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Land cover of Berlin's administrative city area and within a 15 km buffer around the ... brownfield and is now a highly diverse area including parts for recreation, ...

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 783; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080783

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Supplementary Materials: Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany Nadja Kabisch , Dagmar Haase and Matilda Annerstedt van den Bosch Land cover Berlin Urban fabric Green urban areas Sports and leisure facilities Agricultural areas Forests and semi-natural areas Water Airports Industrial, commercial, public, private units, railway area

City border

0

7,5

15 km

1:500,000

Figure S1. Land cover of Berlin’s administrative city area and within a 15 km buffer around the city border. Data source: Urban Atlas 2006 [1].

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 783; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080783

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Figure S2. Different green spaces in Berlin (from top left to bottom right): The Tempelhofer Feld, the former city airport which closed in 2008 and opened for public use in 2010 is situated only 5 km south of the city centre (Photo by author); tree desk—the area on the ground surrounding trees is planted by local residents all over the city area (Photo by author); the Gleisdreieck park was a former railway brownfield and is now a highly diverse area including parts for recreation, playgrounds for children or urban wilderness areas (Photo by author); the Rosengarten is an intercultural garden in the inner city (Photo by author); another part of the Gleisdreieck with lawns served for recreation (Photo by author); the Grunewald—an urban forest in the south-western part of the city (Photo by N. Larondelle); park around the Castle Charlottenburg—the oldest park in the city; the Görlitzer Park, a former railway area, only three kilometers southeast of the city centre (Photo by N. Larondelle).

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 783; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080783

Figure S3. Cluster analysis dendrogram (upper part left, lower part right).

Figure S4. Distribution of the sub-districts according to the cluster variables.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 783; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080783

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Table S1. Agglomeration schedule as SPSS generated result from the hierarchical cluster analysis. Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Cluster Combined Cluster 1 Cluster 2 14 31 44 57 12 44 7 42 18 30 6 59 5 43 35 36 7 9 15 29 8 37 26 38 1 20 10 34 27 28 49 53 2 45 22 23 6 13 4 35 14 21 19 24 55 56 12 51 33 48 10 26 4 8 7 41 5 50 40 58 18 25 49 52 33 47 15 40 5 54 10 16 2 12 14 32 4 27 18 19 11 33 3 17 1 10 39 46 3 18 1 6 14 15 4 7 11 49 2 4 39 55 1 11 5 39 1 22 2 14 2 3 1 5 1 2

Coefficients 0.018 0.081 0.165 0.259 0.381 0.523 0.671 0.831 0.994 1.162 1.333 1.540 1.761 2.031 2.349 2.681 3.061 3.450 3.845 4.260 4.679 5.133 5.598 6.114 6.687 7.265 7.849 8.490 9.169 9.860 10.554 11.281 12.065 13.255 14.470 15.686 16.949 18.253 19.561 21.123 22.739 24.477 26.389 28.541 31.766 35.005 38.580 42.305 46.797 51.829 58.178 69.472 84.865 101.043 118.758 142.836 174.954 232.000

Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 14 12 20 11 9 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 16 0 25 0 10 30 29 0 26 0 17 24 21 0 27 15 31 22 0 33 0 0 13 36 0 0 42 40 43 19 38 34 39 28 41 32 37 48 44 23 46 49 35 51 52 18 50 47 55 45 54 53 57 56

Next Stage 21 3 24 9 31 19 29 20 28 34 27 26 43 26 39 32 37 54 46 27 38 40 51 37 33 36 39 48 35 34 40 49 41 47 53 43 50 47 48 45 49 45 46 51 56 52 55 50 52 55 53 54 57 57 56 58 58 0

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Table S2. Outputs of hierarchical multivariate regression models on influencing factors of children overweight (%).

Model 1 p values Model 2 p values

β1 (Social Index)

β2 (NonGerman %)

β3 (Single Parent Household %)

β4 (Kindergarten Attendance %)

−0.46 0.000 −0.46 0.000

0.50 0.000 0.51 0.000

−0.01 0.908 0.00 0.984

−0.06 0.534 −0.09 0.358

β5 (Natural Area %)

β6 (Access Natural Area %)

β7 (Per Capita Natural Area %)

R2-Adjusted (%) 84.6

−0.15 0.154

−0.05 0.431

0.18 0.111

84.8

Note: Significant coefficients in bold. Table S3. Outputs (Beta and p-values) of hierarchical multivariate regression models on influencing factors of children deficit in viso-motoric development (%). β1 (Social Index)

β2 (NonGerman %)

−0.46 0.009 −0.42 0.009

−0.27 0.093 −0.18 0.241

Model 1 p values Model 2 p values

β3 (Single Parent Household %) 0.18 0.128 0.20 0.047

β4 (Kindergarten Attendance %) −0.36 0.043 −0.35 0.026

β5 (Natural Area %)

β6 (Access Natural Area %)

β7 (Per Capita Natural Area %)

R2-Adjus ted (%) 46.9

−0.81 0.000

0.11 0.272

0.61 0.001

62.5 *

Note: Significant coefficients in bold. * Change in R2 is significant at 0.05. Table S4. Outputs (Beta and p-values) of hierarchical multivariate regression models on influencing factors of children deficit in language development (%).

Model 1 p values Model 2 p values

β1 (Social Index)

β2 (NonGerman %)

β3 (Single Parent Household %)

β4 (Kindergarten Attendance %)

−0.435 0.000 −0.443 0.000

0.309 0.000 0.310 0.000

0.027 0.611 0.030 0.513

−0.291 0.001 −0.280 0.000

β5 (Natural Area %)

β6 (Access Natural Area %)

β 7 (Per Capita Natural Area %)

R2-Adjusted (%) 89.0

−0.301 0.000

0.027 0.563

0.175 0.035

91.7 *

Note: Significant coefficients in bold. * Change in R2 is significant at 0.05.

References 1.

EEA. Urban Atlas 2006. Available online: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/urban-atlas (accessed on 11 July 2012). © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).