This is a pre-‐print of the following chapter: Thomas, M.A.M., Chachage, K., & Komba, W. (forthcoming). Teacher education in Tanzania: Advancing access, equity, and quality. In K.G. Karras & C.C. Wolhuter (Eds.), International Handbook on Teacher Education Worldwide, 2nd Ed. Athens: Athropos Publishers.
Teacher Education in Tanzania: Advancing Access, Equity, and Quality Matthew A.M. Thomas, Ph.D. Kristeen Chachage Willy L.M. Komba, Ph.D.1
Contextual Background Geography The East African country of Tanzania is located just south of the equator, with an area of 947,300 km2, stretching from the Indian Ocean on the east to the Great Lakes zone on the west (MOEVT, 2012). The country shares borders with eight countries: Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the west, Zambia to the southwest, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The isles of Zanzibar lay 25-‐50 km off the coast, in the Indian Ocean. The country is divided into 31 regions, 26 in the mainland and 5 in Zanzibar, which are in turn divided into districts and wards. The largest urban areas include Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar town, Mwanza, Arusha, and Mbeya, and the capital is the central town of Dodoma. With the exception of regional headquarters/centres, the rest of the country would be classified as rural. The topography, climate and vegetation are remarkably varied. The northern region is dominated by savannah plains, boasting world-‐famous Serengeti National Park and the UNESCO world heritage site, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, as well as the highest peak in Africa and freestanding mountain in the world, Mt. Kilimanjaro, standing at 5,895 meters (UNESCO, 2016). Kilimanjaro’s fertile slopes, as well as the Lake Zone, Southern Highlands, and southern regions are rich in agriculture, ranging from food crops to tea, coffee, cashews, cotton, and timber. In contrast, the central regions are semi-‐arid, while the coastal regions and Zanzibar are tropical and humid. The highlands form a ridge of the Great Rift Valley, and the altitude ranges from sea level at the coast to over 2000 meters in the highlands. Tanzania shares with neighbouring countries the great fresh-‐water lakes of Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyasa. Tanzania has established 16 National Parks in all, as well as the enormous Selous Game Reserve. The well-‐known savannah parks preserve a range of large mammals – elephants, lions, rhinoceros, leopards, hippos, giraffes, and buffalo as well as small mammals, numerous bird species, lizards and primates. Gombe Stream and the Mahale Mountains protect chimpanzees, while the Udzungwa National Park shelters a rainforest, home to other endemic species of primates, insects, and amphibians and the marine parks boast coral reefs and aquatic wildlife (TANAPA, 2016).
1 Matthew A.M. Thomas, Ph.D., Lecturer, Sociology of Education & Comparative Education, Sydney School of Education
and Social Work, A35 Education Building, Room 820, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia, +612 8627 4304 -‐ [email protected]
& Kristeen Chachage, PhD Candidate, Graduate Assistant, Comparative & International Development Education, Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy & Development, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota, -‐ [email protected]
& Willy L.M. Komba, Ph.D., Associate Professor & Dean, School of Curriculum and Teacher Education, College of Education, The University of Dodoma, P.O. Box 523 DODOMA, TANZANIA, Mobile: +255 754 463 713; +255 655 463 713, -‐ [email protected]
Demography East Africa, and Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania in particular, has been known as the ‘cradle of mankind,’ with archaeological findings indicating the evolution of humankind dating back nearly four million years (GOT, 2016). Isimila Stone Age site is believed to have been a factory zone for stone tools in the middle Stone Age period, and rock paintings in Kondoa are believed to date back 50,000 years. Possibly the only tribe in Tanzania to continue pre-‐ modern ways of life are the Hadzabe (hunters and fruit gatherers). The Bantu are believed to have moved into various parts of Tanzania over 2000 years ago and Nilotic herders, including the Masai, moved down into Tanzania in the following millennium (Iliffe, 1979). Around the 12th century, the Swahili city-‐states developed along the East African coast, including Kilwa and Zanzibar in Tanzania, as well as numerous smaller settlements along the coast. There was active ocean trade between the coastal region and the Middle East, and the population of the coast is an intermix of Bantu, Arab and Persian descent, exerting Arabic influence on the bantu Swahili language, which includes many borrowed and adapted terms from Arabic (Schadeberg, 2009). Zanzibar was under the control of the Omani sultanate from the 17th century, and Oman’s capital shifted to Zanzibar for a time in the 19th century. When the mainland became a colony of Germany and later British Protectorate, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, respectively, some European settlers and a larger number of South Asian labourers and merchants joined the population. Tanzania’s current population is estimated to be 54,199,163 (NBS, 2018). The most recent census was taken in 2012, and according to the Tanzanian government, the project growth rate between 2013-‐2018 is approximately 23.1 percent (NBS, 2018). Because Tanzania is such a large country in terms of area, overall population density is estimated to be between 55 and 59 people per square kilometre (UNdata, 2016; World Bank, 2016a). However, population density actually varies greatly in specific locations, with a significant difference between the urban areas of Zanzibar and Dar es Salaam, and to a lesser extent, Mwanza, compared to the rest of the country. The population density of 14 regions, particularly in southern and central Tanzania, is less than 50 persons per square kilometre, and in an additional six regions, less than 100 persons per square kilometre (NBS, 2016a). In contrast, there are 2,500 to 3,100 persons per km2 in Zanzibar City’s region and the Dar es Salaam Region (NBS, 2016a). Interestingly, Dar es Salaam also has the lowest proportion of population aged below 14 years, while the western regions of the country have proportionately higher populations below 14 years of age (NBS, 2016a). As can be seen on Tanzania’s age pyramid (see Figure 1), Tanzania has a young population, with nearly half of the population aged below 15 years. There is a slightly higher percentage of females than males in almost all age groups (NBS & Office of Chief Government Statistician, 2013).
