Teacher Education in Tanzania: Advancing Access

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Around the 12th century, the Swahili city-‐states developed along the East. African coast ..... It notes, “Teachers must be dedicated workers spearheading the revolution ..... Performing the nation: Swahili music and cultural politics in Tanzania.

This  is  a  pre-­‐print  of  the  following  chapter:  Thomas,  M.A.M.,  Chachage,  K.,  &  Komba,  W.  (forthcoming).  Teacher   education  in  Tanzania:  Advancing  access,  equity,  and  quality.  In  K.G.  Karras  &  C.C.  Wolhuter  (Eds.),  International   Handbook  on  Teacher  Education  Worldwide,  2nd  Ed.  Athens:  Athropos  Publishers.                

Teacher Education in Tanzania: Advancing Access, Equity, and Quality Matthew A.M. Thomas, Ph.D. Kristeen Chachage Willy L.M. Komba, Ph.D.1    

Contextual Background Geography The  East  African  country  of  Tanzania  is  located  just  south  of  the  equator,  with  an  area  of  947,300  km2,  stretching   from  the  Indian  Ocean  on  the  east  to  the  Great  Lakes  zone  on  the  west  (MOEVT,  2012).  The  country  shares  borders   with  eight  countries:  Kenya  and  Uganda  to  the  north,  Rwanda,  Burundi  and  the  Democratic  Republic  of  Congo  in  the   west,  Zambia  to  the  southwest,  Malawi  and  Mozambique  to  the  south.  The  isles  of  Zanzibar  lay  25-­‐50  km  off  the   coast,  in  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  country  is  divided  into  31  regions,  26  in  the  mainland  and  5  in  Zanzibar,  which  are  in   turn  divided  into  districts  and  wards.  The  largest  urban  areas  include  Dar  es  Salaam,  Zanzibar  town,  Mwanza,  Arusha,   and  Mbeya,  and  the  capital  is  the  central  town  of  Dodoma.  With  the  exception  of  regional  headquarters/centres,   the  rest  of  the  country  would  be  classified  as  rural.       The   topography,   climate   and   vegetation   are   remarkably   varied.   The   northern   region   is   dominated   by   savannah   plains,   boasting   world-­‐famous   Serengeti   National   Park   and   the   UNESCO   world   heritage   site,   Ngorongoro   Conservation  Area,  as  well  as  the  highest  peak  in  Africa  and  freestanding  mountain  in  the  world,  Mt.  Kilimanjaro,   standing  at  5,895  meters  (UNESCO,  2016).  Kilimanjaro’s  fertile  slopes,  as  well  as  the  Lake  Zone,  Southern  Highlands,   and  southern  regions  are  rich  in  agriculture,  ranging  from  food  crops  to  tea,  coffee,  cashews,  cotton,  and  timber.  In   contrast,   the   central   regions   are   semi-­‐arid,   while   the   coastal   regions   and   Zanzibar   are   tropical   and   humid.   The   highlands   form   a  ridge   of   the  Great   Rift   Valley,   and   the   altitude   ranges  from   sea  level   at   the   coast   to   over   2000   meters   in   the   highlands.   Tanzania   shares   with   neighbouring   countries   the   great   fresh-­‐water   lakes   of   Victoria,   Tanganyika,  and  Nyasa.       Tanzania  has  established  16  National  Parks  in  all,  as  well  as  the  enormous  Selous  Game  Reserve.  The  well-­‐known   savannah  parks  preserve  a  range  of  large  mammals  –  elephants,  lions,  rhinoceros,  leopards,  hippos,  giraffes,  and   buffalo   as   well   as   small  mammals,   numerous   bird   species,   lizards   and   primates.  Gombe   Stream   and   the   Mahale   Mountains  protect  chimpanzees,  while  the  Udzungwa  National  Park  shelters  a  rainforest,  home  to  other  endemic   species  of  primates,  insects,  and  amphibians  and  the  marine  parks  boast  coral  reefs  and  aquatic  wildlife  (TANAPA,   2016).      

1  Matthew  A.M.  Thomas,  Ph.D.,  Lecturer,  Sociology  of  Education  &  Comparative  Education,  Sydney  School  of  Education  

and  Social  Work,  A35  Education  Building,  Room  820,  The  University  of  Sydney,  New  South  Wales  2006,  Australia,  +612   8627  4304  -­‐  [email protected]  &  Kristeen  Chachage,  PhD  Candidate,  Graduate  Assistant,  Comparative   &  International  Development  Education,  Department  of  Organizational  Leadership,  Policy  &  Development,  College  of   Education   and   Human   Development,   University   of   Minnesota,   -­‐   [email protected]   &   Willy   L.M.   Komba,   Ph.D.,   Associate   Professor   &   Dean,   School   of   Curriculum   and   Teacher   Education,   College   of   Education,   The   University   of   Dodoma,   P.O.   Box   523   DODOMA,   TANZANIA,   Mobile:   +255   754   463   713;   +255   655   463   713,   -­‐   [email protected]    

 

 

   

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Demography East   Africa,   and   Olduvai   Gorge   in   Tanzania   in   particular,   has   been   known   as   the   ‘cradle   of   mankind,’   with   archaeological   findings   indicating   the   evolution   of   humankind   dating   back   nearly   four  million   years   (GOT,   2016).   Isimila  Stone  Age  site  is  believed  to  have  been  a  factory  zone  for  stone  tools  in  the  middle  Stone  Age  period,  and   rock  paintings  in  Kondoa  are  believed  to  date  back  50,000  years.  Possibly  the  only  tribe  in  Tanzania  to  continue  pre-­‐ modern   ways   of   life   are   the   Hadzabe   (hunters   and   fruit   gatherers).   The   Bantu   are   believed   to   have   moved   into   various  parts  of  Tanzania  over  2000  years  ago  and  Nilotic  herders,  including  the  Masai,  moved  down  into  Tanzania   in  the  following  millennium  (Iliffe,  1979).  Around  the  12th  century,  the  Swahili  city-­‐states  developed  along  the  East   African  coast,  including  Kilwa  and  Zanzibar  in  Tanzania,  as  well  as  numerous  smaller  settlements  along  the  coast.   There  was  active  ocean  trade  between  the  coastal  region  and  the  Middle  East,  and  the  population  of  the  coast  is  an   intermix  of  Bantu,  Arab  and  Persian  descent,  exerting  Arabic  influence  on  the  bantu  Swahili  language,  which  includes   many  borrowed  and  adapted  terms  from  Arabic  (Schadeberg,  2009).  Zanzibar  was  under  the  control  of  the  Omani   sultanate  from  the  17th  century,  and  Oman’s  capital  shifted  to  Zanzibar  for  a  time  in  the  19th  century.  When  the   mainland   became   a  colony   of  Germany   and   later   British   Protectorate,   in   the  late   19th  and   early   20th   centuries,   respectively,   some   European   settlers   and   a   larger   number   of   South   Asian   labourers   and   merchants   joined   the   population.       Tanzania’s  current  population  is  estimated  to  be  54,199,163  (NBS,  2018).  The  most  recent  census  was  taken  in  2012,   and   according   to   the  Tanzanian   government,   the   project   growth   rate   between   2013-­‐2018   is   approximately   23.1   percent   (NBS,   2018).   Because   Tanzania   is   such   a   large   country   in   terms   of   area,   overall   population   density   is   estimated   to   be   between   55   and   59  people  per   square  kilometre   (UNdata,   2016;   World   Bank,   2016a).   However,   population  density  actually  varies  greatly  in  specific  locations,  with  a  significant  difference  between  the  urban  areas   of  Zanzibar  and  Dar  es  Salaam,  and  to  a  lesser  extent,  Mwanza,  compared  to  the  rest  of  the  country.  The  population   density  of  14  regions,  particularly  in  southern  and  central  Tanzania,  is  less  than  50  persons  per  square  kilometre,   and  in  an  additional  six  regions,  less  than  100  persons  per  square  kilometre  (NBS,  2016a).  In  contrast,  there  are  2,500   to  3,100  persons  per  km2  in  Zanzibar  City’s  region  and  the  Dar  es  Salaam  Region  (NBS,  2016a).  Interestingly,  Dar  es   Salaam  also  has  the  lowest  proportion  of  population  aged  below  14  years,  while  the  western  regions  of  the  country   have  proportionately  higher  populations  below  14  years  of  age  (NBS,  2016a).       As  can  be  seen  on  Tanzania’s  age  pyramid  (see  Figure  1),  Tanzania  has  a  young  population,  with  nearly  half  of  the   population  aged  below  15  years.  There  is  a  slightly  higher  percentage  of  females  than  males  in  almost  all  age  groups   (NBS  &  Office  of  Chief  Government  Statistician,  2013).      

