International Conference on Cyber Security, Smart Grid Computing and Environmental Protection Technologies held on 16th – 17th December 2013 at ITM University Campus, Naya Raipur, Dist: Raipur-493661, Chhattisgarh State, India, Vol. 1
The reduction of air pollution caused by diesel engines by using MDFA. Mr. Dinesh B. Deshmukh #1
Mr. Rishi Shukla #2
Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, SER, ITM University, Raipur E-mail: [email protected]
Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, RCET, Nandanvan, Raipur E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract This paper describes the reduction of air pollution caused by vehicles particularly by diesel vehicles. Now days the surviving of human being without travelling is impossible and for that he/she has to use transportation medium. The very common type of transportation medium is petrol or diesel vehicles. It is found that the air pollution is mainly caused by vehicle because of incomplete combustion of fuel and quality of fuel obtained. The quality of fuel and efficiency of diesel engine can be increase by using multifunctional diesel additive (MDFA) in optimized way. Hence by using MDFA, the air pollution can be controlled to certain extent.
Keywords: Air pollution, vehicular pollution, diesel engine, MDFA, Incomplete combustion, emission standards, pollutants etc.
1. Introduction Air pollutants are added in the atmosphere from variety of sources that change the composition of atmosphere and affect the balanced environment. The concentration of air pollutants depend not only on the quantities that are emitted from air pollution sources but also on the ability of the atmosphere to either absorb or disperse these emissions. The air pollution concentration vary spatially and temporarily causing the air pollution pattern to change with different locations and time due to changes in meteorological and topographical condition. The sources of air pollutants include vehicles, industries, domestic sources and natural sources. As of the presence of high amount of air pollutants in the ambient air, the health of the population and property is getting adversely affected. In order to prevent the effect of pollutants in air quality, Govt. of India has established Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act in 1981. The responsibility has been further emphasized under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Sources of air pollution like factories or cars are usually categorized by regulatory agencies into one of three groups: area, mobile, or point. Categorization of a specific source may vary depending on whether it is releasing "criteria" or "hazardous" air pollutants.
Paper ID No. 307 Copyright © ITMUR-School of Engineering and Research, under the aegis of ITM University, December 16th – 17th 2013, Naya Raipur, Chhattisgarh State, India. The contents of this paper is under the jurisdiction of the author(s) of this paper but not to be claimed to ITM University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh State, India
Criteria pollutants refer to six chemicals which occur frequently in ambient air and can injure human health, harm the environment or cause property damage: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) refer to other chemicals which can cause adverse effects to human health or the environment. Congress has identified over 188 of these pollutants, including substances that cause cancer, neurological, respiratory, and reproductive effects. AREA SOURCES: Area sources include small pollution sources like dry cleaners, gas stations, and auto body paint shops. Area sources are defined as sources that emit less than 10 tons per year of criteria or hazardous air pollutant or less than 25 tons per year of a combination of pollutants. The category also includes commercial buildings (heating and cooling units; surface coatings), residential buildings (fire places; surface coatings), fuel combustion in non-road machinery, boats, railroads, and even the family lawnmower or barbecue grill. Waste disposal in the form of open burning, landfills and wastewater treatment are significant area sources. Though emissions from individual area sources are relatively small, collectively their emissions can be of concern - particularly where large numbers of sources are located in heavily populated areas. Area sources are responsible for over 50% of particulate matter emissions and more than point or mobile sources for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which contribute significantly to the formation of ground-level ozone. MOBILE SOURCES: Mobile sources include both on road vehicles (such as cars, trucks and buses) and off-road equipment (such as ships, airplanes, agricultural and construction equipment). Mobile sources contribute significantly to air pollution. Driving a car is probably a person's single most polluting daily activity. Nationwide, mobile sources are responsible for about 75% of carbon monoxide pollution, and more oxides of nitrogen emissions than area or point sources. In urban areas, the motor vehicle contribution to carbon monoxide pollution can exceed 90 percent. In a typical urban area, at least half of the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide pollutants come from mobile sources. Motor vehicles are also substantial sources of hazardous air pollutants, such as the recognized carcinogens benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 1, 3-butadiene and diesel particulate matter. POINT SOURCES: Point sources include major industrial facilities like chemical plants, steel mills, oil refineries, power plants, and hazardous waste incinerators. Point sources are defined as those that emit 10 tons per year of
