The Oman bOTanic Garden - Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

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Nov 11, 2008 - The Oman botanic Garden (ObG) is a new botanic garden which is being ... Oman is a centre of plant diversity in the arabian Peninsula, with ...



S i b ba l d i a : The Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture, No. 6

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T h e Om a n Bota n ic Ga r de n (1): T h e V ision, E a r ly Pl a n t Col l e c t ions a n d Propagat ion Annette Patzelt1, Leigh Morris2, Laila Al Harthi1, Ismail Al Rashdi1 & Andrew Spalton3

a b st r ac t

The Oman Botanic Garden (OBG) is a new botanic garden which is being constructed on a 423ha site near to Muscat, the capital of Oman. Oman is floristically rich and is considered a centre of plant diversity in the Arabian Peninsula. The plan is that OBG will showcase this plant diversity, inform visitors of its value and provide a model for sustainability. This paper, part 1, covers the vision, early plant collections and propagation, and part 2, which will be included in Sibbaldia No. 7, will cover design, construction, interpretation and planting.

T h e Si t e

The Oman Botanic Garden (OBG), which is currently under construction, is to be a brand new, iconic botanic garden in the Sultanate of Oman. It is to be located on 423 hectares of natural habitat at Al Khoud, just to the west of the capital Muscat (Fig. 1). On the northern side of the site is a range of hills up to 281m high and within the site are a number of smaller hills (up to 170m). There are three wadis that cross the site, the largest of which is Wadi Sidr, which contains some pools of water throughout the year. The overall wide range of ground conditions will enable a large number of species to be grown within OBG, making it an excellent choice of location. The site is remarkably green at certain times of the year and its most distinctive flora is the open woodland that dominates the wadi areas. The predominant species within this habitat is Acacia tortilis, but with occasional Acacia ehrenbergiana, Prosopis cineraria and Ziziphus spina-christi. O m a n – A R e g i o n a l Bi o d i v e r s i t y Hotspot

The flora of Oman is floristically rich with a high degree of endemism. In the Sultanate of Oman c. 1,200 species of vascular plants are presently known (Miller & Cope, 1996). Annette Patzelt is the Senior Botanist at the Oman Botanic Garden. Email: [email protected] Laila Al Harthi is a botanist at the Oman Botanic Garden. Ismail Al Rashdi is a horticulturist at the Oman Botanic Garden. Address: Oman Botanic Garden, Office for Conservation of the Environment, Diwan of Royal Court, P.O. Box 246, Muscat P.C. 100, Sultanate of Oman. 2 Leigh Morris is Head of Education at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Address: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR. Email: [email protected] 3 Andrew Spalton is the Adviser for Conservation of the Environment at the Diwan of the Royal Court, Oman. Address: Adviser for Conservation of the Environment, Diwan of Royal Court, P.O. Box 246, Muscat P.C. 100, Sultanate of Oman. 1

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Fig. 1  A section of the 423ha site for the Oman Botanic Garden. Photo: Annette Patzelt.

Oman is a centre of plant diversity in the Arabian Peninsula, with 15.8% of the flora being range-restricted (Patzelt, 2008). Southern and central Oman have been identified as one of the world’s 35 key biodiversity hotspots – areas that contain at least 1,500 endemic species of vascular plants (> 0.5% of the world’s total), and where at least 70% of the natural vegetation has been lost (Mittermeier et al., 2005). Of the total of 189 range-restricted species, 78 species are strictly endemic to the country, 48 are nearendemics and 63 are regional endemics (Patzelt, 2008). There are currently 2,204 botanic gardens known in the world in 153 countries, but there are very few in the Middle East and South-West Asia (BGCI, 2001), although the area accounts for an estimated 58,500 species. OBG will be the sole garden in the area and aims to achieve a comprehensive ex situ conservation collection of native plants. V i s i o n a n d Ov e r a l l A i m

The vision is that “the Oman Botanic Garden as a new world class botanic garden conserves the unique botanical and ethnobotanical heritage of Oman and to ensure that the flora, heritage and ecosystems of Oman are valued by all”. The garden has the unique aim of propagating and displaying the complete indigenous flora of the Sultanate of Oman, within defined habitat zones (including large, iconic, environmentally controlled biomes for northern and southern flora), and aims to sustainably address the urgent need for conservation solutions to the biodiversity crisis. The representation of a native flora in habitats has not had a prominent place in most botanic gardens. With both an interest in target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant

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Conservation and the development of a habitat-based garden, the OBG represents a new model for botanic gardens in the 21st century and is a groundbreaking initiative of ex situ conservation in Arabia. OBG sees its role in providing a model with conservation and sustainability at the forefront of its messages and the experience gained of vital importance for other major new gardens in development across Arabia. S p e c i f i c G oa l s

OBG has a number of major objectives, as follows:

• Value the unique flora and ethnobotany of Oman • Reflect and honour Oman’s heritage • Create an international ‘must see’ iconic visitor destination • Provide a model for sustainability • Exemplify the unique hospitality of Oman • Lead the development of botanic gardens in Arabia • Develop a cadre of professional Omani staff to manage the OBG • Provide a major education resource in the field of biodiversity conservation • Present and interpret exhibits of indigenous plant species and local cultivated crops, their habitats, traditional knowledge and animal–plant interactions • Promote the use of indigenous plants for ornamental horticulture. K ey Ch a llenges

OBG faces three broad key botanical and horticultural challenges during its development phase:

• Building up horticultural expertise in the team and the development of standard protocols in all areas of plant propagation and collection management for all Omani plants, including a wide range of range-restricted and threatened species. • Identifying key botanical questions within the Omani flora and the development of the OBG team to be able to prioritize and answer them. Defining and developing the scientific impact of OBG in the wider ex situ • conservation of Arabian plants and in the overall delivery on the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). The development of such a botanic garden from scratch presents an outstanding example of ex situ conservation being undertaken in a botanic garden with national, regional and international significance. The planning for the development of OBG commenced in 2004. A master plan was submitted in 2006, the design finalized in 2008 and construction of phase one, the nursery, started at the beginning of 2008.