Figure  1.  Tanzania  Population  Pyramid    

 

   

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Source:  National  Bureau  of  Statistics  (NBS)  &  Office  of  Chief  Government  Statistician,  (2013).  Population  distribution   by  age  and  sex,  p.  32.  Ministry  of  Finance,  Dar  es  Salaam  and  President’s  Office,  Finance,  Economy  and  Development   Planning,
Zanzibar.        

Social System Tanzania  is  an  incredibly  diverse  nation,  with  over  120  indigenous  ethnic  groups,  as  well  as  a  small  percentage  of   citizens  with  Middle  Eastern,  South  Asian,  or  European  descent.  Tanzania  has  not  collected  census  data  related  to   religion  since  1967,  and  the  country  is  generally  portrayed  as  one  third  Christian,  one  third  Muslim  and  one  third   subscribing  to  other  religions,  including  traditional/animist  beliefs.  The  official  languages  are  Swahili  and  English.   While  English  is  currently  used  for  secondary,  vocational,  and  higher  education  and  in  some  daily  media,  Swahili  is   the  most  common  language  of  communication,  and  used  in  Parliament,  popular  media,  and  government  primary   schools.  In  urban  areas,  children  generally  come  to  school  with  Swahili  as  a  first  or  dominant  language,  while  in  some   rural  areas,  indigenous  ethnic  languages  may  be  the  home  language,  with  Swahili  being  learnt  first  at  primary/pre-­‐ primary  school  (Brock-­‐Utne,  2007;  Schadeberg,  2009).  In  secondary  and  tertiary  education,  English  as  the  current   language  of  instruction  has  an  effect  on  student  comprehension  and  teachers’  pedagogical  dexterity  (Brock-­‐Utne,   2007;  Qorro,  2006,  2009;  Webb  with  Mkongo,  2013).  In  terms  of  education,  there  is  also  a  large  English-­‐medium   private  school  parallel  system  at  primary  and  secondary  levels,  most  of  which  follow  the  official  national  curriculum.   In  the  2014  The  Education  and  Training  Policy  (MOEVT,  2014),  the  Tanzania  Mainland  government  announced  that   secondary  and  tertiary  education  will  change  to  be  Swahili  medium,  though  no  definite  timeline  has  been  set,  and  it   is  unclear  if  this  will  apply  to  private  and  public  schools  or  only  government  institutions.     While   Nyerere   argued  in   the   early   post-­‐independence   period   that   Tanzania   did   not   have   a   fully   developed   class   system  (Malipula,  2016),  the  current  parallel  system  of  government  and  private  schooling  which  has  developed  since   liberalization  in  the  1980s  and  1990s  is  seen  to  be  exacerbating  a  growing  class  divide  in  the  country  (Mbilinyi,  2003).   Income  inequality  is  said  to  have  increased  in  absolute  terms  between  2000  and  2010  (Atkinson  &  Lugo,  2010)  and   progress   to   post-­‐primary   education   is   often   tied   to   private   means   such   as   paying   for   extra   “tuition”   courses   or   attending  private  schools  (Wedgwood,  2007).          

Economy Tanzania  is  considered  a  low-­‐income  country,  though  it  is  rich  in  natural  resources.  There  has  been  significant  growth   in  the  mining,  construction,  electricity  and  gas  sectors  in  the  past  fifteen  years,  and  agriculture  still  supplies  a  large   share   of   employment   and   exports.   Gold   contributes   a   major   portion   of   exports,   followed   by   numerous   crops   including  coffee,  cashews,  tobacco,  sisal,  cotton  and  tea.  Gross  National  Income  per  capita  has  risen  from  $200  per   month  (at  current  USD  value)  in  1990  to  over  $900  in  2015;  however,  the  stratification  of  distribution  of  wealth  has   become  more  pronounced  over  the  same  period  (World  Bank  2016b).    The  level  of  technological  development  is   generally   considered   low,   though   innovative   cell   phone   technology   has   made   communications,   financial   and,   in   some  rural  areas,  consultant  health  services  more  accessible  to  many  parts  of  the  country.    At  the  same  time,  clean   water  and  electricity  are  not  available  for  at  least  a  third  of  the  population.  Basic  needs  poverty  at  household  level   is  estimated  to  have  declined  by  six  percent  between  2006  and  2012  and  is  lower  in  urban  areas  than  rural  (NBS,   2016b).   The   government   is   currently   prioritizing   industrial   growth,   infrastructural   projects,   and   adding   value   to   primary  products.        

Political system Tanzania,  like  most   African  nation-­‐states,  is   a   product   of   colonial   histories.  The   United   Republic   of   Tanzania  was   formed  by  the  union  of  Tanganyika  and  Zanzibar,  two  separate  colonies-­‐cum-­‐independent  nations,  in  1964.  While   Zanzibar  had  been  colonized  into  a  fairly  unified  (though  highly  stratified)  state  by  the  Omani  Sultanate  before  being   colonized  by  the  British,  Tanganyika  was  an  amalgam  of  over  120  ethnic  groups  with  distinct  languages,  customs,  

 

