Supplemental material for - Resolve a DOI Name

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Harvest: b) ______. Harvest: c) ______. Harvest: d) ______. _4 How much yield do you get per tree and species (mature) or from all together? a) ____ b) ____.

Supplemental material for “Method for Analyzing Trade-Offs in Biomass Management in Smallholder Farming Systems Based on Mass Balance: A Case Study in Tajikistan’s Foothills”, by Sebastian Ruppen, Bettina Wolfgramm, Ruth Scheidegger, and Hans-Peter Bader, published in Mountain Research and Development 36(1), 2016. (See http://www.bioone.org/toc/mred/36/1) APPENDIX S1. Biomass questionnaire.

(see following pages)

Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Structure and Use of the Questionnaire This questionnaire is meant to be a guide for interviews and not to be filled in autonomously by the people in question. The questionnaire is structured in six main sections: 0) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

General Information Plant Production (1-2 Components) Plant Production (3 Components) Livestock Keeping Food Consumption Energy Consumption

This structure helps to systematically understand and quantify the biomass cycle of smallholder farming systems. Section 0 aims to get a general idea of the household in question and its agricultural activities. Subsequently, the following sections focus on specific topics, where in terms of the section 1 four to five crops are determined to be analyzed in more detail (based on section 0). To examine all the cultivated crops per household in greater detail is unrealistic with regard to expenditure of time per interview. The interviews are often not able to answer all the questions. However, the combination of answers of several interviews allows for a deeper understanding and quantification of the household’s biomass management. In terms of data gaps and uncertainties, secondary data and reference data from literature is essential. The questionnaire presented here is derived from a prior system definition using informal talks and field observations in Western Tajikistan’s foot hills. Thus, the questions are already adapted to farming households in this region. For use in other regions, the questionnaire needs to be adapted using literature and field observations/talks.

Section 0: General Information 0.1 Questionnaire number 0.2 Interviewer 0.3 Interpreter 0.4 Date of interview 0.5 Jamoat name 0.6 Village name 0.7 Household number 0.8 Head of the household

_1 Name: _2 Sex:

0.9 Respondent if not the head of the household

Male (1) / Female (0)

_1 Name: _2 Sex:

Male (1) / Female (0) Spouse (1) / Parent (2) / Child (3)

_3 Relationship:

0.10 Resident household members

_1 Total number: _2 Number of children: _3 Number of women: _4 Number of men: _5 Total number in winter:

0.11 Income activity What are your main income activities? Income source in order of importance: a) _____ 1. Prod & sales of field crops/fruits 2. Prod & sales of firewood 3. Prod & sales of wood for construction 4. Prod & sales of livestock & products

b) _____

5. Sales of prepared foods 6. Daily wage labour 7. Salary 8. Small business 9. Remittances

c) _____

10. Pension and other govt. benefits 11. Rental income 12. Sale of food aid 13. Others: ____________________ ____________________

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0.12 Household’s Agriculture _1a How big is the area of your kitchen garden? _1b How many Trees do you have in your kitchen garden? _1c How do you use the leaves of these trees? _2 How big is your area outside your household plot? (owned and leased)

_9 Do you have more than one crop on the same field in one year? Please Specify: ________________________________________ _10 Do you do crop rotation from year to year? Please Specify: ________________________________________ _11 Do you have combinations of crops? (e.g. Agroforestry) Please Specify: ________________________________________ _12 Do you do mulching on any of your plots? On which plots?: ________________________________________ _13 Do you use other conservation technologies? _14 Which one’s? On which plots and how ?: ________________________________

a) Total: b) Excluding pasture: c) Number of Trees outside:

_3 What is the size of your own land? _4a What is the size of leased land? _4b What are the leasing costs? _5 How much of the area is irrigated? _6 How much of the area is rainfed? _7 Are you a dehkan farmer? _8 Which type of dehkan farmer are you?