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Fig. 2  Initial OBG propagation space was rented from a commercial nursery at Seeb, Muscat. Photo: Leigh Morris. I n i t i a l P ro d u c t i o n N u r s e ry

Overall, plant collections at OBG will eventually comprise of a living collection, seed bank, herbarium and also a digital herbarium. The initial priority for OBG, however, has been the propagation of the c. 400,000 indigenous and endemic living plants that are required for the planting of the habitat zones and all other planted areas within OBG. It is fundamental that when the OBG opens, the garden looks relatively established and contains as wide a selection of the Omani flora as possible. Prior to the OBG project, very few Omani plants were in nursery cultivation. There are small nurseries in and around Muscat but these predominantly produce exotic plants for the ornamental market. The existence of these nurseries, however, proved to be extremely valuable to OBG, as space was rented within one for the propagation of Omani plants (Fig. 2). So, in early 2006, through these modest rented facilities and a single member of staff, OBG had a physical presence. Since then, both the OBG nursery team and the number of plants have increased and by June 2008 there were 20 staff and 51,851 individual plants on two rented nursery sites. This already therefore represented the largest documented Arabian plant collection. P l a n t Co l l e c t i o n

One of the key objectives of OBG is to cultivate and display only Omani plants and due to the lack of any significant numbers already in cultivation, this gave the OBG team the challenge of collecting all plant material from the wild. Diversity was of major importance, so collections were predominantly from seed; however, whole living plants and cuttings were also collected for certain species (but from a wide range of mother plants).

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Fig. 3   Seed collection on Jabal Samhan in the Dhofar region of Oman being carried out by an OBG team member. Photo: Leigh Morris.

Fig. 4  RBGE’s Leigh Morris training OBG staff in the collection of vegetative propagation material on Jabal Al Akhdar (December 2006). Photo: Annette Patzelt.

Seeds were collected in a standard way (Fig. 3) into fabric bags and stored in boxes for transport. On longer field trips the seed drying process started in the field, usually by hanging the bags in shady and slightly breezy locations. The collection and propagation of vegetative material (cuttings and whole plants) proved more of a challenge in such a hot climate but, through collaboration with Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) horticulturists, successful protocols were developed involving the correct selection of material (Fig. 4) and the use of moist sealable plastic bags and cool-boxes.

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Fig. 5  Dr Annette Patzelt inputting collection data into the database in the field. Photo: Leigh Morris.

A fundamentally important part of the plant collection process was the gathering and recording of information on all the plants, including date of collection, name(s) of collectors, location (GPS coordinates; longitude, latitude and altitude), locality, type of material, life form, soil type, associated flora, local uses and descriptions. Voucher herbarium specimens, material for genetic analysis and photographs were also collected. The vouchers are stored in the OBG’s herbarium. Temporary labels were used during transportation and much of the information was typed straight into the database on a lap-top computer in the field (Fig. 5). The database allows a link from the living collection to the herbarium voucher, to provide a back-up specimen should the living material fail for any reason. P ropag at i o n T e c h n i q u e s

After transport to the OBG nursery seeds were dried, cleaned and stored in the dark at room temperatures. Species from the high mountain areas in northern Oman were stored in a dark fridge at 10°C to provide stratification. A seed processing form was developed that remains with the seed lot from the moment it arrives in the garden until the seeds are sown. Prior to germination seeds are soaked in water for 24 hours and then directly sown into standard 200 3 300mm seed trays with potting media. Smaller seeds are broadcast into the trays but larger seeds are spaced using a template to form 40 holes in a tray. The seed trays are watered daily, being soaked in large trays, to enable water to penetrate from the bottom rather than from the top. The date of first germination is recorded. If germination occurs, young plantlets are pricked-out after reaching 50–100mm in height.

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Fig. 6  RBGE’s Nursery Supervisor, Peter Brownless, training OBG staff in vegetative propagation techniques. Photo: Annette Patzelt.

Initial attempts at rooting cuttings by the OBG team were variable, so RBGE staff were asked to visit Muscat in December 2006 in order to develop protocols for vegetative propagation (Fig. 6). Peat moss and vermiculite (ratio 1:1) was decided upon for the rooting media, the design of the propagation tunnels was modified to allow better access and OBG staff were taught the importance of looking after the cuttings and maintaining hygiene within a propagation environment. It was believed to be important to start with less sophisticated methods of plant propagation, as the rented facilities were basic and there was not the depth of skill and experience within the OBG team. With the development of the staff and the move to new nursery facilities on the OBG site in June/July 2008, however, the propagation techniques and establishment and growth requirements will be expanded and, through experimentation, precise production protocols will be developed for every species. Overall, propagation to date has been successful, with much learned that will be of use when the nursery expands into phase two. So far, 327 species from 68 different families have been propagated or collected, representing 29% of the country’s flora (Table 1). Eighty-five of the species are on the National Red List (Patzelt, 2008). Appendix I summarizes the propagation success over the first two years. Initially, success rates were not recorded accurately and were counted as ‘Very Poor’ (success < 5%), ‘Poor’ (5–10%), ‘Medium’ (10–60%), ‘Good’ (60–80%) and ‘Very Good’ (> 80%).