any of the criteria pollutants or hazardous air pollutants or 25 tons per year of a mixture of air toxics. Nationwide, point sources like power plants, petroleum refineries, fertilizer manufacturers, industrial paper mills, copper smelters and iron and steel mills contribute the majority of sulfur dioxide emissions, accounting for nearly 90% of this criteria air pollutant. Point sources (predominantly electrical utilities and industrial boilers) are also major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) - accounting for about 40% of total releases. Point sources are less important sources of VOCs - releasing less than 15% of total volatile organic compounds. Criteria air pollutants are common throughout the world. These pollutants can injure health, harm the environment and cause property damage. The main pollutant is identified as six criteria pollutants: Carbon Monoxide Lead Nitrogen Dioxide (one of several Nitrogen Oxides) Ozone (formed from precursor Volatile Organic Compounds) Particulate Matter Sulfur Dioxide EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for each criteria pollutant, which define the maximum legally allowable concentration. If the NAAQS for a pollutant is exceeded, adverse effects on human health may occur. EPA and state agencies monitor area quality to assess compliance with these standards. Areas of the country where air pollution levels persistently exceed the standards may be designated by the U.S. EPA as nonattainment areas. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO): Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless and poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon in fuels. When CO enters the bloodstream, it reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. Health threats are most serious for those who suffer from cardiovascular disease. Exposure to elevated CO levels can cause impairment of visual perception, manual dexterity, learning ability and performance of complex tasks. 77% of the nationwide CO emissions are from transportation sources. The largest emissions contribution comes from highway motor vehicles. Thus, the focus of CO monitoring has been at traffic-oriented sites in urban areas where the main source of CO is motor vehicle exhaust. Other major CO sources are wood-burning stoves, incinerators and industrial sources. LEAD (Pb) Lead (Pb) is a widely used metal that, once released to the environment, can contaminate air, food, water, or soil. Exposures to even small amounts of lead over a long time can accumulate to reach harmful levels. Harmful effects may therefore develop gradually without warning. Short-term exposure to high levels of lead may also cause harm. Lead can adversely affect the nervous, reproductive, digestive, cardiovascular blood-forming systems, and the kidney.
NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a brownish, highly reactive gas that is present in all urban atmospheres. NO2 can irritate the lungs, cause bronchitis and pneumonia, and lower resistance to respiratory infections. NITROGEN OXIDES (NOx) Nitrogen oxides (NOx) include various nitrogen compounds like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). These compounds play an important role in the atmospheric reactions that create ozone (O3) and acid rain. Individually, they may affect ecosystems, both on land and in water. OZONE (O3) Ozone (O3) is the major component of smog. Although O3 in the upper atmosphere is beneficial because it shields the earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation, high concentrations of O3 at ground level are a major health and environmental concern. The reactivity of O3 causes health problems because it damages lung tissue, reduces lung function and sensitizes the lungs to other irritants. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) Particulate matter (PM) is a mixture of particles that can adversely affect human health, damage materials and form atmospheric haze that degrades visibility. PM is usually divided up into different classes based on size, ranging from total suspended matter (TSP) to PM-10 (particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter) to PM-2.5 (particles less than 2.5 microns). SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2) High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) affect breathing and may aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Sensitive populations include asthmatics, individuals with bronchitis or emphysema, children and the elderly. SO2 is also a primary contributor to acid rain, which causes acidification of lakes and streams and can damage trees, crops, historic buildings and statues. In addition, sulfur compounds in the air contribute to visibility impairment in large parts of the country. This is especially noticeable in national parks. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are defined by the Clean Air Act as chemicals that participate in forming ozone (O3). Ozone is a respiratory toxicant. The class of VOCs includes many specific chemicals which may also cause adverse health effects in their own right (such as cancer or reproductive toxicity). The all above described pollutants should be reduced for sustaining good environment. 1.1 Air pollutions problems in India. Air pollution in India is mainly caused from three sources namely vehicles, industrial and domestic sources. The air pollution is mainly concentrated in following three areas (i) Major Cities: The problem of air pollution is in major cities where the prominent source of air pollution is vehicles and small/medium scale industries. These cities include Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Kanpur etc. A study carried out in Delhi shows the contribution of industrial (including thermal power plants), vehicular and domestic sources of pollution to the ambient air in Delhi as follows (Table 1.1, Source: MoEF,).