   

and   differing   political/social   structures.   Tanganyika   was   first   a   German   colony,   following   the   partitioning   of   the   continent  in  1897,  and  then  became  a  Protectorate  of  the  League  of  Nations  administered  by  Britain,  from  1918  till   its   independence  in   1961.  The  Tanganyika   African   National   Union   (TANU)   did   an   admirable   job   building   a  united   national  identity.  Tanzania’s  first  president,  Julius  K.  Nyerere,  in  a  speech  delivered  on  Republic  Day  in  1962,  said,  “A   country  which  lacks  its  own  culture  is  no  more  than  a  collection  of  people  without  the  spirit  which  makes  them  a   nation”  (Askew,  2002).  Nyerere’s  conscious  racial  and  ethnic  equality  and  nation-­‐building  policies  in  the  period  after   independence  are  attributed  with  preventing  the  saliency  of  ethnicity  and  promoting  a  peaceful  political  culture  up   to  the  contemporary  period  (Malipula,  2016).  These  policies  included,  among  others,  the  promotion  of  Swahili  as  a   national  language,  stationing  civil  servants,  including  teachers,  across  the  country  rather  than  in  their  home  areas,   and  instituting  national  service.  Tanzania  pursued  Ujamaa,  or  African  socialism,  from  the  late  1960s  till  the  1980s,   under  a  single  party,  representative  system.  In  the  1990s,  Tanzania  officially  allowed  multi-­‐party  democracy  and  the   economy  has  been  increasingly  liberalized  since  that  period.     While  there  is  an  overarching  Executive,  Judicial  and  Legislative  Branch  which  governs  both  mainland  Tanzania  and   Zanzibar,  the  latter  also  maintains  its  own  president,  parliament  and  judiciary  for  its  internal  affairs.  Zanzibar  thus   retains  its  own  ministries,  including  a  Ministry  of  Education,  with  separate  policies  from  the  mainland.  Due  to  limited   space  in  this  chapter  as  well  as  the  fact  that  up  to  97  percent  the  population  lives  on  Mainland  Tanzania,  we  will   primarily  focus  the  description  and  analysis  on  education  in  Mainland  Tanzania.        

The Education System in Tanzania Beginning and historical evolution of the education system Tanzania’s  formal  post-­‐colonial  education  system  has  evolved  in  tandem  with  dynamics  of  the  political  system.  The   changes  can  be  described  in  terms  of  three  phases,  namely  the  nationalist  phase  (1961-­‐1967),  the  socialist  phase   (1968-­‐1990),   and   the   neo-­‐liberal   phase   (1990   to   date).   Before   independence,   educational   access   was   not   only   restricted,   but   also   elitist,   irrelevant,   and   discriminatory   (Nyerere,   1968).   The   government's   commitment   to   education  as  an  integral  part  of  its  social  and  economic  development  started  shortly  after  independence.  The  period   between  the  attainment  of  political  independence  in  1961  and  the  Arusha  Declaration  on  Socialism  and  Self-­‐reliance   in   1968   was   characterized   by   pronounced   nationalist   sentiments   and   high   expectations   of   economic   and   social   betterment  following  a  seventy-­‐year  era  of  colonial  domination  and  exploitation.  However,  this  period  was  also  a   period   when   such   hopes   were   frustrated   by   rapid   social   differentiation   and   external   (bilateral)   economic   dependence.  The  indigenization  of  the  civil  service  brought  with  it  a  visible  income  gap  between  the  rich  few  and   the  poor  majority,  largely  the  peasantry.  The  political  currency  then  became  ’freedom’  and  ‘unity’  (Nyerere  1968;   Cameron  &  Dodd  1970,  p.  191).       Following  the  Arusha  Declaration,  the  education  philosophy,  "Education  for  Self-­‐Reliance",  was  assigned  a  central   role  in  the  transformation  of  Tanzania  to  an  egalitarian  society.  Universal  primary  education  (UPE),  underlined  in  the   ruling  party’s  (TANU)  Musoma  Resolution  of  1974,  became  one  of  the  strategies  for  transforming  rural  society  and   agriculture,  the  latter  being  the  country’s  economic  mainstay.  Thus,  the  period  starting  from  1967  through  1985  was   a  turning  point  in  the  country’s  political  orientation  in  response  to  the  internal  and  external  constraints.  The  policy   of   socialism   and   self-­‐reliance   was  enunciated   with   nation-­‐building   and   economic   development   as   closely   aligned   goals.  Egalitarian  policies  on  income  differentials  promised  a  slowdown  in  social  differentiation.  Free  education  and   other   social   services   (e.g.,   health   care,   water)   were   provided   to   all.   Multi-­‐lateral   economic   relationships   were   established,  governed  by  the  government’s  non-­‐aligned  foreign  policy.  In  practice,  self-­‐reliance  meant  more,  but   diversified,  external  financing  of  education.     The   ‘socialist’   strategies   were   not   without   internal   and   external   challenges.   Scarcities   resulting   from   poor   performance  of  the  social  service  and  state  economic  sectors  eroded  the  promises  of  a  strong  egalitarian  state.  It   was  not  accidental  that  the  ‘second  phase’  government—under  Ali  Hassan  Mwinyi  and  with  a  laissez  faire  outlook— came   in   after   the   1985   Presidential   elections   and   embarked   on   privatization   of   the   economy   as   a   response   to   external  pressures  (i.e.,  donor  agencies)  and  internal  frustrations  associated  with  lower  standards  of  living,  due  at  

 

   

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least   in   part   to   severe  droughts   and   oil   shortages  (Vavrus,   2003).   Subsequent   phases   of   government   (i.e.,   under   presidents  Benjamin  Mkapa,  1995-­‐2005;  Jakaya  Mrisho  Kikwete,  2005-­‐2015;  and  now  under  John  Pombe  Magufuli,   2015-­‐2020)  only  served  to  consolidate  neo-­‐liberal  policies  on  education  and  the  economy.  The  educational    reforms   undertaken  with  donor  support  in  late  1980s  and  1990s,  embodied  in  the  1995  Education  and  Training  Policy,  the   National  Higher  Education  Policy  of  1995,  The  National  Science  and  Technology  Policy  of  1995  (Reviewed  1996);  the   National   Technical   Education   and   Training   Policy   of   1996;  the   Education   Sector  Development   Program  (ESDP)   of   1997  (revised  in  2001  and  running  from  1998  to  2007),  and  the  Primary  Education  Development  Program  (PEDP,   2002-­‐2009)  are  reminiscent  of  the  new  turn  of  events.          

Aims and goals of education The  aims  and  goal  of  education  in  Tanzania  have  evolved  continuously  since  independence.  The  Arusha  Declaration   and   the   subsequent   educational   philosophy   of   Education   for   Self   Reliance   emphasized   the   development   of   an   enquiring  mind,  learning  from  others  and  development  of  the  critical  faculties.  Later  policy  guidelines,  such  as  the   Musoma  Resolution  1974,  emphasized  work  as  an  integral  part  of  formal  education  at  all  levels,  otherwise  known   as   Education   with   Production   (EWP),   school-­‐community   integration,   basic   education   (3Rs),   and   science   and   technology  (Komba  &  Temu,  1995).    In  the  1990’s  aims  and  goals  from  primary  to  tertiary  level  emphasized  three   important   components   of   the   curriculum,   namely   the   learner   and   the   learning   process,   the   society   and   accompanying   social   context,   and   cultural   heritage   (URT   1993,   p.   25).   Teacher   education   aimed   at   promoting   professional  excellence,  although  this  does  not  seem  to  have  been  attained  as  a  majority  of  students  failed  to  link   what  they  learned  in  school  with  their  immediate  environment  (URT,  1993,  p.  25).  Similarly,  at  the  tertiary  and  higher   education  levels,  while  the  aims  emphasized  the  promotion  of  professionalism,  the  pursuit  of  truth,  and  the  meeting   of  high  levels  of  human  resource  requirements,  there  was  less  stress  on  acquisition  and  application  of  science  and   technology  principles.     The   1995   Education   and   Training   Policy   was   adopted   to   take   the   country   into   the   21st   century   of   science   and   technology.   Key   objectives   were   to   (i)   ensure   public   and   private   partnership   in   the   provision   of   education   and   training;  (ii)  ensure  quality  education  through  curriculum  reviews,  education  management  and  teacher  supervision,   and  use  of  student  continuous  assessment;  (iii)  improve  equitable  access  to  education;  and  (iv)  diversify  sources  of   education   financing   through   controlling   government   expenditure   and   encouraging   cost   sharing   (URT,   1995,   see   pages  xiixiii).     The   general   policy   goal   of   the   new   (2014)   Education   and   Training   Policy   is   to   have   educated   citizens   who   are   knowledgeable  and  who  possess  skills  for  accelerating  the  country’s  development  in  a  competitive  global  economy.   The   policy   document   enumerates   seven   specific   objectives,  namely,   to   have:   (i)   a   system,   structures   and  flexible   procedures   that   will   enable   a   Tanzanian   to   continue   learning   using   a   variety   of   pathways   academically   and   professionally;  (ii)   quality  education   and   training   that   is   recognised   nationally,   regionally   and   internationally;   (iii)   Access   to   various   education   and   training   opportunities;  (iv)   an   increase   of   human   resources  commensurate   with   national   priorities   and   demand;   (v)   an   effective  management   and   administration   of   education   and   training;    (vi)   sustainable   financing   modality   for   education   and   training;   and   (vii)   an     education     and     training     system     that     integrates  cross-­‐cutting    issues  (MOEVT,  2014,  pp.  15-­‐16).        