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Month

Total plants in nursery

No. of species

No. of families

No. of species on the Red List

February 2006

      0

   0

 0

 0

April 2006

  2,021

102

40

23

June 2006

  6,398

131

44

31

August 2006

  9,267

165

54

42

October 2006

10,626

167

59

45

December 2006

16,563

244

59

49

February 2007

16,695

269

62

49

April 2007

26,038

288

65

66

June 2007

34,797

300

65

76

August 2007

35,866

303

65

76

October 2007

37,858

314

66

76

December 2007

38,296

317

67

77

February 2008

49,352

321

67

80

April 2008

50,658

321

67

80

June 2008

51,851

327

68

85

NB: The total flora of Oman contains c. 1,200 species within 124 plant families. 261 species are currently on the National Red List. Table 1. Plant production and collection figures for the OBG nursery. G row i n g - O n P l a n ts

After propagation, seedlings and rooted cuttings are potted-up and retained in a polythene tunnel until clear signs of root formation are obvious. They are then transferred into the larger polythene tunnel or shade structure. Whole plants, bulbs and tubers collected from the wild are treated in the same way. RBGE staff worked with the OBG team in December 2006 to develop a standard OBG potting medium, consisting of peat moss, vermiculite and sweet soil (ratio 3:1:1) and slow release fertilizer. All plants were then placed in a cooled, shaded greenhouse, under a shade net providing 70% shade, and were watered daily. For succulents, plants of sand dunes and bulbs, however, different soil mixtures were developed by the OBG team: for succulents, coarse gravel and vermiculite (ratio of 1:1), for sand plants, sand plus the standard OBG mix (ratio 1:1) and for bulbs, the OBG standard mix plus coarse vermiculite and fine sweet soil is used (ratio of 1:2:1). The propagation, growing and maintenance of so many different Omani plants from a range of restricted and extreme environments (and which have never been previously cultivated) has been a challenge and a huge learning curve for the OBG team but this has been helped greatly through the horticultural support, consultancy and the teaching of

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Fig. 7  RBGE’s Leigh Morris reviewing the growth of a batch of wild collected plants with OBG staff in the nursery at A Seeb. Photo: Annette Patzelt.

good maintenance and collection management techniques provided by Mark Richardson (BGCI), Dr Mike Maunder (Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden) and the horticulturists from RBGE (Fig. 7). One of the key areas has been irrigation of plants from highly diverse habitats. The arid climate in Muscat, especially during the hot summer months, has increased the irrigation challenge and a couple of electrical power cuts have resulted in water supply failures that have damaged part of the collection. P ro d u c t i o n L i st

A key part of the plant collection and propagation for OBG has been the development of a detailed Nursery Production List, which lists the species and the size(s) and number required, for all the habitat areas. During the early collection and propagation of plants this list was basic but as more detailed habitat plans have been developed, the nursery team has been able to draw up a more accurate schedule with respect to numbers and types required. As with any nursery production list, however, it is still constantly evolving and will not be finalized until the OBG detailed design phase is complete. The production list also serves as a reference for the landscape design team, as to which species are characteristic for which habitat. The use of the list as a tool during the first years of the planning and development allows for coordination between collection, cultivation and detailed design planning.

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Ac k n ow l e d g e m e n ts

The Oman Botanic Garden is funded by the Diwan of Royal Court of the Government of the Sultanate of Oman. The authors are particularly grateful to Saif Al Hatmi, Shadia Al Rijeibi, Dareen Mehdi, Ghudaina Al Issai, Khalid Al Farsi and Zawan Al Qasabi (all Oman Botanic Garden) for their help and support. This work could not have been this successful without the hard work of the horticultural assistants, bravely surviving the summer nursery conditions of the garden’s nursery rented facilities and their care of the plants. Special thanks are due to Mark Richardson (BGCI), Dr David Rae, Tony Miller, Sabina Knees and Peter Brownless (RBGE) and Dr Mike Maunder (Fairchild). R ef er ences

BGCI (2001). An international review of the ex-situ collections of the botanic gardens of the world. Botanic Gardens Conservation News, 3(6), 22–33. MILLER, A.G. & COPE, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra, Vol. 1. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. MITTERMEIER, R.A., GIL, P.R., HOFFMAN, M., PILGRIM, J., BROOKS, T., GOETTSCH MITTERMEIER, C., LAMOREUX, J. & DA FONSECA, G.A.B. (2005). Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Threatened Terrestrial Ecoregions. Conservation International. PATZELT, A. (2008). Oman Plant Red Data Book. Office for Conservation of the Environment, Diwan of Royal Court, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds Cuttings Seeds Whole plants Seeds Cuttings Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds

Barleria aucheriana Nees

Barleria candida Nees

Barleria hochstetteri Nees

Barleria samhanensis Knees, A.G. Mill. & A. Patzelt

Barleria samhanensis Knees, A.G. Mill. & A. Patzelt

Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B.L. Burtt

Blepharis dhofarensis A.G. Mill.

Blepharis linariaefolia Pers.

Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston

Lepidagathis calycina Hochst. ex Nees

Neuracanthus spinosus Deflers

Ruellia discifolia Oliv.

Ruellia grandiflora (Forssk.) Blatter

Ruellia patula Jacq.

Ruellia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propagation method

Barleria aucheriana Nees

Species

 

Acanthaceae

Family

n.r.

9

5

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

3

n.a.

6

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

4

 

First germination (days)

APPENDIX I.  Propagation succes at OBG over the first two years. In First germination (days) column n.a. signifies ‘not applicable’ and n.r. signifies ‘not recorded’.

medium

10

26

very poor

very poor

75

very good

very poor

33

21

64

63

50–100

very poor

0–10

9

 

Success rates (%)

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

Endemic

 

Endemic

Endemic

 

 

Endemic

Endemic

 

Status

 

 

NT

 

 

 

 

 

VU B1b(ii,iii)

 

CR B1B2ab(iii)

CR B1B2ab(iii)

 

 

EN A1 abc

EN A1 abc

 

Oman Plant Red Data Book assessment

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Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Cheilanthes vellea (Aiton) F. Muell.

Cheilanthes pteridioides (Reichard) C. Chr.

 

 

 

Seeds

Psilotrichum virgatum C.C. Townsend

 

Bulbs Bulbs

Crinum sp.

Pancratium maximum Forssk.

 

 

 

Seeds

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Schult.

 

Amaryllidaceae

Seeds

Aerva artemisioides Vierh. & Schwartz subsp. batharitica A.G. Mill.

 

 

Whole plants

Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker

 

Amaranthaceae

Division

Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker

 

 

Spores

Adiantum incisum Forssk.

 

Agavaceae

Whole plants

Adiantum incisum Forssk.

