The Longman Defining Vocabulary

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Vocabulary have been carefully chosen to ensure that the definitions are clear and ... bird birth bit bite bitter A black AN blade blame blind block blood N blow blue board N .... fill V film final A finally financial find V find out fine A finger N finish V fire ... holy home AvN honest honor N honour hook N hope hopeful horizon horn.

Appendix

The Longman Defining Vocabulary The Longman Defining Vocabulary of around 2000 common words has been used to write all the definitions in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1995 edition or later editions).The words in the Defining Vocabulary have been carefully chosen to ensure that the definitions are clear and easy to understand, and that the words in explanations are easier than the words being defined. There is a similar list of Defining Vocabulary used by Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary; it is almost 95% the same as Longman's. You find the Defining Vocabulary list at the end of a dictionary. The words listed below are the main forms which are used in definitions. However, there are other limits on which word forms and meanings may be used: ƒ ƒ ƒ

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The definitionn only use the most common and 'central' meanings of the words in the list. For some words in the list, a word class label such as N or A is shown in italics. The labels are shown before the list. Some words on the list may have have prefixes(like un-) or suffixex(like –ly) added to them to make different word forms in the definition. The list of the affixes is included at the end of the Defining Vocabulary. The Defing Vocabulary does not include the name of actual places, nationalities, religions, and so on, which are occasionally mentioned in definitions.

In order to use the dictionary more effectively, we suggest that you make a list of the Defining Vocabulary and test yourself of the meanings. An average Iranian college student knows the meanings of around 1200 of the words in the list. So you can put some time and effort to learn the rest. By doing this, you will be able to understand most of the definitions of new words in almost all learners dictionaries without referring to an EnglishPersian Dictionary.

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Word Class Labels If a word has a specific word class label it is used in definitions only in the word class shown. Otherwise the word may be used in any of its usual word classes. A = Adjective Av = Adverb C = Conjunction

D = Determiner P = Preposition Pd = Predeterminer

Pn = Pronoun N = Noun V = Verb

Defining Vocabulary $ abroad accident achievement active A actually adjective advanced advertisement afford again agreement airport almost already amount N ancient A animal answer anything appearance argue arrange

abbreviation absence accidental acid activity add admiration advantage advice afraid against ahead alcohol alone also amuse and announce anxiety anywhere apple argument arrangement

ability absent A according to across actor addition admire adventure N advise after AvCP age aim alive along although amusement anger N annoy anxious apart approval arm N arrival 189

about accept account N act actress additional admit adverb affair afternoon ago air N all AvDPdPn aloud always amusing A angle N annoyance any apartment approve army arrive

above AvP acceptable achieve action actual address adult advertise affect afterwards agree aircraft allow alphabet among an angry another anyone appear area around art

article ask attack attract average AN

artificial asleep attempt attractive avoid % baby backward(s)Av bad A band N ball N basic basket beach beak beautiful beat NV beer bed N behave behaviour bell belong beneath beside between beyond AvP bird birth blade black AN blow blood N body boil V border boot N borrow both box boy bread break V breathe breed bring broad A brush build V burst bury busy but C  by

& camera captain N

cake N camp NV car

as association attend authority awake A back AAvN bag N bank N bath N beam N beauty before behind AvP below AvP besides bicycle N bit blame blue bomb bored bottle N brain N breakfast N brick N broadcast building bus N butter N

as opposed to ashamed at atom attention attitude autumn available away Av awkward background backward Av bake balance bar NV base NV battle N be bean bear because become begin beginning belief believe belt N bend better AAv best AAvN big A bill N bite bitter A blind block board N boat N bone N book N boring born bottom N bowl branch N brave A breast N breath bridge N bright A brother brown AN bullet burn bush N business button N buy V





calculate can NV card N

call V cap N care

calm A capital N careful



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careless cat celebrate certain AD character check chemistry child choose circular A clay cliff clothes coast N collar N combination command company competitor complicated concert confusing consist contract N corn cough countryside cow N creature crop N cry current N cut

'

carriage catch V cell chain N charge cheek N cheque children church N citizen clean AV climb V clothing coat N collect V combine V committee compare V complain compound N condition N connect contain control corner N could courage crack NV crime cross NV cup N curtain cycle V daily AAv

carry cattle centre N chair N chase V cheerful chest chin cigarette city clear AV clock N cloud N coffee college come common A comparison complaint computer confidence connection container conversation correct AV council N course N crash NV criminal crowd N cupboard curve

case N castle N cause ceiling century ceremony chance N change cheap cheat V cheese chemical chief chicken N chocolate choice N cinema circle N claim class N clerk clever close AAvV cloth club N coal coin N cold AN colour comb comfort comfortable communicate communication compete competition complete completely concern V concerning confident confuse conscious consider continue continuous cook NV copy cost cotton count V country N court N cover crazy cream N criticism criticize cruel crush V cure curl custom N customer

damage

dance

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danger

dangerous dead A decay decorate defend deliberate department description desk determined different direct disappointing disease divide V dollar draw V drive V dry duty

dark deal deceive decoration definite deliberately depend desert N destroy develop difficult direction discover dish N do V door drawer drop duck N

date N deal with decide decrease definitely delicate dependent deserve destruction dictionary difficulty dirt discovery dismiss doctor N double AAvPdV dream drug N dull A

daughter death decision deep A degree deliver depth design detail N die V dig V dirty A discuss distance N document doubt dress NV drum N during