Education ladder The   formal   education   system,   hitherto   characterized   by   the   2-­‐7-­‐4-­‐2-­‐3+   structure,   is   proposing   to   change   into   a   1+6+4+2+3+  structure2.  In  the  old  structure,  pre-­‐primary  education  took  2  years,  primary  education  took  7  years   (Standard  I-­‐VII),  secondary  education  4  years  (Form  1-­‐4),  followed  by  2  years  of  advanced  level  secondary  education   (Form  5-­‐6),  and  3  to  5  years  of  tertiary  or  university  education.  This  structure  has  been  found  to  be  deficient  for  two   2  This  change  has  already  been  effected  in  Zanzibar  but  not  yet  fully  implemented  in  Mainland  Tanzania.    

 

   

reasons.  First,  it  takes  too  long  for  a  child  to  start  primary  education  and  complete  university  level  studies.  Second,   the  old  system  was  biased  towards  academics  at  the  expense  of  other  types  of  intelligence  and  vocational  education   and  training.       The  new  education  ladder  1+6+4+2+3+  proposed  in  the  2014  policy  aims  to  address  those  shortcomings  because  it   facilitates  identification  of  talents  at  an  early  stage  and  integrates  vocational  education  and  training  at  primary  and   secondary  education  level.  Pre-­‐primary  education  is  a  formal  school  system  for  children  aged  4-­‐5  years  lasting  for  1   year   with   no   examination   for   promotion.  Primary   education   is   a   six-­‐year  education   cycle   after   pre-­‐primary3.  It   is   universal  and  compulsory  to  all  children  aged  5-­‐12  years.  The  primary  school  cycle  begins  with  standard  one  (Std.  I)   on  entry,  and  ends  with  standard  six  (Std.  VI)  in  the  final  year.    A  Primary  School  Leaving  Examination  (PSLE)  marks   completion   of   the   primary   education   cycle.   Successful   attendance   of   primary   education   qualifies   one   to   sit   the   Primary  School  Leaving  Examination  (PSLE).  Good  performance  in  the  PSLE  qualifies  one  to  transition  to  secondary   education.     Secondary  education  has  two  cycles;  the  first  cycle  is  the  Ordinary  Level  (O-­‐Level)  which  lasts  for  four  years,  and  in   2015  the  government  committed  to  providing  free  and  compulsory  education  at  this  level.  It  is  the  continuation  of   primary  formal  education  which  begins  with  Form  1  and  ends  with  Form  4.  At  the  end  of  Form  4  students  sit  for  the   Certificate   of   Secondary   Education   Examination  (CSEE),   which   examines   multiple   subject  combinations   based   on   student  choice.  Results  are  distributed  across  Divisions  I-­‐IV  and  zero  (i.e.,  failing).  In  order  to  qualify  for  the  second   cycle,  otherwise  known  as  high  school  or  Advanced  Level  (A-­‐Level),  candidates  must  pass  the  CSEE  at  Division  III  level   or  above  in  designated  subject  combinations.  The  A-­‐Level  secondary  education  has  Form  5  and  6.  This  second  cycle   culminates  into  the  Advanced  Level  Certificate  of  Secondary  Education  Examination  (ACSEE).       Vocational  Education  and  Training  (VET)  provides  alternative  educational  and  training  to  any  person  who  completed   primary  and  any  other  levels  of  formal  education.  The  courses  offered  lead  to  careers  as  skilled  workers  who  can  be   employed   or   self-­‐employed.   Vocational   Education   and   Training   Authority   (VETA)   was   established   by   Act   of   Parliament   No.   1   (1994),   which   involved   the   broad   tasks   of   coordinating,   regulating,   financing,   promoting   and   providing   vocational   education   and   training   in   Tanzania.   The   nomenclature   of   the   awards   include   Certificate   of   Primary   Education,   National   Vocational   Certificate   I,   National   Vocational   Certificate   II.   Technical   Education   and   Training   provides   alternative   educational   and   training   opportunities   available   after   lower   secondary   education,   which  lead  to  careers  as  skilled  workers,  technicians  and  professionals  who  are  able  to  work  in  different  sectors  of   the  economy.  The  quality  control  and  quality  assurance  for  Technical  Education  and  Training  is  undertaken  by  the   National  Council  for  Technical  Education  (NACTE).  The  post-­‐secondary  award  system  has  three  levels.  The  first  level   covers  Certificate  of  Secondary  Education,  Basic  Technician  Certificate  (NTA  Level  4),  National  Vocational  Certificate   III,   and   Professional   Technician   Level   I   Certificate.   The   second   level   accommodates   Advanced   Certificate   of   Secondary  Education,  Technician  Certificate  (NTA  Level  5)  Professional  Technician  Level  II  Certificate,  and  Post  NQF   Level   4   Certificate.   The   third   level   accommodates   Ordinary   Diploma   (NTA   Level   6),   Academic   Ordinary   Diploma,   Academic  Post  NQF  Level  5  Certificate,  and  Professional  Level  I  Certificate.     Higher  education  is  an  optional  final  stage  of  formal  learning  that  occurs  after  secondary  education.  It  is  normally   taken   to   include   undergraduate   and   postgraduate   education.   The   duration   of   undergraduate   programmes   is   generally  at  least  3  years,  and  postgraduate  education  varies  depending  on  the  programmes  (e.g.,  post-­‐graduate   diploma,   master’s   degree,   Ph.D.).   Higher   Education   in   Tanzania   is   coordinated   by   Tanzania   Commission   for   Universities  (TCU)  and  National  Council  for  Technical  Education  (NACTE).  TCU  is  responsible  for  Universities  while   NACTE  oversees  the  technical  and  training  institutions.  According  to  the  National  Qualifications  Framework  (NQF),   higher  education  comprises  level  6  through  level  10  as  follows:     •  

Level  6  accommodates  Ordinary  Diploma  (NTA  Level  6),  Academic  Ordinary  Diploma,  Academic  Post  NQF   Level  5  Certificate,  and  Professional  Level  I  Certificate.    