Figure 1. Tanzania Population Pyramid
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) & Office of Chief Government Statistician, (2013). Population distribution by age and sex, p. 32. Ministry of Finance, Dar es Salaam and President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning,
Social System Tanzania is an incredibly diverse nation, with over 120 indigenous ethnic groups, as well as a small percentage of citizens with Middle Eastern, South Asian, or European descent. Tanzania has not collected census data related to religion since 1967, and the country is generally portrayed as one third Christian, one third Muslim and one third subscribing to other religions, including traditional/animist beliefs. The official languages are Swahili and English. While English is currently used for secondary, vocational, and higher education and in some daily media, Swahili is the most common language of communication, and used in Parliament, popular media, and government primary schools. In urban areas, children generally come to school with Swahili as a first or dominant language, while in some rural areas, indigenous ethnic languages may be the home language, with Swahili being learnt first at primary/pre-‐ primary school (Brock-‐Utne, 2007; Schadeberg, 2009). In secondary and tertiary education, English as the current language of instruction has an effect on student comprehension and teachers’ pedagogical dexterity (Brock-‐Utne, 2007; Qorro, 2006, 2009; Webb with Mkongo, 2013). In terms of education, there is also a large English-‐medium private school parallel system at primary and secondary levels, most of which follow the official national curriculum. In the 2014 The Education and Training Policy (MOEVT, 2014), the Tanzania Mainland government announced that secondary and tertiary education will change to be Swahili medium, though no definite timeline has been set, and it is unclear if this will apply to private and public schools or only government institutions. While Nyerere argued in the early post-‐independence period that Tanzania did not have a fully developed class system (Malipula, 2016), the current parallel system of government and private schooling which has developed since liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s is seen to be exacerbating a growing class divide in the country (Mbilinyi, 2003). Income inequality is said to have increased in absolute terms between 2000 and 2010 (Atkinson & Lugo, 2010) and progress to post-‐primary education is often tied to private means such as paying for extra “tuition” courses or attending private schools (Wedgwood, 2007).
Economy Tanzania is considered a low-‐income country, though it is rich in natural resources. There has been significant growth in the mining, construction, electricity and gas sectors in the past fifteen years, and agriculture still supplies a large share of employment and exports. Gold contributes a major portion of exports, followed by numerous crops including coffee, cashews, tobacco, sisal, cotton and tea. Gross National Income per capita has risen from $200 per month (at current USD value) in 1990 to over $900 in 2015; however, the stratification of distribution of wealth has become more pronounced over the same period (World Bank 2016b). The level of technological development is generally considered low, though innovative cell phone technology has made communications, financial and, in some rural areas, consultant health services more accessible to many parts of the country. At the same time, clean water and electricity are not available for at least a third of the population. Basic needs poverty at household level is estimated to have declined by six percent between 2006 and 2012 and is lower in urban areas than rural (NBS, 2016b). The government is currently prioritizing industrial growth, infrastructural projects, and adding value to primary products.
Political system Tanzania, like most African nation-‐states, is a product of colonial histories. The United Republic of Tanzania was formed by the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, two separate colonies-‐cum-‐independent nations, in 1964. While Zanzibar had been colonized into a fairly unified (though highly stratified) state by the Omani Sultanate before being colonized by the British, Tanganyika was an amalgam of over 120 ethnic groups with distinct languages, customs,
and differing political/social structures. Tanganyika was first a German colony, following the partitioning of the continent in 1897, and then became a Protectorate of the League of Nations administered by Britain, from 1918 till its independence in 1961. The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) did an admirable job building a united national identity. Tanzania’s first president, Julius K. Nyerere, in a speech delivered on Republic Day in 1962, said, “A country which lacks its own culture is no more than a collection of people without the spirit which makes them a nation” (Askew, 2002). Nyerere’s conscious racial and ethnic equality and nation-‐building policies in the period after independence are attributed with preventing the saliency of ethnicity and promoting a peaceful political culture up to the contemporary period (Malipula, 2016). These policies included, among others, the promotion of Swahili as a national language, stationing civil servants, including teachers, across the country rather than in their home areas, and instituting national service. Tanzania pursued Ujamaa, or African socialism, from the late 1960s till the 1980s, under a single party, representative system. In the 1990s, Tanzania officially allowed multi-‐party democracy and the economy has been increasingly liberalized since that period. While there is an overarching Executive, Judicial and Legislative Branch which governs both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, the latter also maintains its own president, parliament and judiciary for its internal affairs. Zanzibar thus retains its own ministries, including a Ministry of Education, with separate policies from the mainland. Due to limited space in this chapter as well as the fact that up to 97 percent the population lives on Mainland Tanzania, we will primarily focus the description and analysis on education in Mainland Tanzania.