Table 1.1 Contribution of air pollution from various sources in Delhi (Source MoEF)
Source Industrial Vehicular Domestic
56% 23% 21%
80- 81 40% 42% 18%
90- 91 29% 64% 7%
20% 72% 8%
10-11 18% 76% 6%
(ii) Critically Polluted Areas: 24 critically polluted areas have been identified in India where the problem of pollution exists. (iii) Rural Areas: The indoor air pollution exists in rural areas where the main source of air pollution is domestic fuel used. In rural areas cow dung, wood sticks are used as fuel in household. The kitchens are without any proper ventilation resulting in buildup of air pollutants in the houses 1.2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. The standards were set at the level required to provide an ample margin of safety to protect the public health. The six pollutants were chosen based on two criteria: (1) Emissions cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare; and (2) Presence in the ambient air results from numerous or diverse mobile or stationary sources. The Clean Air Act established two types of national air quality standards. Primary standards are intended to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings. Fo more, see EPA references on criteria air pollutants. National Ambient Air Quality Standards POLLUTANT
STANDA RD TYPE
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8-hour Average
10 mg/m3 40 mg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Primary & Secondary
Primary & Secondary
Lead (Pb) Quarterly Average Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Annual Arithmetic Mean Ozone (O3) 1-hour Average*
0.08 157 ppm µg/m3 Particulate < 10 micrometers (PM-10)
Primary & Secondary
Annual Arithmetic Mean 24-hour Average
50 µg/m3 150 µg/m3 Particulate < 2.5 micrometers (PM-2.5)
Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary
Annual Arithmetic Mean 24-hour Average
15 µg/m3 65 µg/m3
Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary
80 µg/m3 365 µg/m3 1300 µg/m3
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Annual Arithmetic Mean 24-hour Average 3-hour Average
0.03 ppm 0.14 ppm 0.50 ppm
1.3 Emission standards particularly for diesel engine vehicles. Table 1.2: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*,Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai 2003.04 NCR*, 12 Cities† 2005.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 12 Cities† 2010.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 12 Cities† * National Capital Region (Delhi) † Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur & Agra The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force preferably from April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010.  Trucks and buses Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines— applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 1. Emissions are tested over the ECE R49 13-mode test (through the Euro II stage) Table 1.3 Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh Year Reference CO HC NOx PM 1992 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 1996 11.20 2.40 14.4 2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36* 2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 2010† Euro III 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 * 0.612 for engines below 85 kW † Earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page. Light duty diesel vehicles Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). Table 1.4 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx PM 1992 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 1996 5.0-9.0 2.0-4.0 2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 0.97-1.70 0.14-0.25 2005† Euro 2 1.0-1.5 0.7-1.2 0.08-0.17 † Earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle. Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4. Table 1.5 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh Year Reference CO HC NOx PM 1992 14.0 3.5 18.0 1996 11.20 2.40 14.4 2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36* 2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 * 0.612 for engines below 85 kW † earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
2. Vehicular Pollution Problems in India Vehicles are one of the major sources of air pollution in major cities. The air pollution due to vehicles can be attributed to following: (i) High vehicle density in Indian urban centers results in air pollution buildup near the roadways and at traffic intersections. (ii) Older vehicles are predominant in vehicle vintage. These older vehicles are grossly polluting though in cities like Delhi grossly polluting vehicles have been phased out. (iii) Inadequate inspection and maintenance facilities result in high emission of air pollutants from vehicles. Emission can be reduced by proper and regular inspection and maintenance of vehicles. (iv) There are large numbers of two stroke two wheelers in most of the cities and these two-wheelers are a significant contributor of air pollution. (v) Adulteration of fuel and fuel products also result in high emissions from vehicles. (vi) Improper traffic management system and road conditions also result in buildup of air pollutants near the roadways as the emissions are higher when the vehicle is idling. (vii) Absence of effective mass rapid transport system and intra-city railway networks have resulted in people using their own vehicles for commuting to workplace. This has resulted in uncontrolled growth of vehicles.