3  NB:  primary  is  a  6  year  cycle  in  Zanzibar  and  is  expected  to  become  a  6  year  cycle  in  the  Mainland  according  to  the  

2014  Education  and  Training  Policy.

 

   

6

•  

Level  7  accommodates  Higher  Diploma,  Higher  Certificate  or  Professional  Level  II  Certificate.    

•  

Level   8   accommodates   Academic   Bachelor   Degree,   or   Bachelor   Degree   in   (Specified   Area   of   Technical   Education  or  Profession),  Professional  Level  III  Certificate.    

•  

Level   9   accommodates   Academic   Master’s   Degree,   Academic   Postgraduate   Diploma,   Academic   Postgraduate   Certificate   or   Master   Degree   in   (Specified   Area   of   Technical   Education   or   Profession),   Postgraduate   Diploma  in   (Specified   Area   of   Technical  Education   or   Profession)   and   Professional  Level   IV   Certificate.    

•  

Level  10  accommodates  Academic  Doctorate  Degree  or  Doctorate  Degree  in  (Specified  Area  of  Technical   Education  or  Profession)  (TCU,  2012)    

Adult  and  Non  Formal  Education  programmes  are  designed  to  cater  for  all  people  who  for  some  reason  missed  an   opportunity   to   go   through   the   formal   education   system.   Adult   education   programmes   range   from   literacy   to   functional  literacy.  Literacy  programmes  aim  at  equipping  learners  with  reading,  writing  and  counting  competences   while   functional   ones   are   those   which   aim   at  maintaining  the  competences   acquired.  There   is   also   a  non-­‐fromal   education   program   for   children   aged   9-­‐17   who   did   not   have   a   chance   to   enrol   in,   or   complete,   primary   school   Complementary   Basic   Education   Tanzania   (COBET)   provides   a   condensed   curriculum   as   a   means   to   mainstream   students  back  into  the  formal  system  at  Std.  V,  or  after  the  PSLE.        

Enrolment In  absolute  terms,  enrolment  in  pre-­‐primary  education  increased  from  554,835  pupils  in  2004  to  1,026,466  in  2013,   an  increase  of  85.0  percent  in  10  years  (PMO,  2014).  During  the  same  period,  primary  education  enrolment  grew   from  7,083,063  pupils  to  8,231,913  respectively,  an  increase  of  16.2  percent.  Similarly,  lower  secondary  (Form  1-­‐4)   enrolment   increased   from   401,598   students   in   2004   to   1,728,534   in   2013,   an   increase   of   330.4   percent.   Upper   secondary  (Form  5-­‐6)  enrolment  also  increased  substantially,  but  not  as  fast  as  that  of  lower  secondary,  from  31,001   students  in  2004  to  75522  in  2013,  an  increase  of  143.6  percent  (PMO,  2014).  According  to  official  statistics,  by  2013,   the  Gross  Enrolment  Ratio  (GER)  for  pre-­‐primary  education  stood  at  37.3  percent  suggesting  that  62.7  percent  of   pre-­‐school  age  (5-­‐6  years)  children  were  not  attending  school.  In  the  same  vein,  GER  for  Lower  secondary  (Form  1-­‐ 4)  was  45.5  percent  and  that  of  upper  secondary  (Form  5-­‐6)  was  only  4.2  percent.  The  transition  rates  from  primary   to  secondary,  that  is,  proportion  of  standard  seven  selected  to  join  secondary  (Form  1)  education,  increased  from   36.1  percent  in  2004  to  59.5  percent  in  2012  an  increase  of  64.8  percent.  However,  the  transition  rate  from  Form  4   to  Form  5  declined  from  29.8  in  2004  to  10.6  in  2012  (see  PMO,  2014).        

Main challenges The  government  recognizes   that   meeting   its  human   resource  requirements   and   addressing   national   priorities   to   realize  Vision  2025  constitute  the  prime  challenge  of  Tanzania’s  education  and  training  system.  Nevertheless,  the   trend   in   recent   education   statistics   where   only   10.6   percent   of   Form   4   leavers   manage   to   proceed   to   higher   education  is  a  bad  omen.  If  allowed  to  continue,  this  trend  will  perpetuate  a  deficit  in  human  resource  production   unless   drastic   measures   are   taken   to   improve   the   quality   of   education.   Other   challenges   recognized   by   the   government   include   lack   of   a   flexible   system   that   recognizes   prior   learning;   lack   of   standards   in   education   and   training  that  are  comparable  and  recognizable  at  national,  regional  and  international  levels;  lack  of  an  employment   regime  that  stimulates  the  production  of  experts  in  various  specialized  areas  of  the  economy;  and  lack  of  an  inclusive   and  sustainable  education  financing  system.     Challenges   relating   to   the   system’s   internal   efficiency   include   the   number   of   pupils/students   who   participate   in   schooling  activities,  and  successful  completion  in  national  examinations.  Key  indicators  suggest  that  there  are  issues   with  enrolment,  truancy,  droping  out,  and  poor  academic  performance.  Though  the  Gross  Enrolment  Ratio  (GER)  for   pre-­‐primary  education  rose  from  37.3  percent  in  2013  to  95.8  percent  in  2017,  after  the  re-­‐instatement  of  fee-­‐free  

 

   

basic  education,  the  pre-­‐primary  NER  remained  at  44.6  percent,  suggesting  that  55.4  percent  of  pre-­‐school  age  (5-­‐6   years)   children   were   not   attending   school   (MOEST,   2017).   Also,   GER   for   Lower   secondary   (Form   1-­‐4)   was   45.5   percent   and   that   of   upper   secondary   (Form   5-­‐6)   was   only   4.2   percent.   Similarly,   truancy   causes   the   biggest   proportion  of  school  dropouts  (75.7  percent  in  primary  and  76.1  percent  in  secondary  education).  Poverty  (inability   to  secure  basic  school  needs)  also  cause  substantial  dropouts  which  are  5.8  percent  in  Primary  and  12.8  percent  in   Secondary  Education  (PMO,  2014,  p.  36).  The  percentage  of  pupils  sitting  the  Primary  School  Leaving  Examination   (PSLE)  increased  by  69.2  percent  from  2004  to  2013  but  pass  rates  fluctuated  rising  to  70.5  percent  in  2006  and   declining  to  30.7  percent  in  2012  and  rising  again  to  50.6  in  2013.  The  Form  4  pass  rate  has  also  fluctuated  but  with   a  downward  trend  from  91.5  percent  in  2004  to  57.1  percent  in  2013.  In  addition  to  variations  in  the  exam  questions   themselves,  the  low  performance  could  be  attributed  to  rapid  expansion  of  enrolment  without  corresponding  supply   of  essential  teaching  and  learning  facilities.  Better  performed  subjects  in  2013  were  Kiswahili  (67.8%)  and  Chemistry   (50.2%)  while  Mathematics  (17.8%)  was  the  worst.        

