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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

Technology Acceptance Factors Affecting Intention to Adopt Geographical Information System (GIS) among the Local Governments in West Aceh, Sumatera, Indonesia Jamal Mirda Economy and Investment Board, West Aceh Government, 23617, Aceh Barat, Indonesia.

Ahmad Suhaimi Baharudin School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800, Penang, Malaysia. Kamal Karkonasasi* School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800, Penang, Malaysia.

disaster management unit, the current dilemma is that almost all government agencies still lack a system integrated with each other. The consequence then is that they are not able to provide data/information which required in terms of disaster management and others as well as its function to solve and distribute aids to those who badly need them. In fact, some of the cases of which were experienced directly is when stakeholders (i.e. NGOs) request data / information for their organization purposes, actually the agencies which have general routines within the territorial database provides. Some are unable in providing data / information in accordance with their needs. Therefore, as a government officer, the researcher used this opportunity to address problems referred to the above. Due on this concern, data / information’s inherently geographical space is a valuable framework for reasoning about many problems that arise in emergency management [1]. Geographical Information System (GIS) is one of the technological systems that can be used to perform information management. One of the benefits that can be used is stated by Mondschein [2], GIS was designed to support geographical inquiry and, ultimately, spatial decision making. The value of GIS in emergency management arises directly from the benefit of integrating data / information’s designed to address numerous obstacles in order to distribute aids the right way, quickly, and effectively. Since the GIS is related to information system area, research has been done to adopt some constructs of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as variables that can be used to determine the behavioural intention of individuals within government organization’s as well as toward to implement the GIS technology in order to improve their performance especially as civil servants. The contribution of this research will be useful particularly as a first step to disaster management. Therefore, a consensus between an organization and researcher was established in which the researcher is a civil servant in the government as well. This background becomes a starting point to develop an idea about GIS-based disaster management. In addition, this survey will be useful for market expansion effort that includes all institutions within the local authority of governments.

Abstract The availability and appropriately collected data/information is a crucial part to overcome and provide better response when handling numerous disasters. Since Aceh is an area prone to natural disasters, there is a need to address the lack of data management especially in the governmental organizations. Geographical Information System (GIS) is one of the many existing technologies that has been recognized as a powerful tool to resolve problems that arise during emergency management. The objective of this research is to determine the levels of user intention to adopt the GIS and to investigate the relationship between user acceptance factors and user intention to adopt the GIS. The dependent variable is the behavioural intention to adopt the GIS technology; whereas the two independent variables are perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. A set of questionnaire was constructed and used as an instrument to collect primary data. Statistical analysis using multiple regression was performed to determine the technology acceptance factors. From the study, user perceived ease of use was found to have a significant effect on behavioural intention to adopt the GIS. Keywords: Geographical Information System, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use

Introduction Data and information which are accurate and well managed is one of the factors that determine whether an organization is running well or not in support of their tasks to achieve specific goals. Providing data and information as a service is an underlying concept of this business, which will deliver for those organizations especially in the case of disaster management and respond. Based on the positions, Indonesia is one of the many countries that are prone to all types of natural disasters and more specifically Aceh which is located in one part of Sumatera Island. Furthermore, from the researcher's observations on the role of West Aceh Local Government in providing a better service to all elements of society particularly in the case of delivering and supporting the

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com  TAM has been validated as a powerful and parsimonious framework to explain the adoption of IT by the users [5].

Subsequently, the application of GIS technology will be expanded again to deal with problems, especially in making regional development planning policies. The results of the survey based on the questionnaires have been analyzed using descriptive statistics in the SPSS program, which consist of parameters such as reliability, correlation, and regression. These parameters measured all of the determinant variables, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, behavioural intention and adoption of GIS as well as demographics information. Overall the yielded results are in line with the expectation of the research, which is to adopt the GIS. The literature review is provided in Section 2 and the theoretical framework is presented in Section 3. In Section 4, the research design and method is located and data analysis and findings are illustrated in section 5. Finally, the conclusion is brought in section 6.