The Education System in Tanzania Beginning and historical evolution of the education system Tanzania’s formal post-‐colonial education system has evolved in tandem with dynamics of the political system. The changes can be described in terms of three phases, namely the nationalist phase (1961-‐1967), the socialist phase (1968-‐1990), and the neo-‐liberal phase (1990 to date). Before independence, educational access was not only restricted, but also elitist, irrelevant, and discriminatory (Nyerere, 1968). The government's commitment to education as an integral part of its social and economic development started shortly after independence. The period between the attainment of political independence in 1961 and the Arusha Declaration on Socialism and Self-‐reliance in 1968 was characterized by pronounced nationalist sentiments and high expectations of economic and social betterment following a seventy-‐year era of colonial domination and exploitation. However, this period was also a period when such hopes were frustrated by rapid social differentiation and external (bilateral) economic dependence. The indigenization of the civil service brought with it a visible income gap between the rich few and the poor majority, largely the peasantry. The political currency then became ’freedom’ and ‘unity’ (Nyerere 1968; Cameron & Dodd 1970, p. 191). Following the Arusha Declaration, the education philosophy, "Education for Self-‐Reliance", was assigned a central role in the transformation of Tanzania to an egalitarian society. Universal primary education (UPE), underlined in the ruling party’s (TANU) Musoma Resolution of 1974, became one of the strategies for transforming rural society and agriculture, the latter being the country’s economic mainstay. Thus, the period starting from 1967 through 1985 was a turning point in the country’s political orientation in response to the internal and external constraints. The policy of socialism and self-‐reliance was enunciated with nation-‐building and economic development as closely aligned goals. Egalitarian policies on income differentials promised a slowdown in social differentiation. Free education and other social services (e.g., health care, water) were provided to all. Multi-‐lateral economic relationships were established, governed by the government’s non-‐aligned foreign policy. In practice, self-‐reliance meant more, but diversified, external financing of education. The ‘socialist’ strategies were not without internal and external challenges. Scarcities resulting from poor performance of the social service and state economic sectors eroded the promises of a strong egalitarian state. It was not accidental that the ‘second phase’ government—under Ali Hassan Mwinyi and with a laissez faire outlook— came in after the 1985 Presidential elections and embarked on privatization of the economy as a response to external pressures (i.e., donor agencies) and internal frustrations associated with lower standards of living, due at
least in part to severe droughts and oil shortages (Vavrus, 2003). Subsequent phases of government (i.e., under presidents Benjamin Mkapa, 1995-‐2005; Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, 2005-‐2015; and now under John Pombe Magufuli, 2015-‐2020) only served to consolidate neo-‐liberal policies on education and the economy. The educational reforms undertaken with donor support in late 1980s and 1990s, embodied in the 1995 Education and Training Policy, the National Higher Education Policy of 1995, The National Science and Technology Policy of 1995 (Reviewed 1996); the National Technical Education and Training Policy of 1996; the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) of 1997 (revised in 2001 and running from 1998 to 2007), and the Primary Education Development Program (PEDP, 2002-‐2009) are reminiscent of the new turn of events.
Aims and goals of education The aims and goal of education in Tanzania have evolved continuously since independence. The Arusha Declaration and the subsequent educational philosophy of Education for Self Reliance emphasized the development of an enquiring mind, learning from others and development of the critical faculties. Later policy guidelines, such as the Musoma Resolution 1974, emphasized work as an integral part of formal education at all levels, otherwise known as Education with Production (EWP), school-‐community integration, basic education (3Rs), and science and technology (Komba & Temu, 1995). In the 1990’s aims and goals from primary to tertiary level emphasized three important components of the curriculum, namely the learner and the learning process, the society and accompanying social context, and cultural heritage (URT 1993, p. 25). Teacher education aimed at promoting professional excellence, although this does not seem to have been attained as a majority of students failed to link what they learned in school with their immediate environment (URT, 1993, p. 25). Similarly, at the tertiary and higher education levels, while the aims emphasized the promotion of professionalism, the pursuit of truth, and the meeting of high levels of human resource requirements, there was less stress on acquisition and application of science and technology principles. The 1995 Education and Training Policy was adopted to take the country into the 21st century of science and technology. Key objectives were to (i) ensure public and private partnership in the provision of education and training; (ii) ensure quality education through curriculum reviews, education management and teacher supervision, and use of student continuous assessment; (iii) improve equitable access to education; and (iv) diversify sources of education financing through controlling government expenditure and encouraging cost sharing (URT, 1995, see pages xiixiii). The general policy goal of the new (2014) Education and Training Policy is to have educated citizens who are knowledgeable and who possess skills for accelerating the country’s development in a competitive global economy. The policy document enumerates seven specific objectives, namely, to have: (i) a system, structures and flexible procedures that will enable a Tanzanian to continue learning using a variety of pathways academically and professionally; (ii) quality education and training that is recognised nationally, regionally and internationally; (iii) Access to various education and training opportunities; (iv) an increase of human resources commensurate with national priorities and demand; (v) an effective management and administration of education and training; (vi) sustainable financing modality for education and training; and (vii) an education and training system that integrates cross-‐cutting issues (MOEVT, 2014, pp. 15-‐16).