Teacher Education in Tanzania Beginning and historical development In  considering  the  historical  development  of  teacher  education,  it  must  first  be  noted  that  teaching  and  learning   and,  indeed,  teacher  education,  existed  for  centuries  through  various  community  arrangements.  Yet  the  early  pre-­‐ colonial   era   ushered   in   a   new   push   by   Christian   missionaries   for  ‘formalized’   systems   of   teacher   education   (e.g.,   teacher  training).  This  period  was  followed  by  the  colonial  period  in  which  both  Christian  and  government  teacher   training  colleges  were  established  in  order  to  meet  the  increasing  demand  as  the  formal  school  system  continued  to   expand  (Anangisye,  2010).  For  example,  Mumford  and  Parker  (1937)  draw  on  a  colonial  report  from  1935  to  suggest   there  were  approximately  200  schools  in  one  region  of  Tangayika  but  “only  34  adequately  trained  teachers”  (p.  23).   The   teacher   education   system   expanded   quickly,   however,   with   the   practice   of   using   teachers   with   no   teacher   training  diminishing  considerably  by  the  late  1950s  and  early  1960s  (Jones,  1960).  Shortly  after  independence  there   were  22  teachers  colleges  around  the  country  (Tungaraza,  2014).     As  noted  previously,  the  education  system  evolved  along  with  the  nations’  various  political  phases.  Produced  shortly   after   independence,   the   handbook   for   the   Grade   ‘A’   Teacher   Education   programme,   which   was   at   the   time   the   highest  qualification  level  in  Tanzania,  was  replete  with  references  to  the  new  pan-­‐African  and  Ujamaa  revolution   (Ministry  of  National  Education,  1969).  It  notes,  “Teachers  must  be  dedicated  workers  spearheading  the  revolution   within   their   community   to   bring   about   a   true   Ujamaa   Society”   and   know   the   “difference   between   individual   orientated  education  and  education  directed  towards  the  benefit  of  the  society”  (p.  7).  At  this  point  in  history,  pre-­‐ service  teachers  in  teacher  education  programs  were  also  encouraged  to  conduct  research  in  Ujamaa  villages.  Even   the   inclusion   and   description   of   sports   and   social   activities   were   intentional,   as   they   were   believed   to   “produce   opportunities  for  exercising  responsibility  and  learning  how  to  work  cooperatively  with  others  in  mutual  benefit  to   all”   (ibid,   p.   15).   During   this   era,   pre-­‐service   teachers   were   to   be   partially   assessed   on   their   character,   with   measurements   of   “social   attitudes   and   national   spirit”   (p.   20)   through   “commitment   to   national   philosophy,   participation  in  self-­‐reliance  projects,  cooperation  with  others”  (p.  23)  as  well  as  other  activities  (Ministry  of  National   Education,  1969).  This  example  shows  how  political  movements  influenced  teacher  education  in  Tanzania.       More  recent  developments  in  teacher  education  include  expanding  the  number  of  teacher  training  institutions  as   well  as  their  capacities  to  produce  large  quantities  of  teachers  in  response  to  the  increases  in  primary  and  secondary   enrolments.  Not  surprisingly,  the  pupil/teacher  ratio  (PTR)  was  significantly  affected:  The  PTR  changed  from  46  to   54   at   the   primary   level   between   2001   and   2009   and   19   to   35   at   the   secondary   level   (UNESCO,   2011).4  To   help   increase  the  number  of  teachers,  many  new  private  institutions  are  training  teachers,  and  some  teacher  training   colleges   are   upgrading   themselves   to   university   colleges   that   offer   expanded   degree   programmes   (Thomas   &   Salema,  2017).    

4  The  statistics  for  the  secondary  level  are  UNESCO  estimates.        

 

   

8

   

Aims and Objectives Education  is  positioned  as  a  means  toward  development  in  most  policy  documents  in  Tanzania  (Anangisye  &  Fussy,   2014),   several   of   which   directly   address   teacher  education.  The  mid-­‐1990s   witnessed   a   surge   of   new   policies   for   Tanzania  as  it  continued  to  improve  its  education  system.  The  policies  most  relevant  to  teacher  education  included   the   Education   and   Training   Policy   (MOEC,   1995),   National   Higher   Education   policy   (MSTHE,   1999),   Teacher   Development   and   Management   Strategy   (BEDC,   2008),   and   the   In-­‐service   Education   and   Training   Strategy   for   Primary  Schools  (MOEVT,  2010).  The  Education  and  Training  Policy  (1995),  in  particular,  served  as  the  pivotal  policy   text  for  nearly  twenty  years.  This  document  includes  an  explicit  list  of  aims  and  objectives  for  teacher  education  and   training:       •  

to  impart  to  teacher  trainees  theories  and  principles  of  education,  psychology,  guidance  and  counselling;      

•  

to  impart  to  teacher  trainees  principles  and  skills  of  pedagogy,  creativity  and  innovation;      

•  

to  promote  an  understanding  of  the  foundations  of  the  school  curriculum;      

•  

to  sharpen  the  teacher  trainees’,  teachers’  and  tutors’  knowledge  and  mastery  of  selected  subjects,  skills   and  technologies;      

•  

to  impart  skills  and  techniques  of  research,  assessment  and  evaluation  in  education  (p.  7)    

The  new  Sera  ya  Elimu  Na  Mafunzo  (Education  and  Training  Policy)  produced  in  2014  (MOEVT),  supplanting  the  1995   version,  does  not  outline  clear  aims  and  objectives  for  teacher  education,  specifically.  However,  the  Education  Sector   Development   Programme   for   2008-­‐2017   notes   several   strategic  policy   objectives   that  include   ensuring   “the  best   available  teaching  talents  are  recruited,  professionally  develop  and  retained”  (URoT,  2008,  p.  8).       At  the  diploma  level,  several  objectives  guide  the  preparation  of  future  secondary  school  teachers.  These  objectives   include  but  are  not  limited  to  the  following,  which  aim  to  ensure  teachers:     acquire  a  basic  understanding  of  the  nature,  purpose  and  philosophy  of  secondary  education;  develop  a   basic   understanding   of   the   psychology   of   children   and   adolescents;   make   a   content   and   pedagogical   analysis   of   the   subject   they   will   teach   in   secondary   schools;   acquire   competencies   in   curriculum   implementation,   classroom   presentation,   use   of   educational   media   and   technology,   assessment   and   evaluation;  and  promote  creative  and  critical  thinking  skills  among  learners.  (TIE,  2013b)       Objectives   and   competences  for   the  pre-­‐primary   and   primary  Grade   A   Certificate   programmes   are   quite   similar,   though  maintain  a  more  concerted  emphasis  on  child  development  and  developmentally  appropriate  practice.  This   also   includes   “guiding   and   counseling   children   with   diverse   needs”   as   well   as   “carrying   out   small   scale   research   studies  on  the  children  learning  and  development”  [sic]  (TIE,  2013a,  p.  7-­‐8).  These  and  other  aims  and  objectives   continue  to  guide  the  development  and  provision  of  teacher  education.          

Access and Enrolments Despite  the  increase  in  the  number  of  teacher  colleges,  university  colleges,  and  universities,  the  number  of  teachers   produced  each  year  is  insufficient  to  meet  demand,  particularly  in  certain  subject  areas.  Table  1  below  shows  the   demand  for  teachers  across  several  priority  areas  outlined  by  the  government  as  well  as  the  associated  shortage.      