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) For the last two decades, a number of studies have provided some theoretical frameworks for research in the acceptance of information technology and information system (IT/IS) like some authors there are Ajzen [6], Moore [7], Davis et al. [4]. Among them, the technology acceptance model is believed most robust, parsimonious and influential in explaining IT/IS adoption behaviour. TAM assumes the beliefs about usefulness and ease of use always as the primary determinant of IT/IS adoption in organizations, so that according to TAM which has two determinants serve as the basis for attitudes toward using a particular system, which in turn determines the intention to use, and then generates the actual usage behaviour. The complete construct of the TAM will be explained in the following paragraph. The technology acceptance model is based on principles adopted from Fishbein and Ajzen’s [8]. They drew the distinction between two attitude constructs, the first is attitude toward the object (Ao) which refers to individual’s affective evaluation of a specified object attitude object and the second is attitude toward the behaviour (Ab) which refer to individual’s evaluation of a specified behaviour involving this object. According to them, it shows that (Ab) relates more strongly to a specified behaviour than does (Ao). Hence, adapting the general (Ab) definition, attitude toward using is defined as “the degree of evaluative affect that an individual associates with using the target system in his or her job.” Referring to this, the subjective likelihood that performing the behaviour will lead to a specified outcome, it means attitude toward the behaviour is an effective evaluation of the behaviour. The central question of this theory can be expressed as follows:

Literature Review Budic [3] posits that successful implementation of GIS into the government agencies depends largely on how their members accept and utilize the new technology. Personal characteristics, attitudes, and background exert substantial influence on individual decision about the degree and manner in which GIS is employed to pursue an organizational mission and task. Based on the above analysis in which GIS is a type of information system more specifically describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. Therefore, it is important to understanding the underlying factors that contribute to the degree to which GIS is used in West Aceh Local Government, not only recognized in terms of a common technology, but also their effort to improve the disaster management services. Consequently, the need to focus on the theories or literatures from existing studies related to this research in order to achieve the objective of the research. Based on those theoretical models, the researcher chose to apply the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in this research. This is due to several reasons:  TAM focuses more explicitly on a user’s intentions. Hence, associated with the study which consists of variables that can be used to assess the effect on user intention to adopt the technology offered  Emphasizing an individual attitude toward the technology, in this study will drive to implement of GIS and individual perceptions concerning its usefulness  Specifically, an individual’s perceived levels of usefulness and ease of use. Therefore, the study will examine these variables as acceptance factors that determine the user’s intention to adopt GIS technology.  Comparison with both the TRA and TPB which are more generalized theory of human behaviour, whereas TAM “is specifically tailored for modeling user acceptance of information systems” [4]

Where A is the attitude toward particular object; bi is the belief and ei is the evaluation of attribute. When b is replaced by I (for intention), the same formulation holds the relation between attitude and intentions. The relationship to the research is that TAM postulates that user adoption of a new information system is determined by their intention to use the system, which in turn is determined by their belief about the system. The TAM further suggests that two beliefs perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are instrumental in explaining the variance in the users’ intention. Therefore, parameter that will consider the adoption of GIS as a technology resulting the outputs and database management that will benefit organizations in planning, making-decision, and achieve the organizational goals. This insight is depicted in Figure 1.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

Perceived Usefulness Behavioral Intention

Perceived Ease of Use Figure 2: Research Hypothesis Model Figure 1: Proposed Modified TAM in the Study Setting

Research Design and Method Theoretical Framework

Measure of the Constructs: to ensure the content validity of the scales, the items selected must represent the concept about which generalization are to be made [10]. The advantage of using the TAM to examine the utility of GIS technology to enhance the quality among agencies and they accepted especially for those individuals as public servants according to a well-validated measurement. Existing items for the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were taken from the previous validated inventory, and then modified to fit the specific technology being studied. Three items for the adoption of GIS construct were adapted from the modified instrument of System design features as developed by Davis [4] and wording of the questionnaire was designed to gain relevance in the research context as well as the answer format were built in the seven-point scale that was used by other researchers in their studies [4], [11], so the proposed model followed the convention since it has been validated in the previous researches. All items were measured on a scale of one until seven, with anchor ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". This has enabled the information to be grouped and analyzed statistically using SPSS V17.0. Since the answer can be influenced by the other questions, this was carefully planned with an introduction which explained who the researcher represent, introduction to what the GIS about, purpose of the research and how and why respondents were selected for the research, and the importance of their answers non-threatening to the respondents [12].