Yes (1) / No (0) Yes (1) / No (0) Yes (1) / No (0) Yes (1) / No (0) Yes (1) / No (0)

1 = Minimum soil disturbance 2 = Degree of permanent soil cover 3 = Manuring 4 = Composting 5 =Vegetative strips/cover 6 = Water harvesting 7 = Gully control 8 = Terraces 9 = Grazing land management (Control/Regulation)

Yes (1) / No (0)

1 = individual 2 = family 3 = collective

0.13 Structure and Characteristics of Field Plots (rain-fed or irrigated / gradient (slope) / land quality)

Characteristics

Area

Characteristics

Area

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0.15 Plant List a)

Name

Code

Yes (1) No (0) _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _10 _11 _12 _13 _14 _15 _16 _17 _18 _19 _20 _21 _22 _23 _24 _25 _26 _27 _28 _29 _30 _31 _32 _33 _34 _35 _36 _37 _38

b)

c) Referred to

d)

e)

Area or Number

Kitchen garden (1) Field plot (2) Both (3)

Irrigated (1) Rainfed (2)

Residue/Leaf use

Category

1 = fodder 2 = burn 3 = compost 4 = left on field

Wheat Other Cereals: ________________

1.1 1.2

Cereals

Potato Beetroot Carrot Onion Egg Plant Cucumber Green Pepper Tomato Pumpkin Cabbage Cauliflower Chickpea (Black-)Pea Bean Lentil Hay Alfaalfa Esparzet Apple Tree Vines Pear Tree Quince Tree Pomegranate Persimmon Tree Apricot Tree Cherry Tree Plume Tree Peach Tree Nectarine Tree Mulberry Tree Almond Tree Walnut Tree Poplar Tree Willow Tree (Water-)melons

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 1.21

Tubers and Roots

Vegetables

Legumes

Fodder plants

Trees and Shrubs

Others

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Section 1: Plant Production (1-2 Components: Product and By-Product) _1 Code / Name _2 When did you plant * ? _3 How much * seeds did you plant? Specify purchase: ____________________________________________

_.__ _________

_.__ _________

_.__ _________

_.__ _________

_.__ _________

a) Own production: ____ b) Purchase/Gift: ____

a) Own production: ____ b) Purchase/Gift: ____

a) Own production: ____ b) Purchase/Gift: ____

a) Own production: ____ b) Purchase/Gift: ____

a) Own production: ____ b) Purchase/Gift: ____

_4 When did the * starts growing in spring? _5 When did you harvest it? _6 How much * did you produce this year?

____

1 = kg 2 = Bags of 50 kg 3 = pieces 4 = m3 5 = presses 6 = bunches (average weight):_____________________ )

_7 In your opinion, what would be a low/normal/high production?

_8 Do you use fertilizer or/and manure? _9 When did you apply fertilizer/manure this year? _10 If you use fertilizer, which fertilizer type/manure and how much? Fertilizer Type:_________________________________

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

_11 Where do you get the manure from? 1 = collected from the summer pasture 2 = from the stable 3 = both 4 = others: ____________________________

_12 Do you use pesticides/herbicides? _13 When did you use pesticides/herbicides this year?

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

_14 How do you use the * ?

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) 4 ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) 4 ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) 4 ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) 4 ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) 4 ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

1 = Food for the own household (+ Seeds for the next year) 2= Fodder for the own animals 3=Selling 4 =Paying leasing costs

_15 Where do you store it? 1 = within the household plot 2 = outside the household: ____________________________________________ 3 = no storage

_16 For how long does it last? _17 How do you use the residue?

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

1= Fodder for the own animals 2 = starting fire/burn it 3 = leave on field/compost 4 = Selling 5 = Paying leasing costs

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _18 Where do you store it? 1 = within the household plot 2 = outside the household plot: ________________________________________ 3 = no storage

_19 For how long does it last? 1.18 Hay

1.19 Alfaalfa

1.20 Esparzet

Yes (1) / No (0) / Don’t know (9)

Yes (1) / No (0) / Don’t know (9)

Yes (1) / No (0) / Don’t know (9)

a) b) c)

a) b) c)

a) b) c)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Low: _____ b) Normal: _____ c) High: _____ Yes (1) / No (0)

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

a) Mineral: _____ b) Manure: _____

_1 How do you consider the slope of your plot? 1 = flat to gentle 2 = moderate 3 = steep

_2 Do you notice more than average erosion on your plot? _3 How do you consider the soil quality of your plot? 1 = bad 2 = normal 3 = good why?:_______________________________________________________

_4 When does the grass/crop start growing in spring? Esparzet/Alfaalfa: seeding procedure _5 When did you harvest it? (several times?)

