THE INSECT PEST PROBLEM AFFECTING ...

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Dec 19, 2015 - Some pests affect kernel quality by feeding on nuts in addition to yield. Heteroptera Order: Pentatomidae, Coreidae and Acanthosomatidae fam ...

TRUE BUGS PROBLEM IN TURKISH HAZELNUT ORCHARDS

C. Tuncer , İ.Saruhan and İ.Akça Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection SAMSUN TURKEY

19.12.2015

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Hazelnut …  Hazelnut has been grown along the Black Sea cost in northern Turkey for thousands years.  Hazelnut farming has been the chief form of livelihood in the Blacksea region for centuries-as it still is.

 More than 4 million inhabitants of Turkey depend directly upon the production, marketing or processing of this product.  Production: 600.000 tons in-shell/year. plantation: almost 650.000 ha. , 75% of total hazelnut production and trade of World.  Hazelnut is one of the main export and cash crop for Turkey, with 1-1.5 Billion dollars /year income for Turkey 2

Main hazelnut areas of Turkey

.

İstanbul

.

Ankara

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Characteristics of hazelnut culture in Turkey  Very stable hazelnut ecosystem.. Low pesticide consumption.  Insect pests and diseases are one of the main reasons for low productivity. More than 150 harmful insect and mite species in Turkish hazelnut orchards.  Insect and mites affect hazelnut production, kernel quality and tree health. Currently, there are more than 10 insects and mites which could be classified as serious pests in Turkey.

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Hazelnut pests & Some pests affect kernel quality by feeding on nuts in addition to yield. Heteroptera Order: Pentatomidae, Coreidae and Acanthosomatidae fam.

& These bugs cause different damage types on nuts: Early nut dropping, shrivelled kernels and spotted kernels.

& Kernel damage made by these pests are easily unnoticed. & Farmers don’t care bug damage because hazelnut are sold in shell to hazelnut factories.

& Hazelnut importers from Turkey complain about spotted kernels lately. 5

Pest complex that may affect kernel quality in Turkish hazelnut orchards. & 13 pentatomid, 2 coreid and 2 acanthosomatid species in Turkish hazelnut orchards.

& Pentatomidae: Dolycoris baccarum L.; Graphosoma lineatum L.; Holcostethus vernalis Wolff.; Palomena prasina L.; P. rufipes L.; Piezodorus lituratus F.; Raphigaster nebulosa Poda. Coreidae : Gonocerus acuteangulatus Goeze; Coreus marginatus L. Acanthosomatidae:Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale L.; Elasmucha grisea L. 6

& Of the bugs captured from Turkish hazelnut orchards, almost 85% was consisted of Palomena prasina (green shield bug). & G. acuteangulatus was second species with almost 5% of total bugs. & Total percentage of other 15 species was only 10%

10%

others

P. prasina

G. acut. 5%

85%

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& The bug abundance is higher in orchards having ‘Çakıldak’ and ‘Palaz’ cultivars than those composed of ‘Tombul’ cultivar.

No.of total bug captured/10 ocak

80 60 40 20 0

Cakıldak

Palaz

Tombul

Cultivars 8

Minor true bug species on hazelnut

Acanthasoma haemorrhoideale

Carpocoris purpureipennis

Carpocoris pudicus

Coreus marginatus

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Minor true bug species on hazelnut

Dolycorus baccarum

Eurydema oleraceum

Elasmucha grisea

Eysarcoris inconspicus

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Minor true bug species on hazelnut

Gonocerus acuteangulatus

Graphosoma lineatum

Holocostethus vernalis

Nezera virudula

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Minor true bug species on hazelnut

Palomena viridissima

Piezedorus lituratus

Pentatoma rufipes

Raphigaster nebulosa

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Green shield bug (Palomena prasina (Het.:Pentatomidae)

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Green shild bug  It is very common and polyphagous species. Adults overwinters. Eggs are laid on the leaves of host plants in May and June. Overwintered adults live until the mid-June. First nymphs start to emerge in June.

 They have 5 nymphal stages. Duration of nymphal development: 44 – 61 days.  First 2 nymphal stages feed on herbs. One female lays : 87.89 eggs as mean.  There is only one generation per year.

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Population changing of true bugs in hazelnut orchards.

&

The bugs are seen in mid-April firstly and occurance continues until early November. Two peaks are appeared in mid-May and in early-August .