The research model tested in this study is shown in the Figure 1 which is based on a modified version of TAM. The proposed research model utilized two belief variables (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness) that assume as independent variable as well as being the dependent variables are both behavioral intention to use the GIS technology and generates the attitude to adopt of GIS in the real work. This is due to the concept about intention to use will lead to actual usage behaviour of the particular system. However, it is important to note that the framework does illustrate those certain independent factors do share relationship with one another. Based on the theoretical framework mentioned and the theoretical context offered, this research examined the relationship of the hypothesized and the appropriateness of the model in predicting users’ behavioral intention to use GIS in Local Government of West Aceh. This framework also considers individual differences (called as external variables) and even though it is just for outside individual influences, because the researcher had considered it for the previous research by A. Majchrzak et al., [9]. The argument that individual differences are important as external variables and play a crucial role in the implementation of any technological innovation in a wide variety of disciplines, including information systems and so on. The next part deals with individual difference called demographic factors.

Data Collection/Survey Procedure: the questionnaire method was employed for the purpose of the survey. A representative cross-section of the individuals within agencies, services, and departments in Local Authority of West Aceh were involved to participate on making insight and perception to fill in the questionnaires. Questionnaires, were distributed to respondents, chosen individuals who have skills at least in their daily task frequently related with worksheet or computerized work. Also emphasized on the individuals who have the power in making-decision in their institutions. The unit of this study were individuals who intent to use the system. Therefore, in this study 30 organizations were chosen randomly from 100 existing organizations. A

Research Hypotheses Based on the evidences that link perceived ease of use with perceived usefulness in the context of GIS, it is hypothesized that:  H1: User’s perceived usefulness will have a positive effect on user’s behavioral intention to use the GIS as a tool to produce both spatial and non-spatial databases.  H2: User’s perceived ease of use will have a positive effect on user’s behavioral intention to use the GIS as a tool to produce both spatial and non-spatial databases. And in the following Figure 2 is showing the proposed hypotheses.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com these score are quite high and toward the expectation of strongly agree in terms of acceptance and believe that the utility of GIS implementation in Governmental organizations. Likewise, for both variables perceived ease of use and behavioral intention shows that perception of all the respondents’ were describes to agree in terms of technology acceptance with average score of 2.12 and 1.82 respectively. Concisely, overall descriptive statistics inferring that they agree and have impact to technology acceptance with perceived ease of use.

direct approach has been done to make sure those people were appropriate, which means who are really aware about the GIS system, otherwise the questionnaires will be passed onto another person within that organization and absolutely they know about the GIS technology. Through these assumptions, the survey was carried out in accordance with the target in determining the respondents. 120 questionnaires were distributed and each of those organizations engages three to four people which consist of CEO, MIS Manager and System Analysts. Eventually, 98 questionnaires were collected from a total 120 targeted people. It was conducted conventionally, meaning they were distributed to various organizations and a consensus was made with them to return the questionnaires on the spot.

Reliability: As already mentioned, some of the items used to measure the variables have been adopted from the literature and some have been constructed for this study. Since existing literatures on independent variables and dependent variables are from the previous work that have been conducted in other field, but yet still in the particular area of Information System study. Therefore, it was felt necessary to determine the validity of the measure. Therefore, each of these variables was tested for reliability before being considered in the subsequent analysis. Reliability of measures was estimated using the internal consistency approach. This study utilized Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. To test the internal consistency of the measurement of instrument, reliability analysis was conducted on the factors extracted using the recommendation from Hinton et al. [13]. For the purpose of this study, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) results varied between 0.352 for perceived ease of use and 0.792 for perceived usefulness, which is in line with the authors. According to Hinton et al., [13] have suggested four different points of reliability, excellent ranges or considered high (0.90 and above), high (0.70 - 0.90), high moderate (0.50 - 0.70) and low (0.50 and below). The coefficient reliability for each variables is shown within Table 2.