 

 

Seeds

Ruttya fruticosa Lindau

 

Adiantaceae

Cuttings

Propagation method

Ruttya fruticosa Lindau

Species

 

Family

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.r.

n.r.

6

 

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0

n.a.

 

10

n.a.

First germination (days)

100

80

 

poor

very poor

very good

 

86–100

100

 

11

1

14–82

0

95

 

60

medium

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

 

 

Rare and threatened

 

Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

LC

 

 

VU D1

 

VU D1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Species

Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.

n.a. n.a.

Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants

Caralluma arabica N.E. Br.

Caralluma cf. flava

Caralluma flava N.E. Br.

Caralluma flava 3 arabica ined.

Caralluma quadrangula (Forssk.) N.E. Br.

Caralluma quadrangula (Forssk.) N.E. Br.

Caralluma penicillata (Deflers) N.E. Br.

Caralluma adenensis (Deflers) A. Berger

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

2

n.a.

n.a.

3

Seeds

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand

 

n.a.

Whole plants

Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult.

 

n.r.

n.a.

 

n.a.

 

First germination (days)

 

 

Seeds

Rhus somalensis Engl.

 

Apocynaceae

Cuttings

Rhus aucheri Boiss.

 

Bulbs

 

Propagation method

 

Anacardiaceae

 

Anthericaceae

Family

48–100

53

74–100

76

94–100

60–100

100

38–100

10

58–77

 

poor

good

 

good

 

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

Rare and threatened

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

 

Regional Endemic

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

Endemic

 

 

 

Status

CR D1

CR C2a(i)

NT

NT

 

VU C2a(i)

 

VU A4a,d

 

 

 

 

NT

 

 

 

Oman Plant Red Data Book assessment

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n.a.

Division Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Cuttings Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Division

Echidnopsis scutellata (Deflers) A. Berger subsp. dhofarensis Bruyns

Echidnopsis scutellata (Deflers) A. Berger subsp. dhofarensis Bruyns

Glossonema varians (Stocks) Benth. ex Hook.f.

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne.

Nerium oleander L.

Nerium oleander L.

Periploca aphylla Decne. in Jacquem.

Periploca visciformis (Vatke) K. Schum.

Periploca cf. visciformis

Periploca sp.

Rhazya stricta Decne.

Rhytidocaulon fulleri Lavranos & Mortimer

Rhytidocaulon sp.

Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br.

Orbea wissmannii (O. Schwartz) Bruyns subsp. parviloba Bruyns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

5

13

n.r.

11

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

16

Seeds

Cibirhiza dhofarense Bruyns

 

n.a.

First germination (days)

Whole plants

Propagation method

Caralluma sp.

Species

 

Family

92

96

very good

very good

very good

good

99

33

poor

60

poor

medium

poor

41–100

71–99

8

86

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Endemic

Endemic

Near Endemic

 

Status

EN B1b(ii,iii)

 

 

EN B1b(i,iii)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VU B2b(ii,iii)

VU B2b(ii,iii)

VU B1b(iii,v)

 

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Whole plants

Orbea luntii (N.E. Br.) Bruyns

 

Asparagus sp.

Division Whole plants Seeds Whole plants

Aloe whitcombei Lavranos

Aloe whitcombei Lavranos

Aloe dhufarensis Lavranos

Aloe dhufarensis Lavranos

 

 

 

 

Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds

Blepharispermum hirtum Oliver

Cichorium intybus L.

Dicoma schimperi (DC.) Baill. ex O. Hoffm.

Echinops spinosissimus Freyn

Euryops arabicus Steud. ex Jaub. & Spach

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whole plants

Aloe praetermissa McCoy & Lavranos

 

Asteraceae

Division

Aloe praetermissa McCoy & Lavranos

 

Whole plants

 

Asphodelaceae

 

 

Division

Orbea luntii (N.E. Br.) Bruyns

 

Asparagaceae

Whole plants

Propagation method

Orbea wissmannii (O. Schwartz) Bruyns subsp. parviloba Bruyns

Species

 

Family

n.r.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

4

 

n.a.

10

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

First germination (days)

84

good

n.r.

poor

very good

 

73

50

100

90

96–100

100

 

very good

 

100

75

88

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

Near Endemic

 

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

 

 

 

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

Regional Endemic

Status

 

 

 

 

VU A4abc

 

VU B1b(ii,iii)

VU B1b(ii,iii)

CR B2a;D1

CR B2a;D1

LC

LC

 

 

 

EN B1b(ii,iii)

EN B1b(ii,iii)

EN B1b(ii,iii)

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Whole plants Cuttings Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds

Euryops arabicus Steud. ex Jaub. & Spach

Gnaphalium makranicum Rech.f. & Esfand

Iphiona aucheri (Boiss.) Anderb.

Iphiona horrida Boiss.

Iphiona scabra DC.

Iphiona senecionoides (Baker) Anderb.

Kleinia odora (Forssk.) DC.

Kleinia odora (Forssk.) DC.

Kleinia saginata P. Halliday

Kleinia sp.

Launaea bornmuelleri (Hausskn. ex Bornm.) Bornm.

Launaea castanosperma F.G. Davies

Osteospermum vaillantii (Desne.) Norlindh

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Pluchea arabica (Boiss.) Qaiser & Lack

Pulicaria cylindrica (Baker) O. Schwartz

Pulicaria glutinosa (Boiss.) Jaub. & Spach subsp. glutinosa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propagation method

Euryops arabicus Steud. ex Jaub. & Spach

Species

 

Family

n.r.

28

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

3

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

First germination (days)

n.r.

poor

n.r.

very poor

very poor

n.r.

n.r.

100

63–80

83–90

6

n.r.

very poor

poor

n.r.

very poor

very poor

100

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

LC

NT

 

 

 

NT

 

 

NT

 

 

NT

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Seeds Seeds

Vernonia spathulata (Forssk.) Sch. Bip.

Volutaria sinaica (DC.) Wagenitz

 

 

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Adansonia digitata L.

Seeds Cuttings Whole plants Whole plants Seeds

Cordia nevillii Alston

Cordia sp.