 

   

Table  1:  Teacher  Demand  and  Supply    

Source:  Basic  Education  Statistics:  BEST,  2013  (as  cited  in  MOEVT,  2014)     Teachers   are   particularly   needed   in   the   areas   of   science,   technology,   engineering,   and   maths   (STEM)   at   the   secondary  level.       Achieving  gender  parity  among  pre-­‐service  teachers  remains  a  challenge.  More  males  than  females  were  enrolled   in   government   teacher   training   institutions,  which  require  passing   certain  compulsory   subjects   to   gain   entrance,   while  more  females  were  enrolled  at  private  institutions  (MOEVT,  2014).  In  sum,  access  to  teacher  education  varies   considerably  depending  on  different  programmes  and  is  explained  in  the  following  section.          

Sites and Programmes Three  basic  types  of  teacher  education  programmes  exist  in  Tanzania  (see  Figure  2).  The  first  is  the  Grade  A  Teachers   Certificate  Programme.  Secondary  school  students  who  complete  Ordinary  Level  and  receive  a  minimum  result  of   Division   IV   on   the   Certificate   of   Secondary   Education   Examination   (CSEE)   are   eligible   to   enter   this   programme,   though   sometimes   failing   students   are   also   admitted  (Anangisye,   2010;   Anangisye  &   Fussy,   2014).  The   two-­‐year   Grade  A  programme  is  offered  at  many  teacher  training  colleges  around  the  country  and  mainly  certifies  teachers   to   teach   at   the   pre-­‐primary   and   primary  level   (TIE,   2013a).   The  language   of   instruction  is  Kiswahili   (Anangisye  &   Fussy,   2014).   Pre-­‐service  teachers  in   this  programme  must   complete  a   two-­‐month  Block  Teaching  Practice  (BTP)   experience   in   each   of   their   two   years   (TIE,   2013a),   and   also   pass   the   Grade   A   Teachers   Certificate   Examination   (GATCE),  which  is  administered  by  the  National  Examinations  Council  of  Tanzania  (NECTA).      

 

   

10

Figure  2:  Teacher  Education  Programmes  in  Tanzania    

Source:  (Nzima,  2016  as  adapted  from  Meena,  2009,  and  Malmberg  &  Hansen,  1996)       The  second  type  of  programme  is  the  Diploma  in  Education.  This  two-­‐year  programme  mostly  certifies  teachers  to   teach   at   the   secondary   level,   though   diploma-­‐trained   teachers   are   increasingly   employed   at   primary   schools.   Diploma  programmes  can  be  found  at  many  Teacher  Training  Colleges  and  some  university  colleges.  The  language   of  instruction  is  English.  After  completing  A-­‐Level,  students  who  receive  Divisions  I  to  III  on  the  Advanced  Certificate   of  Secondary  Education  Examination  (ASCEE),  which  is  also  administered  by  NECTA,  are  eligible  to  enter  the  Diploma   in  Education  Programme,  though  again,  in  reality  these  minimum  threshold  points  are  not  firm  (Anangisye  &  Fussy,   2014).  Overall,  by  2014  there  were  more  than  100  teacher  education  colleges,  with  the  majority  of  those  being  non-­‐ governmental  institutions  (MOEVT  EFA  Report,  2014;  Nzima,  2016).  This  illustrates  the  large  role  private  institutions   play  in  the  preparation  of  teachers.     The  third  basic  type  of  programme  is  the  degree  in  education.  High-­‐achieving  students  who  are  able  to  matriculate   to  university  are  eligible  to  complete  degree  programs.  The  number  of  universities  and  university  colleges  increased   from  1  in  1995  to  more  50  in  2013  (MOEVT,  2014).  Few  teachers  have  degrees,  however.  These  programmes  are   considerably   more   rigorous   in   nature   and   require   longer   periods   of   time   to   completion.   Some   teachers   pursue   degrees  after  attaining  a  diploma,  which  may  also  enable  them  to  become  a  tutor  at  a  higher  education  institution.            

Curricula The  teacher  education  curriculum  is  created  by  the  Tanzanian  Institute  of  Education  (TIE)  and  related  to  the  Tanzania   Commission  for  Universities  (TCU)  and  NECTA.  The  curricula  across  all  three  types  of  programmes  (i.e.,  certificate,   diploma,   and   degree)   includes   courses   in   pedagogy,   content   specific   areas   based   on   specialisation,   and   teaching   practice.  However,  the  depth  and  intensity  of  exposure  to  these  aspects  vary  based  on  the  programme.       Grade   ‘A’   Certificate   and   Diploma   programmes   include   courses   in   professional   studies,   academic   courses   and   teaching,  and  general  courses.  For  example,  pre-­‐service  teachers  in  the  secondary  education  diploma  programme   must   complete   the   following:   a)   professional   studies   –   educational   psychology   and   counselling;   foundations   of   education;  educational  research  measurement  and  evaluation;  and  curriculum  and  teaching;  b)  academic  courses   and  teaching  –  core  subject  I  (content/academic  content  knowledge);  core  subject  I  (teaching  methods/pedagogical   content   knowledge);   core   subject   II   (content/academic   content   knowledge);   core   subject   II   (teaching  

 

   

methods/pedagogical   content   knowledge);   and   c)   General   courses   –   development   studies,   information   and   communication  technology,  educational  media  and  technology,  communication  skills,  project  work,  and  religion.       This  basic  structure  holds  true  for  pre-­‐service  teachers  pursuing  diplomas  in  pre-­‐primary  and  primary  education  as   well.  In  general,  the  teacher  education  curriculum  is  intended  to  be  “in  line  with  primary  and  secondary  education   in  which  competence  based  learning  are  emphasized”  (MOEVT  EFA  Report,  2014,  p.  105).        

Methods and Educators Though  it  is  impossible  to  capture  a  holistic  view  of  methods  across  the  wide  variety  of  institutions  and  instructors,   some  general  themes  do  exist.  Teacher  education  in  Tanzania  aims  to  both  connect  closely  with  the  curricula  across   the  levels  of  teaching  as  well  as  utilise  competency  models  of  active  learning.  According  to  the  diploma  curriculum,   “tutors   will   not   be   the   sole   sources   of   knowledge   but   will  act   as   facilitators   providing   a   broad   range   of   learning   experiences”  (TIA,  2013b,  p.  22).  Literature  on  teacher  education  in  Tanzania  suggests  that  this  emphasis  on  learner-­‐ centred  and  interactive  approaches  is  challenging  to  achieve,  however  (Vavrus,  2009).  No  more  than  35  students   are  recommended   per  class   in   teacher   education   diploma  programmes  (TIE,   2013b),   but   this   is   often  difficult   to   maintain.     Unfortunately,  data  are  underdeveloped  on  the  characteristics  and  qualities  of  teacher  educators  themselves.  The   Education  and  Training  Policy  (2014)  notes  a  shortage  of  2,115  lecturers/scholars  who  are  competent  across  various   disciplines   and   subject   areas,   though   it   is   unclear   how   many   of   these   scholars   would   be   involved   in   teacher   education.   Yet   concerns   remain   about   the   pedagogical   abilities   of   the   teacher   educators   currently   employed   in   higher   education   institutions   (MOEC,   1995;   Nzima,   2016;   Wilinski,   Nguyen,  &   Landgraf,   2016).  Tutors   at   teacher   education  institutions  are  intended  to  have  appropriate  degrees  as  well  as  experience  working  as  a  teacher.  Tutors   teaching  the  certificate  programme  are  supposed  to  have  undergraduate  degrees  in  pre-­‐primary/primary  education,   at  least  four  years  of  teaching  experience,  and  successful  completion  of  at  least  two  in-­‐service  programmes  (TIE,   2013a).  Tutors  in  the  Diploma  programmes  are  intended  to  have  master’s  degrees  in  teacher  education,  at  least   three  years  of  teaching  experience,  and  attended  in-­‐service  short  courses  (TIE,  2013b).  Yet  many  teacher  educators   are  hired  due  to  their  high  marks  and  content  knowledge,  not  their  experience  with  pedagogy  or  teacher  education,   more   generally   (Komba,   Anangisye,   &   Katabaro,   2013).   Thus,   meeting   the   demand   for   highly   qualified   teacher   educators,   especially   those   who   have   prior   experience   as   classroom   teachers,   remains   a   challenge   (Thomas   &   Salema,  2017).  However,  there  are  strategic  policy  objectives  outlined  in  the  Education  Sector  Development  Plan  to   “attract,   recruit   and   retain   adequate   high   quality  TC   tutors”   as   well   as   “enhance   teacher   professionalism   among   teacher  educators”  (URoT,  2008,  p.  18).          