Data Analysis and Findings The breakdown of this part reports the descriptive data analyses that provides the readers with an appreciation of the actual numbers and values. The result from the data analysis as relevant to the research model, consisting of two independent variables and one dependent variable, the first one is about behaviour intention of individuals who work in government organizations and will have influence to adopt GIS. To check the responses of the entire data items in questionnaires, the first stage of the data analysis consists of checking the responses and tagging them with a unique number. The researcher generated the reliability, correlations, regression analysis as well as descriptive statistics (percentage, tables and charts) and overall analysis by utilizing SPSS. As an initial interpretation about the demographic data of the respondents, it is shown in Table 1. Out of 98 respondents, the proportion of gender obviously is 63.3% or 62 respondents were males while 36.7% were females. The age group of the respondents was between 30 to 39 years old (51%). Only 5.1% respondents came from the 50 years old and above age group. Furthermore, a total of 57.1% of the respondents had a bachelor's degree, followed by 20.4% and 13.3% with masters and diplomas respectively, and for high school only 9.2%. The following is a description of major variables of the study according to the groupings as in Table 1.

Table 2: Reliability of Measurements No.

Variable

1

Perceived usefulness Perceived ease of use Behavioral intention

2 Table 1: Mean, Standard Deviation, Min, Max and N for Variables

3

Variables Min Max Mean Std. N Grouping Deviation Perceived 1 3.5 1.7568 0.52003 98 Usefulness Perceived Ease 1 3.5 2.1276 0.44728 98 of Use Behavioral 1 4.67 1.8231 0.52258 98 Intention *Scores range from 1 to 7, where 1 = Strongly Agree and 7 = Strongly Disagree.

Number of items 6

Items dropped -

Cronbach's Alpha 0.792

4

-

0.352

3

-

0.747

The reliability test for both variables perceived usefulness and behavioral intention, all showed excellent validity with a coefficient alpha of above 0.70, which is the cut-off level of reliability recommended for theory testing research as suggested by the previous researchers. Correlation: Table 3 provides a summary of the result from correlation analysis. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation coefficient (r) was used to obtain an understanding of the relationship between all the variables in the study. The values of the correlation coefficients given in Table 3 reflect the

As seen in Table 1, the average score for respondents’ perceived usefulness is 1.76, descriptive statistics shows that

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com GIS, while perceived usefulness has no significant impact on intention. Therefore, it is can be concluded that only H2 is supported. This is because perceived ease of use has a positive impact on the user’s intention to adopt GIS. The nature of this interaction was explored, in order to obtain a validity of the study, as results in graph, describes that the independent and dependent variables are linearly related to each other. Since the sample is adequate, the assumption of normal distribution were met by visually examining the normal p-p plot. The variance inflation factor (VIF) and the tolerance values were examined, which are for the tolerance values were to be greater than 0.10 and VIF values did not exceed 10, indicating that the problem of high multicollinearity was not present [14]. Eventually, from this regression results, the variable of perceived ease of use becomes more relevant to the hypotheses, which will contribute toward their intention to adopt GIS. It is influenced by demographic variables of respondents, where the respondents in terms of educational background are in the level of degree. Whereas for the perceived usefulness were not really significant to the hypothesis purpose, hence it can be affected by the age categories, whereby most of the respondents are in the age grouping between 30 to 39 years old. This can be described as the majority of respondents are in the level job position below of CEO, which means they are either MIS Managers or a System Analysts. Because a CEO has strong authority especially in making decision to the organization, so that a CEO will have insight to adopt GIS as a tool for data-based management.