Echiochilon persicum (Burm.f.) I.M. Johnst.

Echiochilon callianthum Lönn

Echiochilon callianthum Lönn

 

 

 

 

 

Seeds

 

Boraginaceae

 

 

Suckers

Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seem.

 

Bombacaceae

Cuttings

Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seem.

 

Seeds

 

Bignoniaceae

 

 

Seeds

Vernonia arabica F.G. Davies

 

Avicenniaceae

Whole plants

Pulicaria sp.

 

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

 

8

 

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.r.

 

4

11

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

Whole plants

First germination (days)

Propagation method

Pulicaria glutinosa (Boiss.) Jaub. & Spach subsp. glutinosa

Species

 

Family

very poor

very poor

very poor

very poor

very poor

 

7

 

60

very poor

 

good

 

12

4

n.r.

very poor

very poor

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic 

Regional Endemic 

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

Status

LC

LC

 

 

 

 

VU D1

 

 

 

 

VU A1abcd

 

 

 

 

 

LC

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Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds

Heliotropium calcareum Stocks

Heliotropium kotschyi Gürke

Heliotropium kotschyi Gürke

Lappula siniaca (A. DC.) Asch. ex Schweinf.

Trichodesma africanum (L.) Lehm.

Trichodesma hildebrandtii Gürke

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whole plants Seeds

Farsetia linearis Decne. ex Boiss.

Physorrhynchus chamaerapistrum (Boiss.) Boiss.

 

 

Cuttings Seeds Cuttings

Boswellia sacra Flück.

Boswellia sacra Flück.

Commiphora cf. kataf

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Farsetia linearis Decne. ex Boiss.

 

Burseraceae

Seeds

Farsetia aegyptiaca Turra

 

 

Seeds

Heliotropium calcareum Stocks

 

Brassicaceae

Whole plants

Propagation method

Echiochilon sp.

Species

 

Family

n.a.

10

n.a.

 

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

8

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

First germination (days)

poor

1

poor

 

good

0–20

good

good

 

good

poor

good

8–14

7

poor

poor

very poor

Success rates (%)

 

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened

 

 

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

VU B1b(i,iii,v)

VU B1b(i,iii,v)

 

 

LC

LC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whole plants Whole plants Cuttings Seeds Cuttings Cuttings

Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C. Chr.

Commiphora kua (R. Br. ex Royle) Vollensen

Commiphora kua (R. Br. ex Royle) Vollensen

Commiphora kua (R. Br. ex Royle) Vollensen

Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari

Commiphora sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cuttings Seeds Seeds Seeds

Capparis spinosa L.

Dhofaria macleishii A.G. Mill.

Dipterygium glaucum Decne.

Maerua crassifolia Forssk.

 

 

 

 

Seeds Whole plants Seeds

Cometes abyssinica (R. Br.) Wall.

Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk.

Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk.

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Capparis cartilaginea Decne.

 

Caryophyllaceae

Seeds

Cadaba heterotricha Stocks ex Hook.

 

 

Seeds

Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C. Chr.

 

Capparaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Commiphora foliacea Sprague

Species

 

Family

n.r.

n.a.

5

 

5

n.r.

25

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.a.

n.a.

4

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

6

16

First germination (days)

very poor

very poor

10

 

7

very poor

89

very poor

good

very poor

 

100

poor

20

very good

100

100

5

13

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

VU B2b(i,iii)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Seeds

Xerotia arabica Oliver

 

Whole plants Seeds Whole plants   Seeds Whole plants

Suaeda aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Zohary

Suaeda moschata A.J. Scott

Suaeda cf. vermiculata

 

Helianthemum citrinum S.A. Ghazanfar

Helianthemum lippii (L.) Dum.-Cours.

 

 

 

Cistaceae

 

 

 

Cleome noeana Boiss. subsp. noeana

Whole plants

Halothamnus bottea Jaub. & Spach

 

Seeds

 

Whole plants

Cornulaca monacantha Delile

 

Cleomaceae

Whole plants

Anabasis setifera Moq.

 

 

Seeds

Maytenus sp. nov.

 

Chenopodiaceae

Whole plants

Maytenus dhofarensis (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voight

 

 

Seeds

Polycarpaea jazirensis R.A. Clement

 

Celastraceae

Whole plants

Propagation method

Herniaria maskatensis Bornm.

Species

 

Family

n.r.

 

n.a.

44

 

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

13

n.a.

 

n.r.

59

n.a.

First germination (days)

good

 

very poor

26

 

100

poor

poor

poor

very poor

very poor

 

15

100

 

very poor

poor

very poor

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

Near Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

Endemic

 

Regional Endemic

Endemic

 

Status

 

 

 

LC

 

 

NT

 

LC

 

 

 

 

LC

 

VU B1b(ii,iii)

CR D1

 

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Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds

Convolvulus hystrix subsp. dhofarica R.R. Mill ined.

Convolvulus pilosellifolius Desr.

Convolvulus pilosellifolius Desr.

Convolvulus virgatus Boiss.

Convolvulus virgatus Boiss.

Convolvulus austroaegyptiacus Abdallah & Sa’ad

Convolvulus sp.

Convolvulus sp.

Hildebrandtia africana Vatke subsp. arabica Sebsebe

Merremia somalensis (Vatke) Hall.f.

Seddera latifolia Hochst. & Steud.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whole plants

Commelina sp.

 

Convolvulaceae

Whole plants

Commelina albescens Hassk.

 

 

Seeds

Anogeissus dhofarica A.J. Scott

 

Commelinaceae

Cuttings

 

Propagation method

Anogeissus dhofarica A.J. Scott

Species

 

Combretaceae

Family

n.r.

n.r.

6

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.a.

n.a.

 

4

n.a.

 

First germination (days)

poor

3

3

very poor

very poor

poor

100

poor

6

poor

very poor

 

good

100

 

good

poor

 

Success rates (%)

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

 

Status

 

 

LC

 

 

LC

 

 

 

 

NT 

 

 

 

 

VU A4abcd

VU A4abcd

 

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Kalanchoe glaucescens Britten

Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants

Cyperus conglomeratus Rottb.