Education ladder The formal education system, hitherto characterized by the 2-‐7-‐4-‐2-‐3+ structure, is proposing to change into a 1+6+4+2+3+ structure2. In the old structure, pre-‐primary education took 2 years, primary education took 7 years (Standard I-‐VII), secondary education 4 years (Form 1-‐4), followed by 2 years of advanced level secondary education (Form 5-‐6), and 3 to 5 years of tertiary or university education. This structure has been found to be deficient for two 2 This change has already been effected in Zanzibar but not yet fully implemented in Mainland Tanzania.
reasons. First, it takes too long for a child to start primary education and complete university level studies. Second, the old system was biased towards academics at the expense of other types of intelligence and vocational education and training. The new education ladder 1+6+4+2+3+ proposed in the 2014 policy aims to address those shortcomings because it facilitates identification of talents at an early stage and integrates vocational education and training at primary and secondary education level. Pre-‐primary education is a formal school system for children aged 4-‐5 years lasting for 1 year with no examination for promotion. Primary education is a six-‐year education cycle after pre-‐primary3. It is universal and compulsory to all children aged 5-‐12 years. The primary school cycle begins with standard one (Std. I) on entry, and ends with standard six (Std. VI) in the final year. A Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) marks completion of the primary education cycle. Successful attendance of primary education qualifies one to sit the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Good performance in the PSLE qualifies one to transition to secondary education. Secondary education has two cycles; the first cycle is the Ordinary Level (O-‐Level) which lasts for four years, and in 2015 the government committed to providing free and compulsory education at this level. It is the continuation of primary formal education which begins with Form 1 and ends with Form 4. At the end of Form 4 students sit for the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE), which examines multiple subject combinations based on student choice. Results are distributed across Divisions I-‐IV and zero (i.e., failing). In order to qualify for the second cycle, otherwise known as high school or Advanced Level (A-‐Level), candidates must pass the CSEE at Division III level or above in designated subject combinations. The A-‐Level secondary education has Form 5 and 6. This second cycle culminates into the Advanced Level Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (ACSEE). Vocational Education and Training (VET) provides alternative educational and training to any person who completed primary and any other levels of formal education. The courses offered lead to careers as skilled workers who can be employed or self-‐employed. Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) was established by Act of Parliament No. 1 (1994), which involved the broad tasks of coordinating, regulating, financing, promoting and providing vocational education and training in Tanzania. The nomenclature of the awards include Certificate of Primary Education, National Vocational Certificate I, National Vocational Certificate II. Technical Education and Training provides alternative educational and training opportunities available after lower secondary education, which lead to careers as skilled workers, technicians and professionals who are able to work in different sectors of the economy. The quality control and quality assurance for Technical Education and Training is undertaken by the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE). The post-‐secondary award system has three levels. The first level covers Certificate of Secondary Education, Basic Technician Certificate (NTA Level 4), National Vocational Certificate III, and Professional Technician Level I Certificate. The second level accommodates Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education, Technician Certificate (NTA Level 5) Professional Technician Level II Certificate, and Post NQF Level 4 Certificate. The third level accommodates Ordinary Diploma (NTA Level 6), Academic Ordinary Diploma, Academic Post NQF Level 5 Certificate, and Professional Level I Certificate. Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education. It is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. The duration of undergraduate programmes is generally at least 3 years, and postgraduate education varies depending on the programmes (e.g., post-‐graduate diploma, master’s degree, Ph.D.). Higher Education in Tanzania is coordinated by Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) and National Council for Technical Education (NACTE). TCU is responsible for Universities while NACTE oversees the technical and training institutions. According to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), higher education comprises level 6 through level 10 as follows: •
Level 6 accommodates Ordinary Diploma (NTA Level 6), Academic Ordinary Diploma, Academic Post NQF Level 5 Certificate, and Professional Level I Certificate.
3 NB: primary is a 6 year cycle in Zanzibar and is expected to become a 6 year cycle in the Mainland according to the
2014 Education and Training Policy.
Level 7 accommodates Higher Diploma, Higher Certificate or Professional Level II Certificate.
Level 8 accommodates Academic Bachelor Degree, or Bachelor Degree in (Specified Area of Technical Education or Profession), Professional Level III Certificate.