(viii) High population exodus to the urban centers has also resulted in increase in number of vehicles resulting in high levels of vehicular air pollution. Major manmade sources of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) and Fine Particulate Matter (FPM) are as follows: (i) Emission from coal based power station (ii) Emission from oil fired furnace/boiler (iii) Emission from stone crusher, hot mix plants, lime kilns, foundry (iv) Hospital waste incinerator (v) Emission from stationery DG sets/portable DG sets (vi) Emission from diesel vehicles (bus and trucks) (vii) Emission from 2- stroke vehicles (2T oil used) (viii) Resuspension of road dust (ix) Burning of biomass/tyre, tube (x) Emission from waste oil reprocessing industries. 2.1 Reasons for air pollutions. The reasons for high air pollution in India are as follows: (i) Poor Quality of Fuel Fuel of poor quality such as coal, diesel, petrol, fuel oil is used in India. Although during the past few years, various measures have been taken to improve the quality of fuel such as reduction of sulphur in diesel, unleaded petrol etc. (ii) Old Process Technology Old process technology is employed in many industries especially in small scale industries resulting in high emission of air pollutants. (iii) Wrong set up place of Industries Wrong set up place of industries especially close to residential areas results in people getting affected due to air pollution. (iv) No Pollution Preventive Step in Early Stage of Industrialization No pollution preventive steps were taken in early stage of industrialization which has resulted in high levels of air pollutants in many areas. (v) Poor Vehicle Design Poor vehicle design especially 2-stroke two wheelers result in high emission of air pollutants. (vi) Uncontrolled Growth of Vehicle Population Uncontrolled growth of vehicle population in all major cities/towns has resulted in high levels of air pollution. (vii) No Pollution Prevention and Control System in Small/ Medium Scale Industry No pollution prevention and control system in small/medium scale industry exists resulting in high levels of air pollution. (viii) Poor Compliance of Standard in Small/Medium Scale Industries Poor compliance of standard in small/medium scale industries also result in high levels of air pollution. 2.3 Factors and causes for affecting combustion. a. The time available for combustion is very short in an engine. Typically in an engine (stationary DG sets) running at 1500 rpm, the time available for combustion will be of the order of 1/100 of a second. In vehicles running at 2800 rpm on high load, the time available for combustion is of the order of 1/200 of a second. b. Complete combustion in an engine requires initiation of combustion at the designated instant. The ignition of fuel should take place at a designated instant before the top dead center, followed by smooth and rapid combustion converting the fuel into gaseous combustion products.
c. There is a need for fine fuel atomization and an efficient mixing of fuel with air. The initiation of combustion also depends on the Cetane No. of the fuel, which is a measure of the self ignition quality of the fuel. The rate of vaporization depends on the surface area and hence on good fuel atomization with fine droplets for a larger surface area. d. The new engine designs with precisely engineered orifices are more vulnerable to fouling and even marginal fouling affects the combustion efficiency. Causes for incomplete combustion. e. Fouling of injector which is inevitable. Fouling is accentuated by the presence of cycle oil streams in diesel. f. Fouling compromises atomization. g. Poor atomization means larger particles. Therefore slower vaporization and not enough time for fuel vapour to mix with air ignite and burn. Net result loss of energy, reduced efficiency and power delivery. Existing Process adopted by Refineries h. Sludge formation, which occurs when a Fuel is unstable, affects both the Refiner and the ultimate Engine Operator. For the Refiner, it is a direct loss when sludge separates and precipitates out besides problems posed in terms of blockages and pumping. For the end user, it is not only a direct loss, but can lead to problems of filter choking and inoperability.