Cyperus sp.

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br. subsp. spathacea (Roth) Koyama

Schoenoplectus sp.

Schoenus nigricans L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cuttings

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K.Koch) Takhtajan

 

Cyperaceae

Seeds

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K.Koch) Takhtajan

 

 

Whole plants

Corallocarpus glomeruliflorus (Deflers) Cogn.

 

Cupressaceae

Seeds

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

 

Whole plants

 

Cucurbitaceae

 

 

Seeds

Stictocardia punctata (Baker) R.R. Mill. ined.

 

Crassulaceae

Whole plants

Propagation method

Seddera latifolia Hochst. & Steud.

Species

 

Family

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

6

n.a.

 

n.a.

22

 

n.a.

n.r.

 

n.a.

 

7

n.a.

First germination (days)

100

85

100

good

0–7

 

very poor

1

 

12

good

 

100

 

0.5

0

Success rates (%)

Rare and threatened

 

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened

 

Rare and threatened

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

 

Status

VU A4abc

 

 

 

 

 

VU A4ac; B1b(i,iii,iv)

VU A4ac; B1b(i,iii,iv)

 

VU D1

 

 

 

 

CR D1

 

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Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants

Andrachne aspera Spreng.

Andrachne telephioides L.

Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) A. Juss. ex Spreng.

Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton subsp. adenensis (Deflers) Bally

Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton subsp. adenensis (Deflers) Bally

Euphorbia cactus Ehrenb. ex Boiss.

Euphorbia hadramautica Baker

Euphorbia larica Boiss.

Euphorbia larica Boiss.

Euphorbia masirahensis A.G. Ghazanfar

Euphorbia orbiculifolia S. Carter

Euphorbia smithii Deflers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whole plants

Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. subsp. pachyclada

 

Euphorbiaceae

Seeds

 

Whole plants

 

Propagation method

Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A. Mey.

Dracaena serrulata Baker

Species

 

Ephedraceae

 

Dracaenaceae

Family

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

7

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

6

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

n.r.

 

n.a.

 

First germination (days)

100

89–100

very poor

73–100

1

100

100

100

4

poor

0

0

 

55–100

good

 

92

 

Success rates (%)

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

Status

NT

VU D2

DD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EN 4abcd

 

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Seeds Whole plants Cuttings Whole plants Cuttings Seeds Whole plants Seeds

Euphorbia aff. uzmuk sensu Miller and Cope

Euphorbia aff. uzmuk sensu Miller and Cope

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt

Jatropha dhofarica Radcl.-Sm.

Jatropha dhofarica Radcl.-Sm.

Jatropha dhofarica Radcl.-Sm.

Ricinus communis L. Muell.-Arg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exacum aff. affine Balf.f. ex Regel

Whole plants Bulbs   Seeds Bulbs

Dipcadi biflorum S.A. Ghazanfar

Dipcadi erythraeum Webb & Berthel

 

Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt

Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt

 

Iridaceae

 

 

 

Seeds

 

Hyacinthaceae

 

 

Whole plants

Euphorbia aff. schimperi sensu Miller and Cope

 

Gentianaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Euphorbia aff. schimperi sensu Miller and Cope

Species

 

Family

n.a.

10

 

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.r.

 

n.r.

n.a.

15

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

6

n.a.

n.r.

First germination (days)

12

25

 

very poor

40

 

poor

 

good

96–100

3

14–36

100

poor

100

55

65

poor

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

Near Endemic

 

 

Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

Status

 

 

 

 

LC

 

EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(iii,iv)

 

 

LC

LC

LC

 

 

NT

NT

LC

LC

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Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Whole plants

Lavandula dhofarensis A.G. Mill. subsp. dhofarensis A.G. Mill.

Lavandula hasikensis A.G. Mill.

Lavandula subnuda Benth.

Leucas inflata Benth.

Mentha longiflora Opiz ex Steud.

Ocimum forskolei Benth.

Ocimum forskolei Benth.

Orthosiphon pallidus Royle ex Benth.

Plectranthus barbatus Andrews

Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. ex Benth.

Salvia aegyptiaca L.

Salvia aegyptiaca L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seeds

 

Bulbs

Propagation method

Lavandula dhofarensis A.G. Mill. subsp. ayunensis A.G. Mill.

Juncus rigidus Desf.

Gladiolus italicus Mill.

Species

 

Lamiaceae

 

Juncaceae

 

Family

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

45

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.r.

9

11

 

n.r.

 

31

First germination (days)

0

medium

100

80–84

6

poor

good

93

medium

poor

poor

very good

very poor

 

very good

 

96

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

Near Endemic

Endemic

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LC

 

LC

LC

 

 

 

NT

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Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants

Teucrium mascatense Boiss.

Teucrium mascatense Boiss.

Teucrium stocksianum Boiss subsp. stenophyllum R.A. King

Teucrium stocksianum Boiss subsp. stenophyllum R.A. King

 

 

 

 

Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds

Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd.

Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne

Acacia hamulosa Benth.

Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne

Acacia gerrardii Benth. subsp. gerrardii

Acacia gerrardii Benth. subsp. negevensis Zohary

Argyrolobium crotalarioides Jaub. & Spach

Cadia purpurea (Picc.) Aiton

Ceratonia oreothauma subsp. oreothauma Hillc., G.P. Lewis & Verdc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Salvia sp. aff. hillcoatiae

 

Leguminosae

Seeds

Propagation method

Salvia macilenta Boiss.

Species

 

Family

n.r.

5

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

3

19

3

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

7

n.r.

First germination (days)

very good

89

0

good

good

7

81

93

good

good

 

poor

good

100

very poor

1

poor

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Endemic 

Endemic

Endemic

 

 

Status

VU D2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LC 

LC

LC

 

 

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Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds Cuttings Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth.

Crotalaria leptocarpa Balf.f.