_6 How much * did you produce this year? 1 = kg 2 = Bags of 50 kg 3 = pieces 4 = m3 5 = presses 6 = bunches (average weigth:_____________________ )

_7 In your opinion, what would be a low/normal/high production?

_8 Do you use fertilizer or/and manure? _9 When did you apply fertilizer/manure this year? _10 If you use fertilizer, which fertilizer type/manure and how much? Fertilizer Type:________________________________________ _11 Where do you get the manure from?

1 = collected from the summer pasture 2 = from the stable 3 = others: ____________________________

_12 Do you use pesticides/herbicides? _13 When did you use pesticides/herbicides this year?

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

_14 How do you use the plant?

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

a) 1 ______ b) 2 ______ c) 3 ______ d) .. ______

1= Fodder for the own animals 2 = starting fire/burn it 3 = leave on field/compost 4 = Selling 5 = Paying leasing costs

_15 Where do you store it? 1 = within the household plot 2 = outside the household plot: ________________________________________ 3 = no storage

_16 For how long does it last? (everything together?)

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Section 2: Plant Production (3 Components: Wood, Leaves, Fruits) 2.1 Pruning of fruit trees and vines _1 How old are the fruit trees when you start cutting the branches? _2 How often do you prune the trees? 1 = every year 2 = others: ________________________________

_3 When do you prune the trees? _4 How much wood do you take? _5a Do you cut from all tree species the same percentage of wood/branches per tree? _5b If no, please specify: _6 How much do you cut from vine when pruning? _7 How old are the vines when you start cutting the branches? _8 How do you use the cut branches from all trees and vines?

Tree species _1 How old are the trees?

_2 When do * trees normally flower in spring? _3 When do you harvest the fruits? (different Subspecies?)

_4 How much yield do you get per tree and species (mature) or from all together?

_5 How long does an * tree produce a satisfactory yield? _6 How do you use the *? Specify: Fresh:______ Dried/Preserved:______ _8 When do the leaves normally start falling?

a) _______________________________ per tree b) _______________________________ all trees Yes (1) / No (0)

a) _______________________________ per vine b) _______________________________ all vines a) Self consumption: _______________% b) Sale/Gift (neighbor):_______________ % _.__ _________ a) < 3 yrs: b) 3-5 yrs: c) 5-15 yrs: d) >15: yrs:

_.__ _________ a) < 3 yrs: b) 3-5 yrs: c) 5-15 yrs: d) >15: yrs:

_.__ _________ a) < 3 yrs: b) 3-5 yrs: c) 5-15 yrs: d) >15: yrs:

Harvest: a) __________ Harvest: b) __________ Harvest: c) _________ Harvest: d) _________ a) ____ b) ____ c) ____ d) ____

Harvest: a) __________ Harvest: b) __________ Harvest: c) _________ Harvest: d) _________ a) ____ b) ____ c) ____ d) ____

Harvest: a) __________ Harvest: b) __________ Harvest: c) _________ Harvest: d) _________ a) ____ b) ____ c) ____ d) ____

a) self consumption ___ b) sale ___

a) self consumption ___ b) sale ___

a) self consumption ___ b) sale ___

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Section 3: Livestock Keeping _1 How many * do you have now? _2 How many * did you have last winter? _3 Do you plan to sell * in autumn? _4 How many? _5 Did any * die during the last year? _6 How many? Why ?: ________________________________ _7 Where is your * grazing during the summer?

3.1 Cow a) male: b) female:

3.2 Sheep/Goats a) sheep: b) goats:

3.3 Donkeys/Horses a) donkeys: b) horses:

3.4 Chicken a) male: b) female:

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

1 # _________ 2 #__________ 3 #__________ 4 #__________

1 # _________ 2 #__________ 3 #__________ 4 #__________

1 # _________ 2 #__________ 3 #__________ 4 #__________

1 = common daily pasture 2 = individual pasture (rented/own) 3 = forest administration territory (semi-nomadic grazing) 4 = Household area/barn

_8 Do you give your * additional fodder during grazing? _9 What fodder?