degree of association between each of these variables. The Pearson Correlation coefficients ranges between -1.00 to +1.00 in size where 0.00 represent no relationship between two variables, and a value of -1.00 or +1.00 indicates perfect correlation [14]. For the purpose of this research, the scale for correlation coefficient was adopted from Guilford [15], he defined that: less than 0.20 is negligible; 0.20 to 0.40 is low (but definite); 0.40 to 0.70 is high; and more than 0.90 is very high (dependable). Table 3: Correlation of Variables Variable PU PEOU BI ADOPT Perceived usefulness 1 (PU) Perceived ease of use 0.434(**) 1 (PEOU) Behavioral intention 0.264(**) .421(**) 1 (BI) ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Result from the correlation analysis between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioural intention indicates that all three variables are fairly significant. And then all the Pearson coefficient were positive sign, which means all variables were found to be positively correlated to behaviour intention to adopt the GIS. These result are in line with that had been hypothesized as well as these result are provided an initial indication that there is high correlation between three variables perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavioral intention to adoption of GIS. The correlation between both variables perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to behavioral intention, the r values were from high to low (but definite), ranging from 0.264 to 0.421, but these values are still in line with the hypotheses.

Conclusion In terms of disaster management, availability and appropriately existing information is becoming a crucial part in order to provide better response when handling numerous disasters. Moreover, GIS is a tool that can address any obstacles faced by the government agencies particularly GISbased data management. The utility of this technology provides integration of data and is seen by layers that will be useful in general for development planning purpose. Furthermore, by adding this service through the web, it will be more attractive as well as easily accessible by the public and private sectors. The effectiveness and reliability of GIS implementation to the government sectors are being conducted through research approaches that have been done through a survey. It can be concluded that the behavioural intention of the respondents, which are those individuals in the government organizations who understand both the variables perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use through observation, by descriptive statistic which shows average scores were toward “strongly agree” and give description about perception and insight all users’ were very responsive to the survey. According to the findings and regression analysis result about users’ behavioural intention to adopt GIS, perceived ease of use represents the technology acceptance by the users. It is proven by hypotheses “the higher perceived ease of use, the higher is intention is supported” which means perceived ease of use has a positive impact on users’ intention to adopt GIS. Consequently, easy to

Regression: Linear regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable [16].Regression analysis is a powerful statistical technique that can access the relationship between dependent variables and several independent variables, and does not require that the independent variables be uncorrelated, it is useful in survey research in which the nature of the research is such that there is a tendency of having correlated variables. Thus, in order to test the hypotheses, regression analysis is used to find out how much of the variance of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have effect on behavioral intention as well as driven to adopt of GIS in the governmental of West Aceh. A regression analysis was conducted with the behavioral intention as dependent variable as well as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as predictor variables. The model is significant with F-values 10.803 and R square equals to 0.185, which means 18.5 percent of the variation in dependent variable (behavioral intention) is explained by the independent variables (i.e. perceived usefulness and ease of use). Furthermore, only perceived ease of use (β = 0.378, p < 0.01) has a significant positive impact on user’s intention to adopt

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 4 (2016) pp 2711-2716 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com use become the main concept to product design and marketing program of the business. In conclusion, perceived usefulness could not support the users behavioural intention. This is due to the assumption in distributing the questionnaires. It is inappropriate in making assumption that perceived usefulness is not really significant to the technology acceptance. The advantages from the technology offered is useful in maintaining and managing database which are needed to overcome delays when responding to disaster. Consequently, this will be able to minimize the number of victims and the number of deaths during disaster. Data/information which are important to stakeholders when providing aids, medicines, medical treatment and evacuation during disaster can be easily achieved with this GIS-based disaster management.

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Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) as this research has been supported from the Short Term Research Grant [Account Number: 304/PKOMP/6312103] and from the Research University Grant (RUI) [Account Number: 1001/PKOMP/811251] from the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Special Thanks to Mr. Mohammad Ali Bagheri for his help and contribution in preparing and publishing this paper.

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