Crotalaria persica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Crotalaria saltiana T. Anders

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Delonix elata (L.) Gamble

Indigofera articulata Gouan

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce

Pseudolotus makranicum (Rech.f. & Esfand.) Rech.f.

Taverniera brevipetiolata Thulin

Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.

Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.

Taverniera lappacea (Forssk.) DC.

Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) Link

Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) Link

Tephrosia nubica (Boiss.) Baker

Tephrosia quartiniana Cufod. ex Greuter & Burdet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propagation method

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth.

Species

 

Family

n.a.

4

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.r.

3

n.r.

3

n.a.

n.a.

4

5

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

First germination (days)

very poor

very good

20–50

very good

poor

100

very good

medium

very poor

65

n.r.

60

90

80

96

10

good

10

good

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EN B2ab(ii,iii) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds

Hibiscus micranthus L.

Hibiscus micranthus L.

Hibiscus sidiformis Baill. in Bull.

Pavonia arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Boiss.

Senra incana Cav.

 

 

 

 

 

Seeds Cuttings   Whole plants Cuttings

Cocculus balfourii Schweinf. ex Balf.f.

Cocculus pendulus (J. Forst.) Diels

 

Dorstenia foetida (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Ficus cordata Ridl. subsp. salicifolia (Vahl) C.C. Berg

 

 

Moraceae

 

 

 

Seeds

Gossypium stocksii Masters

 

Menispermaceae

Whole plants

 

Seeds

Abutilon pannosum (G. Forst.) Schltr.

Acridocarpus orientalis A. Juss.

 

Whole plants

 

Propagation method

 

Malvaceae

 

Species

Woodfordia uniflora (A. Rich.) Koehne

Malpighiaceae

 

Lythraceae

Family

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

n.r.

 

3

n.r.

6

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

 

21

 

n.a.

 

First germination (days)

58

84–100

 

poor

poor

 

10

medium

2

8

very good

good

poor

 

4

 

100

 

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

NT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whole plants Cuttings

Ficus vasta Forssk.

Ficus johannis Boiss.

 

 

Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants   Cuttings Seeds

Boerhavia elegans Choisy subsp. stenophylla (Boiss.) A.G. Mill.

Boerhavia elegans Choisy subsp. stenophylla (Boiss.) A.G. Mill.

Commicarpus helenae (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Meikle

Commicarpus mistus Thulin

Commicarpus mistus Thulin

 

Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciffieri

Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciffieri

 

 

 

 

Oleaceae

 

 

 

Seeds

 

Nyctaginaceae

 

Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori

Cuttings

Ficus vasta Forssk.

 

 

Seeds

Ficus sycomorus L.

 

Moringaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Ficus cordata Ridl. subsp. salicifolia (Vahl) C.C. Berg

Species

 

Family

66

n.a.

 

n.a.

n.r.

18

n.a.

n.r.

 

n.r.

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

17

9

First germination (days)

11

18

 

75

good

50

0

very good

 

poor

 

good

100

22

very good

very good

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whole plants Bulbs Bulbs Bulbs

Eulophia guineensis Lindl.

Habenaria malacophylla Rchb.f.

Nervilia crociformis (Zoll. & Mor.) Seidenf.

Nervilia bicarinata (Blume) Schltr.

 

 

 

 

Seeds Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Seeds Cuttings

Dyerophytum indicum (Gibs. ex Wight) Kuntze

Dyerophytum indicum (Gibs. ex Wight) Kuntze

Limonium axillare (Forssk.) Kuntze

Limonium milleri S.A. Ghazanfar & J.R. Edmondson

Limonium sarcophyllum S.A. Ghazanfar & J.R. Edmondson

Limonium sarcophyllum S.A. Ghazanfar & J.R. Edmondson

Limonium sp.

Plumbago zeylanica L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulbs

Eulophia petersii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.

 

Plumbaginaceae

Seeds

 

Propagation method

Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss. & Hohen. ex Boiss.

Species

 

Orchidaceae

Family

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

7

 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

0

 

First germination (days)

poor

very poor

very good

0

poor

medium

poor

4

 

100

100

n.r.

 

100

0

 

Success rates (%)

 

 

Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened 

Rare and threatened

Rare and threatened

 

Status

 

 

VU A4abc

VU A4abc

LC

 

 

 

 

NT

VU A4abc

NT

NT 

NT

VU A4abc

 

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  Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds Whole plants

Aristida abnormis Chiov.

Cenchrus ciliaris L.

Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf

Chrysopogon plumulosus Hochst.

Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf

Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf

Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubb.

Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.

Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.

Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty

Digitaria nodosa Parl.

Enneapogon persicus Boiss.

Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf

Indet.

Lasiurus scindicus Henrard

Panicum turgidum Forssk.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

Pennisetum sp.

Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Boiss.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propagation method

 

Species

Poaceae

Family

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

 

First germination (days)

74

medium

poor

poor

good

good

poor

poor

good

0–8

poor

good

11

31

good

very poor

18

good

good

 

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Seeds Seeds Whole plants Seeds

Sporobolus sp.

Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter

Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter

Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link

 

 

 

 

Seeds Whole plants Seeds

Polygala mascatense Boiss.

Polygala mascatense Boiss.

Polygala tinctoria Vahl

 

 

 

Cuttings Seeds Cuttings Seeds

Calligonum comosum L’Hér.

Calligonum comosum L’Hér.

Pteropyrum scoparium Jaub. & Spach

Pteropyrum scoparium Jaub. & Spach

 

 

 

 

 

Whole plants

Polygala irregularis Boiss.

 

Polygonaceae

Whole plants

Polygala dispar S.A. Ghazanfar

 

 

Seeds

Saccharum ravennae (L.) Murray

 

Polygalaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Boiss.

Species

 

Family

4

n.a.

4

n.a.

 

12

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.r.

n.a.

3

4

6

5

First germination (days)

40

0

8

very poor

 

9

23

poor

0

0

 

very good

100

poor

good

very good

good

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

Regional Endemic

Endemic

Endemic

 

Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

LC

LC

 

 

 

LC

LC

LC

 

DD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whole plants Seeds Seeds Seeds

Ochradenus aucheri Boiss. subsp. aucheri A.G. Mill.