3. Proposed Solution for Optimal combustion. a. The most cost effective solution is the use of Multifunctional Diesel Additive like EMDFA 200 of TOTAL co., ADON D of Indian oils, IFTEX CLEAN SYSTEM D etc. b. Contains a detergent which quickly cleans injectors and improves atomization efficiency, thereby reducing incomplete combustion. c. Also contains a Cetane improver which helps in timely self ignition. Again contributes to improved combustion. (Incidentally Indian Diesel Spec in 13 major metros is 51). Cetane improver also helps in improving cold start capability. d. Corrosion inhibitor protects the entire fuel system. + Recommended Dosage:- 1 ml per litre of Diesel. e. Detergent action: Ensures the fineness of Diesel spray. f. Anti-foam properties: fill up the tank more quickly and without overflowing. MDFA (AC 2010) contains agents which ensure the reduction of foaming inside the tank. The foam makes it impossible to fill the tank completely without waiting for the foam to subside (foam can amount to up to 5% of the tank capacity and take about 45 seconds to subside).
3.1 MDFA EVALUATIONS/ RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Petroleum Conservation Research Association has evaluated EMDFA 200 on a TATA 697 DI diesel engine and found an economy in fuel consumption of the order of 3.59 to 4.68% at different speeds. 2. TELCO, Engineering Research Centre, Pune has tested EMDFA 200 on a TATA vehicle 1210 SE model and certified a 5 % saving is diesel consumption. 3. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras has evaluated EMDFA 200 on an engine of 12.4 BHP at 1800 rpm (Ruston 1 YWA MK4) and found an improvement of 4.1 to 6.3 % in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in smoke number ranging from 37.5 to 61.6% at different loads.
4. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas has evaluated EMDFA 200 on a 1990 model Cummins L 10 CPL No.1223 rated at 290 BHP @ 2100 rpm and certified the fuel treated with EMDFA 200 as “Superior”. 5. Mahindra and Mahindra has tried EMDFA 200 on M & M vehicles and found an increase in mileage by 8 – 10 %, considerable reduction in exhaust emissions and smoother drive with no negative effects. 6. SKODA recommends the use of EMDFA 200 for SKODA diesel engines. 7. CATERPILLAR has no objection to the use of EMDFA 200 in their engines. 8. Many large industrial houses and transporters in India use EMDFA 200 regularly.
4. Results and Discussions It is found that with the regular use of multifunctional diesel fuel additives there is reduction in pollution to great extent and the fuel efficiency of engine is increased.
5. Conclusion and benefits of using MDFA From above discussions, it can be said that with the regular use of multifunctional diesel fuel additives the environment would be protected from air pollution caused by diesel engines. Advantages: • Less smoke • Fuel economy • Better drivability and power • Lower maintenance costs particularly of the fuel injection system
6. References  Goyal, P., Singh, M.P., Bandyopadhyaay, T.K., Rama Krishna, T.V.B.P.S., 1995. Comparitive study of line source models for estimating lead levels due to vehicular traffic in Delhi. Environmental Software 10 (4), 289–299.  Harrison, R.H. Perry, R., 1986. Handbook of air pollution analysis, 2nd ed. Champman and Hall publication, New York.  Sivacoumar, R., 2000. Vehicular pollution near highways in Chennai city. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 20, 592–596.  Indian Standards IS: 5182 (part v) – 1975.  ASTM Standards D1605 – 60/90.  Dr. William Franek, Mr. Lou DeRose, J.D., Principles and practices of air pollution control manual, US environment protection agency, July 2003  Central pollution control board notification, New Delhi, India.  http://www.cumminsfiltration.com/pdfs/product_lit  http://www.epa.gov/airs/criteria.html  http://www.bharatpetroleum.in/EnergisingEnvironment/ KZ_VehicularPollution.aspx?id=3  http://www.acs.total.com/en/fuels/racing-fuels/fuelsabout-us.html
Bio-data of the authors Dinesh B. Deshmukh #1 is B.E. & M.Tech. in mechanical engineering design from Nagpur University in 2008 with about 09 years of work experience both in industry as well as in academics. His areas of interest are waste material utilizations, human powered machines, CAD/CAM etc. He is presently working as Asst. Prof. in dept. of mech. engg. SER - ITM University, Raipur. Rishi kumar Shukla #2 is B.E. & M.Tech. in CAD/CAM from Shri Guru Govid Singhji institute of engg. & tech., Nanded in 2007 with about 09 years of work experience both in industry as well as in academics. His areas of interest are mechanical engineering field, product designs, CAD/CAM etc. He is presently working as Asst. Prof. in mech. engg. dept. in RCET, Raipur.