Teaching Practice Teaching   practice  is   often   known  in  Tanzania   as  Block   Teaching  Practice   (BTP).  It   generally   occurs  in   two   8-­‐week   experiences  across  pre-­‐primary,  primary,  and  secondary  teacher  education  programmes  for  a  total  of  16  weeks.  BTP   is  completed  by  pre-­‐service  teachers  “in  order  to  translate  into  practice  the  theoretical  concepts  and  insights  gained   from   the   academic   and   pedagogical   competencies   acquired   by   student   teachers   during  classroom   sessions”   (TIE,   2013b,   p.   22).   Students   completing   their   BTP   experiences   will   be   monitored   by   a   variety   of   key   stakeholders,   including  tutors,  college  principals,  education  inspectors,  regional  education  officers,  education  officers  from  MOEVT   and  other  approved  education  institutions  (ibid,  p.  23).  During  BTP  in  the  diploma  programme  at  least  5  assessments   are  intended  to  be  conducted,  with  three  in  the  first  year  and  two  in  the  second  year.  However,  some  research  has   highlighted  that  BTP  experiences  are  often  shorter  than  intended  (Nzima,  2016).  The  government  also  recognizes   the  challenge  of  monitoring  and  supporting  trainee  teachers,  noting  the  “lack  of  effective  mentoring  in  the  schools   to  which  trainees  are  allocated”  (URoT,  2008,  p.  43).      

 

   

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Challenges In  spite  of  the  remarkable  made  in  recent  years,  teacher  education  continues  to  face  several  key  challenges.  First,   recruiting  and  retaining  high-­‐qualified  teachers  remains  a  difficult  hurdle  to  overcome.  Teaching  is  largely  viewed  as   a  low-­‐status  profession,  with  many  teachers  entering  because  their  marks  on  national  exams  did  not  qualify  them   for  other  professions  (Anangisye  &  Fussy,  2014;  Bennell  &  Mukyanuzi,  2005;  Bermeo,  Kaunda,  &  Ngarina,  2013).   Thus,   attracting   and   keeping   dedicated   teachers   is   a   perpetual   challenge,   one   compounded   by   the   shortage   of   teachers’  houses  (MOEVT,  2014)  as  well  as  dissatisfaction  with  working  conditions  and  benefits  (ibid,  2014).  These   and  other  factors  necessarily  contribute  to  the  lack  of  interest  in  completing  teacher  education  programmes  and   becoming  a  teacher  (ibid,  2014).  Moreover,  it  is  vital  to  increase  the  numbers  of  teachers  in  science,  technology,   engineering,  and  mathematics  (STEM)  as  well  as  special  education  (ibid,  2014),  areas  where  growth  will  be  evident   in  forthcoming  years.       Second,   utilizing   and   modelling   learner-­‐centred   pedagogies   in   teacher   education   to   reflect   curricular   and   policy   changes  remains  a  challenge.  Many  of  these  methods  are  perceived  to  be  incongruent  with  norms  and  the  material   constraints  of  classroom  spaces  (Vavrus,  2009;  Vavrus,  Thomas,  &  Bartlett,  2011)  despite  their  proposed  inclusion   across  all  levels  of  curricula.  A  challenge  exists  wherein  many  of  the  teacher  educators  themselves  have  not  had   adequate  experience  with  more  constructivist  methods.  Thus,  more  professional  development  for  teacher  educators   and  tutors  may  assist  in  the  transformation  of  teacher  education.       Third,  and  building  on  the  second  challenge,  attending  to  equity  and  inclusivity  is  an  on-­‐going  challenge.  There  are   significant  gender  imbalances  in  who  enters  different  levels  of  the  teaching  profession  and  an  insufficient  number   of   teachers   who   are   trained   in   working   with   students   who   have   disabilities.   Moreover,   research   suggests   that   teachers  would  benefit  from  additional  training  in  both  gender  inclusive  and  special  needs  education  (Anangisye  &   Fussy,  2014;  Rugambwa  &  Thomas,  2013;  Thomas  &  Rugambwa,  2011;  Tungaraza,  2014).       Finally,  adequate  funding  might  help  ensure  appropriate  methods  and  conditions  are  provided  for  future  teachers.   The  share  of  the  education  sector  budget  allocated  for  teacher  education  declined  from  2.6%  to  less  than  1%  in  the   ten  years  between  1997/98  to  2007/08,  which  also  accompanied  a  decline  in  the  number  of  trainee  teachers  (URoT,   2008).  In  2013  approximately  1.6%  of  the  education  sector  budget  was  allocated  to  teacher  education.  Additional   funding  to  provide  professional  development  for  tutors,  streamline  the  curriculum,  and  ensure  teaching  practices  in   teacher   education   appropriately   replicate   school   contexts  might  lead   to   a  more  robust   and,   ultimately,   effective   teacher  education  system.          

Conclusion Overall,  in  recent  years  there  have  been  significant  improvements  to  the  education  system  in  Tanzania.  Access  to   pre-­‐primary,   primary,   secondary,   and   tertiary   schooling   has   increased   drastically.   Equity   is   also   improving,   with   growing   numbers   of   female   students   and   students   with   disabilities   attending,   and   completing,   schooling   across   multiple  levels.  Issues  of  educational  quality  are  perhaps  the  most  challenging,  however,  and  also  those  that  most   directly   interface   with   teacher   education.   Teacher   education   programmes   have   become   more   robust   and   comprehensive  with  revisions  to  the  curriculum  in  2007  and  2013;  however,  at  many  institutions  it  is  challenging  to   fully   implement   the   intended   goals   and   objectives   due   to   a   variety   of   constraints.   These   constraints   include   a   shortage  of  qualified  tutors,  inadequate  teaching  facilities  at  teacher  education  institutions,  and  a  continued  reliance   upon  more  didactic  and  teacher-­‐centred  pedagogical  approaches.  Yet  in  the  midst  of  massive  educational  expansion   since   the   expansion   of   universal   primary   education   and   universal   secondary   education,   and   the   concomitant   increased  demand  for  qualified  teachers,  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania  has  made  impressive  improvements  to   the  teacher  education  system.  In  sum,  much  has  been  accomplished,  but  there  is  more  work  to  be  done  to  improve   access,  equity,  and  quality.      

 

   

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