Ochradenus harsusiticus A.G. Mill.

Ochradenus sp. nov.

Reseda sphenocleoides Deflers

 

 

 

 

Seeds Seeds Seeds

Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst.

Ziziphus hajarensis D.D. Duling, S.A. Ghazanfar & H.D. Prendergast

Ziziphus leucodermis (Baker) O. Schwartz

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Ochradenus aucheri Boiss. subsp. aucheri A.G. Mill.

 

Rhamnaceae

Seeds

 

Whole plants

 

Seeds

 

Whole plants

 

Propagation method

Ochradenus arabicus Chaudhary, Hillc. & A.G. Mill.

Pteris vittata L.

Dionysia mira Wendelbo

Portulaca dhofarica M.G. Gilbert

Species

 

Resedaceae

 

Pteridaceae

 

Primulaceae

 

Portulacaceae

Family

n.r.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.r.

9–20

41

n.a.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.a.

 

2

 

n.a.

 

First germination (days)

good

good

very poor

 

5

1–4

poor

poor

poor

poor

 

67

 

98

 

66

 

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

Endemic

 

 

Regional Endemic

? Endemic

Endemic

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

Endemic

 

Near Endemic

 

Status

LC

NT

 

 

LC

 

EN B1b(ii,iii)

LC

LC

LC

 

 

 

EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(iii)

 

LC

 

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Whole plants Seeds Whole plants Seeds   Seeds Whole plants

Kohautia retrorsa (Boiss.) Bremek.

Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana (Jaub. & Spach) Lincz.

Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana (Jaub. & Spach) Lincz.

Coptosperma graveolens (S. Moore) Degreef subsp. arabicum (Cufod.) Degreef

 

Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss.

Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss.

 

 

 

 

Rutaceae

 

 

Whole plants Cuttings

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

 

 

Seeds

Allophylus rubifolius (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Engl.

Azima tetracantha Lam.

 

Sapindaceae

 

 

Whole plants

Gaillonia aucheri (Guill.) Jaub. & Spach

 

Salvadoraceae

Seeds

Gaillonia aucheri (Guill.) Jaub. & Spach

 

Seeds

Propagation method

Cuttings

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.

Species

Gaillonia aucheri (Guill.) Jaub. & Spach

Rubiaceae

 

Family

n.a.

n.a.

 

12

 

n.a.

n.r.

 

33

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

n.a.

9

First germination (days)

53

100

 

55

 

0

poor

 

3

0

poor

0

0

poor

0

88

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rare and threatened

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sideroxylon mascatense (A. DC.) Penn.

Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds Seeds

Campylanthus pungens O. Schwartz

Campylanthus sedoides A.G. Mill.

Lindenbergia indica (L.) Vatke

Schweinfurthia imbricata A.G. Mill., M. Short & D.A. Sutton

Schweinfurthia papilionacea (L.) Boiss.

Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke ex Engl.

Verbascum omanense Hub.-Mor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seeds Seeds Seeds

Hyoscyamus insanus Stocks

Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult.

Solanum incanum L.

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Campylanthus chascaniflorus A.G. Mill.

 

Solanaceae

Seeds

Campylanthus antonii Thulin

 

Seeds

 

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

Whole plants

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

 

Sapotaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

Species

 

Family

n.r.

n.r.

n.r.

 

n.r.

0

n.r.

n.r.

33

6

0

n.r.

6

 

12

 

n.a.

n.r.

First germination (days)

good

medium

good

 

good

0

good

0

poor

good

0

poor

25

 

54

 

44–100

good

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

Endemic

 

 

Near Endemic

 

Endemic

Regional Endemic

Endemic

Near Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

 

 

 

DD

 

 

NT

 

EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(iii)

NT

VU B2b(ii,iii)

VU B2ab(ii,iii)

 

 

 

 

 

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Seeds Whole plants Seeds Seeds

Melhania muricata Balf.f.

Melhania muricata Balf.f.

Melhania ovata (Cav.) Spreng. subsp. abyssinica (A. Rich.) Schum.

Melhania phillipsiae Bak.f.

 

 

 

 

  Seeds Whole plants Cuttings Seeds Seeds

 

Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks

Grewia erythraea Schweinf.

Grewia erythraea Schweinf.

Grewia erythraea Schweinf.

Grewia villosa Willd.

Tiliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cuttings

 

Cuttings

Daphne mucronata Royle

Tamarix aphylla (L.) G. Karsten

 

Thymelaceae

 

 

Seeds

Hermannia testacea Vollesen

 

Tamaricaceae

Seeds

Hermannia paniculata Franch.

 

 

Seeds

Withania qaraica A.G. Mill. & J. Biagi

 

Sterculiaceae

Seeds

Propagation method

Withania somnifera (L.) Dun.

Species

 

Family

n.r.

9

n.a.

n.a.

n.r.

 

n.a.

 

n.a.

 

n.r.

17

n.a.

6

n.a.

4

 

6

n.r.

First germination (days)

good

21

poor

0

good

 

0

 

very good

 

good

19

50

38

medium

85

 

very good

very good

Success rates (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Near Endemic

 

Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LC

 

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Seeds Seeds   Whole plants

Verbena cf. viburnoides

Vitex agnus-castus L.

 

Cissus quadrangularis L.

 

 

Vitaceae

 

Whole plants Whole plants Whole plants

Fagonia indica Burm.f.

Fagonia paulayana Wagner & Vierh.

Tetraena qatarense (Hadidi) Beier & Thulin

 

 

 

 

Seeds

Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer

 

Zygophyllaceae

Whole plants

 

Seeds

Propagation method

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori

Species

 

Verbenaceae

 

Family

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

n.a.

 

4

7

n.r.

n.a.

 

17

First germination (days)

47

4

4

 

95

 

95

0.1

very poor

9

 

3

Success rates (%)

Regional Endemic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Status

LC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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