around us. LVM2F. Discussion

Towards self-directed learning (towards higher complexity) A self-directed learner is able to criticize what he learns, assumes the responsibility of his own learning, sets personal goals, manages his time, is able to elaborate learning from the others´ critics and use experts and institutions to achieve his objectives (Kegan 1994, following Grow 1991). We have been given a different freedom: it does not mean doing what we want, but learning by ourselves. SAM1F. I would define my process of learning as self-directed because I have been planning the topics, no closing doors to new things, appreciating how they fitted with what I was learning. ALG2M I began to perceive that I was expected to have a personal initiative, a commitment not to the teacher and his subject, but to myself and my own learning. JPM2M.

Discussion

The process of becoming a self-directed learner, as well as the concomitant transition between orders of consciousness, is not easy. It demands: -An epistemological reflection of the subject: questioning of pre-existing assumptions + creation of new ones (Baxter Magolda, 2004). -A developmental bridge: meaningful and familiar + promoting psychological development (Kegan, 1994) Role of the teacher as generator of a context that facilitates change and learning. I.e. The teacher offered a less open context and provided more guidelines to undergraduate students than to master students. The teacher works for the development of persons. Every person comes from a different background, lives a different situation and has a personal way of developing and the teacher has to take into account this diversity. Maintaining an attitude of sensitive observation, the teacher is in charge of committing the student with his own development, generating uncertainties and providing with the appropriate frame and support in order that every student can progress qualitatively towards a higher stage. JPM2M.

Discussion

Identity “Knowledge construction, meaning making and awareness of self are intertwined” (Baxter Magolda, 1996:172). Some of the challenges of the fourth order of consciousness, “as understanding the difference between what we value and what we should value, as drafting our own goals or as having sense of ourselves as co-creators of the culture we live in, implies nothing else than the reconstitution of our self” (Kegan, 1994:283).

Experiential learning activated students´ personal experiences and provided collaborative contexts to compare them with the others´. = facilitated that some outstanding aspects were identified and =opened the possibility to review these aspects. For the first time I saw myself from the outside, coming from inside of me to contemplate my internal debate as something global and not from the field of battle as usual. LVM2F. Discussion

Conclusions Experiential and collaborative context increased the possibility that students felt authors and responsible for their own learning and their peers´ learning. Writing in the blog and doing the self-assessment task facilitated that students reflected on and became aware of their processes of learning.

In line with recent publications

(BaxterMagolda, 2000, 2004; Drago-Severson

we consider that learning experiences such as those reviewed in this research… …can offer the student the opportunity to decide what to learn and how to do it and has a positive effect on the development, encouraging the transition towards self-direction in learning. …are a good example of how educative context can become a key environment to facilitate holistic development of people. & Pinto 2004; Iborra et al., 2009; Kegan, 1994, 2000)

Paths for the future… • Mixed study: students narratives + scales of emotional processes to be studied through Dynamic Systems techniques (Van Geert, 1994; Kunnen, 2011). Trajectories in emotional processes: Nogueiras & Iborra, 2011.

• Paying attention to the other voices part of the learning experience (the other students, the teacher). Inspiring works in narrative research: Smith, 1999; Sparkes, 1999; Smith y Sparkes, 2008; Smith & Sparkes, 2011a.

• Connect and expand with van Rossum and Hamer learningteaching conceptions (van Rossum & Hamer, 2010).

Development of emerging adults in higher education: a qualitative approach to students´ narratives

[email protected] [email protected]

Development of emerging adults in higher education: a qualitative approach to students´ narratives

[email protected] [email protected]

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