Level 9 accommodates Academic Master’s Degree, Academic Postgraduate Diploma, Academic Postgraduate Certificate or Master Degree in (Specified Area of Technical Education or Profession), Postgraduate Diploma in (Specified Area of Technical Education or Profession) and Professional Level IV Certificate.
Level 10 accommodates Academic Doctorate Degree or Doctorate Degree in (Specified Area of Technical Education or Profession) (TCU, 2012)
Adult and Non Formal Education programmes are designed to cater for all people who for some reason missed an opportunity to go through the formal education system. Adult education programmes range from literacy to functional literacy. Literacy programmes aim at equipping learners with reading, writing and counting competences while functional ones are those which aim at maintaining the competences acquired. There is also a non-‐fromal education program for children aged 9-‐17 who did not have a chance to enrol in, or complete, primary school Complementary Basic Education Tanzania (COBET) provides a condensed curriculum as a means to mainstream students back into the formal system at Std. V, or after the PSLE.
Enrolment In absolute terms, enrolment in pre-‐primary education increased from 554,835 pupils in 2004 to 1,026,466 in 2013, an increase of 85.0 percent in 10 years (PMO, 2014). During the same period, primary education enrolment grew from 7,083,063 pupils to 8,231,913 respectively, an increase of 16.2 percent. Similarly, lower secondary (Form 1-‐4) enrolment increased from 401,598 students in 2004 to 1,728,534 in 2013, an increase of 330.4 percent. Upper secondary (Form 5-‐6) enrolment also increased substantially, but not as fast as that of lower secondary, from 31,001 students in 2004 to 75522 in 2013, an increase of 143.6 percent (PMO, 2014). According to official statistics, by 2013, the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for pre-‐primary education stood at 37.3 percent suggesting that 62.7 percent of pre-‐school age (5-‐6 years) children were not attending school. In the same vein, GER for Lower secondary (Form 1-‐ 4) was 45.5 percent and that of upper secondary (Form 5-‐6) was only 4.2 percent. The transition rates from primary to secondary, that is, proportion of standard seven selected to join secondary (Form 1) education, increased from 36.1 percent in 2004 to 59.5 percent in 2012 an increase of 64.8 percent. However, the transition rate from Form 4 to Form 5 declined from 29.8 in 2004 to 10.6 in 2012 (see PMO, 2014).
Main challenges The government recognizes that meeting its human resource requirements and addressing national priorities to realize Vision 2025 constitute the prime challenge of Tanzania’s education and training system. Nevertheless, the trend in recent education statistics where only 10.6 percent of Form 4 leavers manage to proceed to higher education is a bad omen. If allowed to continue, this trend will perpetuate a deficit in human resource production unless drastic measures are taken to improve the quality of education. Other challenges recognized by the government include lack of a flexible system that recognizes prior learning; lack of standards in education and training that are comparable and recognizable at national, regional and international levels; lack of an employment regime that stimulates the production of experts in various specialized areas of the economy; and lack of an inclusive and sustainable education financing system. Challenges relating to the system’s internal efficiency include the number of pupils/students who participate in schooling activities, and successful completion in national examinations. Key indicators suggest that there are issues with enrolment, truancy, droping out, and poor academic performance. Though the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for pre-‐primary education rose from 37.3 percent in 2013 to 95.8 percent in 2017, after the re-‐instatement of fee-‐free
basic education, the pre-‐primary NER remained at 44.6 percent, suggesting that 55.4 percent of pre-‐school age (5-‐6 years) children were not attending school (MOEST, 2017). Also, GER for Lower secondary (Form 1-‐4) was 45.5 percent and that of upper secondary (Form 5-‐6) was only 4.2 percent. Similarly, truancy causes the biggest proportion of school dropouts (75.7 percent in primary and 76.1 percent in secondary education). Poverty (inability to secure basic school needs) also cause substantial dropouts which are 5.8 percent in Primary and 12.8 percent in Secondary Education (PMO, 2014, p. 36). The percentage of pupils sitting the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) increased by 69.2 percent from 2004 to 2013 but pass rates fluctuated rising to 70.5 percent in 2006 and declining to 30.7 percent in 2012 and rising again to 50.6 in 2013. The Form 4 pass rate has also fluctuated but with a downward trend from 91.5 percent in 2004 to 57.1 percent in 2013. In addition to variations in the exam questions themselves, the low performance could be attributed to rapid expansion of enrolment without corresponding supply of essential teaching and learning facilities. Better performed subjects in 2013 were Kiswahili (67.8%) and Chemistry (50.2%) while Mathematics (17.8%) was the worst.