(

each earth N economic effect N either electronic empty AV energy enjoyment entrance N especially ever evil excellent

eager east edge N effective elbow N else enclose engine enough envelope establish every exact A except CP

ear eastern educate effort elect V employ V encourage engineer N enter equal ANV even AAv everyone examination exchange

earn eat education eight electric employment enemy enjoyable entertainment escape event everywhere example

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day debt declare defeat delay demand describe desirable determination

difference dinner disappoint discussion distant dog N down AAvP drink drunk A dust N early easy A educated egg N election employer end enjoy entertain equipment evening everything examine excite

exciting expect explode extreme A

) failure fall far fast AAv favorable feel V few fill V find V fire five flat A floor N fold foot N foreigner form forwards Av freedom friendly fruit N fur N

* gas N generous girl go V good-bye gradual

excuse expensive explosion eye face fair A false A farm fasten favourite A feeling(s) field N film find out firm AN fix V flesh flour follow football forest formal four freeze V frighten full A furniture gain V gate N gentle give V goat goods grain

exercise experience explosive

exist explain express V

existence explanation expression

fact fairly familiar A farmer fat fear female fifth final A fine A first AvD flag N flight flow fond for P forget former fourth frequent A frightening fun further AAv game N gather V gentleman glad god govern gram

factory faith family fashion N father N feather N fence N fight finally finger N fish flame float V flower N food force forgive fortunate frame N fresh from funeral future arage N general A get glass AN gold government grammar

fail V faithful A famous fashionable fault feed V fever figure N financial finish V fit AV flash NV flood fly NV fool N foreign fork N forwardAv free friend front AN funny

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garden generally gift glue good graceful grand A

grandfather grave N grey AN guard gun N

grandmother great ground N guess

grandparent green group N guest

grass N greet grow guide

grateful greeting growth guilty

+

habit hand N hard hate V health heaven help herself himself hit holy hook N horse N house N hundredth husband N ice N illegal imagine improve income industrial influence V ink N institution insure interest introduce involve

hair handle hardly hatred healthy heavy A helpful hide V hire hold home AvN hope hospital how Av hungry

half hang V harm have hear heel her high AAv his hole honest hopeful hot A human hunt V

hall happen V harmful he heart height here hill historical holiday honor N horizon hotel humorous hurry

idea illness immediately improvement increase industry inform inner instruction intelligence interesting introduction inwards

if ignore image imaginary importance important include in AvP independent indoor infect infection information injure insect inside instrument insult V intelligent intend international A interrupt invent invitation island iron AN

hammer N happy hat head AN heat hello hers him history hollow A honour horn hour hundred hurt V

, ill A imagination impressive including indoors infectious injury instead insulting intention into invite

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it Pn

join judgment

. kill V king knife N

/ lamp late lawyer lead V leather lend let go of lie like PV lip litre lock look after lose low A lucky

0 magic make up manner market N material meal meat

its jaw N joint juice keen kilo kiss knock V lack land lately lay V leaf N leave V length AvDPn letter lie down likely liquid little lonely look for loss lower V lung machine N mail male many marriage mathematics mean V medical A

jewel joke jump keep V kilogram kitchen knot lady language laugh layer N lean V left less level AAvN life limit list N live V long AAv look sth up lot loyal

jewellry journey N just Av key N kilometer knee N know V lake large laughter lazy learn leg N lesson library lift line N listen V load look loose A loud loyalty

job judge justice kick kind kneel knowledge lamb last AvDV law lead N least legal let V lid light lion literature local A look at lord N love luck N

machinery main A man N map N marry matter meaning N medicine

mad make V manage march mass N may V means meet V

magazine make into manager mark match me measure meeting

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melt message might V millionth minute N mix V money moral A motor AN movement muscle N mysterious

1 nation near AAvP need nervous new night none Pn north nothing number N

2 ocean offend official on AvP only just opponent or organise our outer

member metal N mile mind mirror N mixture monkey N more mountain much music mystery nail national A nearly needle N nest N news nine nonsense northern notice nurse obey o'clock offensive A often once Av open AV oppose orange organization ours outside

memory method military A mine NPn miss V model N month morning mouse mud musician

mental metre milk mineral mist N modern A monthly AAv most mouth N multiply must V

name narrow A natural nature neat necessary negative neither net N network N newspaper next AAv ninth no AvD no one nor not nose N noun now nut object N obtain of off AvP offer office oil old one onion operate operation as opposed to opposite order ordinary origin other outdoor out AAv owe over AvP 196