&

At the end of June new generation nymphs occur and their presence continue until end of August. Also after the second half of July, new generation adults appear. New generation nymphs and adults makes second peak in early August.

& The population level of bugs decrease because of migrating to other plants in August after shell hardening and harvest.

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Damage types of Palomena prasina a)

Aborted (prematurely dropped) nuts, color in light brown , shrinked at the bottom

& Prematurely dropped nuts were seen in cages with overwintered adults

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b) Spotted kernel: & No spotted kernel is obtained from control cages but the cages with nymphs and adults have this damage type.

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Spotted kernel The most visible and problematic damage of true bugs .

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c) Shrivelled kernels (on the left): & This type of damage were seen in cages with nymphs. Inside of kernels is sucked by bugs.

& This damage type also occured in control cages

& The reason is that nymphs feed on developing kernels in early season. This damage type is not clear !!! In some experiments show differences in control and insect cages, in some not.. Because of feeding evident of bugs in some nuts, it is accepted bug damage partly. It needs some biochemical studies

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Damage potantial of P. prasina

(in experiment

cages; 3 insect/cage, cages changed every week)

Stages

Days in cages

Damaged fruits (n)

Damage(n/insect/day)

Overwintered adult

29

121

1.39 (121/29= 4.17/3)

3. nymph

14

12

0.29

4. nymph

13

100

2.56

5. nymph

23

35

0.51

New adult

23

83

1.20

Damage/all stages/day

5.95

Cages experiments showed that one insect caused damage on 296 nuts during growing season. Damaged kernels by insect were differed from normal kernels in 20 weight

Damage rates of true bugs on hazelnut kernels P. prasina ; External damage visible on nut; Premature

Flower Undeveloped Cage(n) Healthy damaged dropped Black nut nut

Total

nut

Cages with insect Control cages SchneiderOrelli

Total

2430

2142

5

249

32

2

%

88.15

0.21

10.25

1.32

0.08

Total

561

6

7

19

0

593

1.18

3.20

0

-

100

25 %

94.60

%

-

-

9.18

-

-

-

-

223.07

-

-

X

100

1.01

% = Insect damage(%) X = Damage of one pair of green shield bug (n) 21

P. prasina ; internal damage visible on kernel ;

Cage(n)

Cage with insects

Control cages

SchneiderOrelli

Undeveloped Shriveled kernel kernel

Healthy

Spotted kernel

1415

279

38

38

2142

%

53.58

11.48

1.44

1.44

-

Total

469

0

68

14

561

%

79.09

0

11.47

2.81

-

M

-

11.48

-

-

-

-

278.96

-

-

-

Total

Total

100

25

X

100

M = Insect damage (%) X = Damage of one pair of green shield bug (n) 22

Spotted kernel ratios caused by bugs, based on nuts after shelling process in factories (%), sample size 85.000 tons 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Damage rate in 1999-2011: between 3-20% changed, mean=5.5% 23 (not published yet)

True Bugs Control: & Only spraying insecticides is applied partly in control. & We found that plots sprayed once and control plots showed minor differences in the nut damage caused by insects. Damaged kernel ratio varied between 3.16-11.81% in plots sprayed once, and 4.21-21.65% in control plots.

& Spraying twice gave better results in preventing kernel damage. In all experiments, kernel damage decreased significantly in sprayed plots. Damaged kernel ratio varied between 1.08-4.45% in sprayed plots and 3.86-11.68% in control plots

& In factories, peoples are taking out damaged kernels by hand before kernels sold. In this case, damaged kernel ratio is reduced to 2%. 24

CONCLUSION & The bugs were accused of various damage types affecting quality and yield on nuts. Among these damage types, spotted kernel caused by bugs is the most obvious and problematic damage type.

& Chemical control is effective with 2 spraying, but it isn’t enough. & We concluded that bug feeding caused early nut drops, spotted kernels, and partly shrivelled kernels.

& In our some studies, P.prasina increased blank nuts and shrivelled kernel ratios, but same symptoms were observed in control cages without insects. These results introduce the probability of indirect injury of bugs in addition to direct damage. (Vector for Pestalolotiopsis sp. and Monilia spp.???

Thank you for you attention…

Hazelnut Pests Homepage by Dr. Celal Tuncer http://www.findikci.net

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Ondokuz Mayis University

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Ondokuz Mayis University

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Samsun

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Samsun..

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Samsun..

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Samsun..

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Samsun

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