Teacher Education in Tanzania Beginning and historical development In considering the historical development of teacher education, it must first be noted that teaching and learning and, indeed, teacher education, existed for centuries through various community arrangements. Yet the early pre-‐ colonial era ushered in a new push by Christian missionaries for ‘formalized’ systems of teacher education (e.g., teacher training). This period was followed by the colonial period in which both Christian and government teacher training colleges were established in order to meet the increasing demand as the formal school system continued to expand (Anangisye, 2010). For example, Mumford and Parker (1937) draw on a colonial report from 1935 to suggest there were approximately 200 schools in one region of Tangayika but “only 34 adequately trained teachers” (p. 23). The teacher education system expanded quickly, however, with the practice of using teachers with no teacher training diminishing considerably by the late 1950s and early 1960s (Jones, 1960). Shortly after independence there were 22 teachers colleges around the country (Tungaraza, 2014). As noted previously, the education system evolved along with the nations’ various political phases. Produced shortly after independence, the handbook for the Grade ‘A’ Teacher Education programme, which was at the time the highest qualification level in Tanzania, was replete with references to the new pan-‐African and Ujamaa revolution (Ministry of National Education, 1969). It notes, “Teachers must be dedicated workers spearheading the revolution within their community to bring about a true Ujamaa Society” and know the “difference between individual orientated education and education directed towards the benefit of the society” (p. 7). At this point in history, pre-‐ service teachers in teacher education programs were also encouraged to conduct research in Ujamaa villages. Even the inclusion and description of sports and social activities were intentional, as they were believed to “produce opportunities for exercising responsibility and learning how to work cooperatively with others in mutual benefit to all” (ibid, p. 15). During this era, pre-‐service teachers were to be partially assessed on their character, with measurements of “social attitudes and national spirit” (p. 20) through “commitment to national philosophy, participation in self-‐reliance projects, cooperation with others” (p. 23) as well as other activities (Ministry of National Education, 1969). This example shows how political movements influenced teacher education in Tanzania. More recent developments in teacher education include expanding the number of teacher training institutions as well as their capacities to produce large quantities of teachers in response to the increases in primary and secondary enrolments. Not surprisingly, the pupil/teacher ratio (PTR) was significantly affected: The PTR changed from 46 to 54 at the primary level between 2001 and 2009 and 19 to 35 at the secondary level (UNESCO, 2011).4 To help increase the number of teachers, many new private institutions are training teachers, and some teacher training colleges are upgrading themselves to university colleges that offer expanded degree programmes (Thomas & Salema, 2017).
4 The statistics for the secondary level are UNESCO estimates.
Aims and Objectives Education is positioned as a means toward development in most policy documents in Tanzania (Anangisye & Fussy, 2014), several of which directly address teacher education. The mid-‐1990s witnessed a surge of new policies for Tanzania as it continued to improve its education system. The policies most relevant to teacher education included the Education and Training Policy (MOEC, 1995), National Higher Education policy (MSTHE, 1999), Teacher Development and Management Strategy (BEDC, 2008), and the In-‐service Education and Training Strategy for Primary Schools (MOEVT, 2010). The Education and Training Policy (1995), in particular, served as the pivotal policy text for nearly twenty years. This document includes an explicit list of aims and objectives for teacher education and training: •
to impart to teacher trainees theories and principles of education, psychology, guidance and counselling;
to impart to teacher trainees principles and skills of pedagogy, creativity and innovation;
to promote an understanding of the foundations of the school curriculum;
to sharpen the teacher trainees’, teachers’ and tutors’ knowledge and mastery of selected subjects, skills and technologies;
to impart skills and techniques of research, assessment and evaluation in education (p. 7)
The new Sera ya Elimu Na Mafunzo (Education and Training Policy) produced in 2014 (MOEVT), supplanting the 1995 version, does not outline clear aims and objectives for teacher education, specifically. However, the Education Sector Development Programme for 2008-‐2017 notes several strategic policy objectives that include ensuring “the best available teaching talents are recruited, professionally develop and retained” (URoT, 2008, p. 8). At the diploma level, several objectives guide the preparation of future secondary school teachers. These objectives include but are not limited to the following, which aim to ensure teachers: acquire a basic understanding of the nature, purpose and philosophy of secondary education; develop a basic understanding of the psychology of children and adolescents; make a content and pedagogical analysis of the subject they will teach in secondary schools; acquire competencies in curriculum implementation, classroom presentation, use of educational media and technology, assessment and evaluation; and promote creative and critical thinking skills among learners. (TIE, 2013b) Objectives and competences for the pre-‐primary and primary Grade A Certificate programmes are quite similar, though maintain a more concerted emphasis on child development and developmentally appropriate practice. This also includes “guiding and counseling children with diverse needs” as well as “carrying out small scale research studies on the children learning and development” [sic] (TIE, 2013a, p. 7-‐8). These and other aims and objectives continue to guide the development and provision of teacher education.
Access and Enrolments Despite the increase in the number of teacher colleges, university colleges, and universities, the number of teachers produced each year is insufficient to meet demand, particularly in certain subject areas. Table 1 below shows the demand for teachers across several priority areas outlined by the government as well as the associated shortage.