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

Yes (1) / No (0)

1 = household wastes 2 = barley 3 = maize 4 = others: __________________

_10 Do you let the * graze in your field plots before winter? _11 Normally for how long? _12 Where do you keep your * during the winter? 1 = common daily pasture 2 = individual pasture (rented/own) 3 = Household area/barn

_13 During which period does the * stay in the barn in winter? _14 How much fodder do you give your * per day or totally in winter? 1 = kg 2 = Bags of 50 kg 3 = pieces 4 = m3 5 = presses 6 = bunches (average weigth:_____________________ )

_15 Do you have enough fodder for the winter period normally? _16 What would you do if not?

Yes (1) / No (0)

1 = Slaughter 2 = Reduce fodder provision 3 = Purchase of fodder 4 = others: ____________________

_17 What kind of fodder do you give your cattle in winter? 1= Hay 2= Esparzet 3 = Alfaalfa 4 = Straw 5 = Grain 6 = maize 7 = Household waste 8 = others: _______________________

_18 How do you use the * dung? (Share?) _19 In the summer period, are you collecting dung to make “tapacs”1) from the pasture areas? How many tapacs? 1)

a) Fuel (Tapac): b) Manure: a) Yes (1) / No (0) b)

a) Fuel: b) Manure:

a) Fuel: b) Manure:

a) Fuel: b) Manure:

Dried dung cakes

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Section 4: Food Consumption 4.1 Wheat

4.2 Potatoes

4.3 Onions

4.4 Tubers and roots

4.5 Legumes

4.6 Vegetables

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

_4 Is/Are the * you use in winter from your own production or from the market? _5 In spring do you use the same amount for your family/household compared to now?

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

a) Less (1) Same (2) More (3) b) -/+

_6 Is/Are the * you use in spring from your own production or from the market? _7 Normally for how many days lasts one bag of *? _8 Normally for how long your household/family consumes * from your own production? _9 If you buy *, where will you buy it?

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

Own production (1) Market/Neighbor (2)

_1 At the moment how much * do you use for your family/household? _2 Is the * you use at the moment from your own production or from the market? _3 In winter do you use the same amount for your family/household compared to now?

1 = village market 2 = central market 3 = neighbor 4 = others:_____________

_1 What do you do with the kitchen waste?

4.7 Household waste __ / __ / __

1 = animal fodder 2 = compost 3 = others: ______________________

_2 Roughly estimated how much kitchen waste do you have per day?

_________ ………

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Biomass Questionnaire

Questionnaire Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Section 5: Energy Consumption _1a What kind of fuel do you use for cooking/baking? _1b What kind of fuel do you use for heating? 1 = wood 2 = tapac 3 = coal 4 = gas 5 = electricity 6 = others: _________________

_2a How much wood do you use in a year for cooking/baking and heating? _2b How much tapac do you use in a year for cooking/baking and heating?

m3/kg/bunches (average weight per bunch) m3/kg/pieces (average weight per tapac)

_3 How much wood do you need now for cooking/baking? _4 How many tapac do you use now for cooking/baking? _5 How much wood do you use in winter for cooking/baking? _6 How many tapac do you use in winter for cooking/baking? _7 How much wood do you use in spring for cooking/baking? _8 How many tapac do you use in spring for cooking/baking? _9 Normally, when does the heating period start? _10 How long does the heating period last? _11 How many tapac do you use for heating normally? _12 How much wood do you use for heating normally? _13 What do you do with the ashes? 1 = fertilizer kitchen garden 2 = fertilizer field plots 3 = waste 4 = others: __________________

_14 Where do you et/collect the manure for tapacs? 1 = Pastures 2 = Barn 3 = Purchase/Gift Shares: __ ______ % __ _____ %

__ _____ %

_15 Where do you get/collect the wood? 1 = own fruit trees 2 = Poplar/Willows 3 = vines 4 = collected elsewhere 5 = Purchase/Gift 6 = others:___________________________ Shares: __ ______ % __ _____ % __ _____ % __ _____ % __ _____ %

Copyright by the authors, 2016

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