mention V middle AN million minister N mistake moment moon N mother N move V murder my nasty navy neck nerve N never nice noise N normal note nowhere occasion N offence officer old-fashioned

only opinion opposition organ ought outdoors own DPnV

oxygen

3 painful pan N parliament partly N passenger pause pen N per cent period N persuade physical pig N pipe N plane N pleasant plural point police N politics port N possibility potato powerful pray present AN pretend priest prisoner process N profit N proof N protection

pack V paint paper N part N partner past pay pence perfect A permanent pet N piano N pile pity plant please pocket N pointed polish pool N position N possible A pound N practical prayer preserve V pretty A prince private A produce V progress proper protective

package painting parallel AN participle party N path payment pencil N perform permission petrol pick V pilot place plastic pleased poem poison polite poor positive possibly pour practice prefer president prevent principle prize N product promise property protest 197

page N pair N parent N particular A pass V patient A peace people N performance person photograph picture N pin plain AN plate N pleasure N poet poisonous political popular possess post powder N practise preparation press V previous print probability production pronounce proposal proud

pain N pale A park partner N passage pattern N peaceful pepper N perhaps personal phrase N piece N pink AN plan play plenty Pn poetry pole N politician population possession pot N power N praise prepare pressure N price N prison problem profession pronunciation

protect prove

provide punishment push

public pupil put 4 quality question queen N 5 rabbit N rain raise V rare rat N reach react real realize receive recent red reduce regard regular A relationship relax remain remark N rent repair report represent responsible rest reward rice ring right ANAv road rob romantic roof N rose rough A rubber rub V ruler run 6 sad sale salt AN satisfactory satisfy scatter V scene scientist scissors seat season N seed N see V sensible sense N series serious

pull pure

pump purple

punish purpose N

quantity quick A race range N rate N reaction really recently reduction related relaxing remember repeat V representative restaurant rich rise V rock N room N round AAvP rude rush safe A same save V school N screw second AvDNPn seem sensitive servant

quarrel quiet AN radio N rank N rather read V reason recognize refusal relation religion remind replace request N result rid risk rod root N row NV ruin

quarter N quite railway rapid A raw A ready A reasonable record NV refuse V relative religious remove V reply respect return NV ride river roll V rope N royal A rule

safety sand N say V science sea secret sell V sentence N serve

sail satisfaction scale N scientific search secretary send separateAV service N

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set NV severe shadow N share shelf ship N shoot V should shy sign silly A sincere sister size N sky N slope smoke soap N soil N some DPn somewhere sorry sour A speak spell V split V spread V stamp state steal V step sting store stream N strike V

settle V sew shake sharp A shell N shirt shop shoulder N sick A signal silver sing sit skilful sleep slow smooth A social A soldier N somehow son sort N south spear N spend spoil V spring stand V statement steam N stick stitch storm N street string N

seven sex N shall she shelter shock NV shore N shout side AN silence N similar single A situation skill slide V small snake N society solid someone song soul southern special A spin V spoon N square AN standard station N steel N sticky stomach N story strength strong 199

seventh sexual shame N sheep shine V shocking short A show NV sideways silent simple singular six skin N slight A smell snow sock N solution something soon sound NV space N speech spirit N sport N stage N star N stay steep A stiff A stone N straight AAv stretch structure N

several shade shape sheet shiny shoe N shot N shut sight N silk since sink V sixth skirt N slippery smile so soft solve sometimes sore A soup spade speed N in spite of spot N stair start steady A stem N still AAv stop strange strict struggle

student substance such suggest sun N sure A swallow V swim system

study subtract suck V suit supper surface N swear swing

stupid succeed sudden suitable supply NV surprise sweep V sword

style N success suffer sum N support surprising sweet sympathetic

subject N successful sugar N summer N suppose surround V swell V sympathy

7

table N taste team N tell tender A terror the then Av thick A third thought threaten throw tight A tobacco tomorrow tooth tourist track training treat V trip N trust turn tyre

tail N tax tear temper N tennis test theater there thief this DPn thousand threatening thumb N time N today tongue top AN towards trade N translate treatment tropical truth twice

take V taxi N technical temperature tense N than their therefore thin A thorough thousandth three ticket tiring toe N tonight total AN tower N traditional transparent tree trouble try V twist

talk tea telephone tend tent thank theirs these thing those thread N throat tidy AV title N together too touch town traffic N trap tribe trousers tube type N

tall teach television tendency terrible that CDPn them they think V though threat through AvP tie to toilet tool N tour toy N train travel trick NV true A tune N typical

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ugly unexpected universal up AAvP upstairs AAv useless 9valley various vegetable victory view N visit voice N :wages walk wall N warmth warn watch water weak wealth wedding weave V welcome weight N what wet A whenever when AvC whichever while C who whole width wide AAv willing win V winter N wing N with within P wooden wool worry worse would wound  wrong AAvN

under P uniform N universe upper A urgent usual valuable A vehicle village vote waist want V warning wave weapon week well AAvN whatever where whip whose wife wind wire N without P word N worship wrap V