Table 1: Teacher Demand and Supply
Source: Basic Education Statistics: BEST, 2013 (as cited in MOEVT, 2014) Teachers are particularly needed in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM) at the secondary level. Achieving gender parity among pre-‐service teachers remains a challenge. More males than females were enrolled in government teacher training institutions, which require passing certain compulsory subjects to gain entrance, while more females were enrolled at private institutions (MOEVT, 2014). In sum, access to teacher education varies considerably depending on different programmes and is explained in the following section.
Sites and Programmes Three basic types of teacher education programmes exist in Tanzania (see Figure 2). The first is the Grade A Teachers Certificate Programme. Secondary school students who complete Ordinary Level and receive a minimum result of Division IV on the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE) are eligible to enter this programme, though sometimes failing students are also admitted (Anangisye, 2010; Anangisye & Fussy, 2014). The two-‐year Grade A programme is offered at many teacher training colleges around the country and mainly certifies teachers to teach at the pre-‐primary and primary level (TIE, 2013a). The language of instruction is Kiswahili (Anangisye & Fussy, 2014). Pre-‐service teachers in this programme must complete a two-‐month Block Teaching Practice (BTP) experience in each of their two years (TIE, 2013a), and also pass the Grade A Teachers Certificate Examination (GATCE), which is administered by the National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA).
Figure 2: Teacher Education Programmes in Tanzania
Source: (Nzima, 2016 as adapted from Meena, 2009, and Malmberg & Hansen, 1996) The second type of programme is the Diploma in Education. This two-‐year programme mostly certifies teachers to teach at the secondary level, though diploma-‐trained teachers are increasingly employed at primary schools. Diploma programmes can be found at many Teacher Training Colleges and some university colleges. The language of instruction is English. After completing A-‐Level, students who receive Divisions I to III on the Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (ASCEE), which is also administered by NECTA, are eligible to enter the Diploma in Education Programme, though again, in reality these minimum threshold points are not firm (Anangisye & Fussy, 2014). Overall, by 2014 there were more than 100 teacher education colleges, with the majority of those being non-‐ governmental institutions (MOEVT EFA Report, 2014; Nzima, 2016). This illustrates the large role private institutions play in the preparation of teachers. The third basic type of programme is the degree in education. High-‐achieving students who are able to matriculate to university are eligible to complete degree programs. The number of universities and university colleges increased from 1 in 1995 to more 50 in 2013 (MOEVT, 2014). Few teachers have degrees, however. These programmes are considerably more rigorous in nature and require longer periods of time to completion. Some teachers pursue degrees after attaining a diploma, which may also enable them to become a tutor at a higher education institution.
Curricula The teacher education curriculum is created by the Tanzanian Institute of Education (TIE) and related to the Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) and NECTA. The curricula across all three types of programmes (i.e., certificate, diploma, and degree) includes courses in pedagogy, content specific areas based on specialisation, and teaching practice. However, the depth and intensity of exposure to these aspects vary based on the programme. Grade ‘A’ Certificate and Diploma programmes include courses in professional studies, academic courses and teaching, and general courses. For example, pre-‐service teachers in the secondary education diploma programme must complete the following: a) professional studies – educational psychology and counselling; foundations of education; educational research measurement and evaluation; and curriculum and teaching; b) academic courses and teaching – core subject I (content/academic content knowledge); core subject I (teaching methods/pedagogical content knowledge); core subject II (content/academic content knowledge); core subject II (teaching
methods/pedagogical content knowledge); and c) General courses – development studies, information and communication technology, educational media and technology, communication skills, project work, and religion. This basic structure holds true for pre-‐service teachers pursuing diplomas in pre-‐primary and primary education as well. In general, the teacher education curriculum is intended to be “in line with primary and secondary education in which competence based learning are emphasized” (MOEVT EFA Report, 2014, p. 105).
Methods and Educators Though it is impossible to capture a holistic view of methods across the wide variety of institutions and instructors, some general themes do exist. Teacher education in Tanzania aims to both connect closely with the curricula across the levels of teaching as well as utilise competency models of active learning. According to the diploma curriculum, “tutors will not be the sole sources of knowledge but will act as facilitators providing a broad range of learning experiences” (TIA, 2013b, p. 22). Literature on teacher education in Tanzania suggests that this emphasis on learner-‐ centred and interactive approaches is challenging to achieve, however (Vavrus, 2009). No more than 35 students are recommended per class in teacher education diploma programmes (TIE, 2013b), but this is often difficult to maintain. Unfortunately, data are underdeveloped on the characteristics and qualities of teacher educators themselves. The Education and Training Policy (2014) notes a shortage of 2,115 lecturers/scholars who are competent across various disciplines and subject areas, though it is unclear how many of these scholars would be involved in teacher education. Yet concerns remain about the pedagogical abilities of the teacher educators currently employed in higher education institutions (MOEC, 1995; Nzima, 2016; Wilinski, Nguyen, & Landgraf, 2016). Tutors at teacher education institutions are intended to have appropriate degrees as well as experience working as a teacher. Tutors teaching the certificate programme are supposed to have undergraduate degrees in pre-‐primary/primary education, at least four years of teaching experience, and successful completion of at least two in-‐service programmes (TIE, 2013a). Tutors in the Diploma programmes are intended to have master’s degrees in teacher education, at least three years of teaching experience, and attended in-‐service short courses (TIE, 2013b). Yet many teacher educators are hired due to their high marks and content knowledge, not their experience with pedagogy or teacher education, more generally (Komba, Anangisye, & Katabaro, 2013). Thus, meeting the demand for highly qualified teacher educators, especially those who have prior experience as classroom teachers, remains a challenge (Thomas & Salema, 2017). However, there are strategic policy objectives outlined in the Education Sector Development Plan to “attract, recruit and retain adequate high quality TC tutors” as well as “enhance teacher professionalism among teacher educators” (URoT, 2008, p. 18).
Teaching Practice Teaching practice is often known in Tanzania as Block Teaching Practice (BTP). It generally occurs in two 8-‐week experiences across pre-‐primary, primary, and secondary teacher education programmes for a total of 16 weeks. BTP is completed by pre-‐service teachers “in order to translate into practice the theoretical concepts and insights gained from the academic and pedagogical competencies acquired by student teachers during classroom sessions” (TIE, 2013b, p. 22). Students completing their BTP experiences will be monitored by a variety of key stakeholders, including tutors, college principals, education inspectors, regional education officers, education officers from MOEVT and other approved education institutions (ibid, p. 23). During BTP in the diploma programme at least 5 assessments are intended to be conducted, with three in the first year and two in the second year. However, some research has highlighted that BTP experiences are often shorter than intended (Nzima, 2016). The government also recognizes the challenge of monitoring and supporting trainee teachers, noting the “lack of effective mentoring in the schools to which trainees are allocated” (URoT, 2008, p. 43).
Challenges In spite of the remarkable made in recent years, teacher education continues to face several key challenges. First, recruiting and retaining high-‐qualified teachers remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Teaching is largely viewed as a low-‐status profession, with many teachers entering because their marks on national exams did not qualify them for other professions (Anangisye & Fussy, 2014; Bennell & Mukyanuzi, 2005; Bermeo, Kaunda, & Ngarina, 2013). Thus, attracting and keeping dedicated teachers is a perpetual challenge, one compounded by the shortage of teachers’ houses (MOEVT, 2014) as well as dissatisfaction with working conditions and benefits (ibid, 2014). These and other factors necessarily contribute to the lack of interest in completing teacher education programmes and becoming a teacher (ibid, 2014). Moreover, it is vital to increase the numbers of teachers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as well as special education (ibid, 2014), areas where growth will be evident in forthcoming years. Second, utilizing and modelling learner-‐centred pedagogies in teacher education to reflect curricular and policy changes remains a challenge. Many of these methods are perceived to be incongruent with norms and the material constraints of classroom spaces (Vavrus, 2009; Vavrus, Thomas, & Bartlett, 2011) despite their proposed inclusion across all levels of curricula. A challenge exists wherein many of the teacher educators themselves have not had adequate experience with more constructivist methods. Thus, more professional development for teacher educators and tutors may assist in the transformation of teacher education. Third, and building on the second challenge, attending to equity and inclusivity is an on-‐going challenge. There are significant gender imbalances in who enters different levels of the teaching profession and an insufficient number of teachers who are trained in working with students who have disabilities. Moreover, research suggests that teachers would benefit from additional training in both gender inclusive and special needs education (Anangisye & Fussy, 2014; Rugambwa & Thomas, 2013; Thomas & Rugambwa, 2011; Tungaraza, 2014). Finally, adequate funding might help ensure appropriate methods and conditions are provided for future teachers. The share of the education sector budget allocated for teacher education declined from 2.6% to less than 1% in the ten years between 1997/98 to 2007/08, which also accompanied a decline in the number of trainee teachers (URoT, 2008). In 2013 approximately 1.6% of the education sector budget was allocated to teacher education. Additional funding to provide professional development for tutors, streamline the curriculum, and ensure teaching practices in teacher education appropriately replicate school contexts might lead to a more robust and, ultimately, effective teacher education system.
Conclusion Overall, in recent years there have been significant improvements to the education system in Tanzania. Access to pre-‐primary, primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling has increased drastically. Equity is also improving, with growing numbers of female students and students with disabilities attending, and completing, schooling across multiple levels. Issues of educational quality are perhaps the most challenging, however, and also those that most directly interface with teacher education. Teacher education programmes have become more robust and comprehensive with revisions to the curriculum in 2007 and 2013; however, at many institutions it is challenging to fully implement the intended goals and objectives due to a variety of constraints. These constraints include a shortage of qualified tutors, inadequate teaching facilities at teacher education institutions, and a continued reliance upon more didactic and teacher-‐centred pedagogical approaches. Yet in the midst of massive educational expansion since the expansion of universal primary education and universal secondary education, and the concomitant increased demand for qualified teachers, the United Republic of Tanzania has made impressive improvements to the teacher education system. In sum, much has been accomplished, but there is more work to be done to improve access, equity, and quality.
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