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African Women’s Journal THE

A bi-annual journal of the African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET)

Issue 04 January - June 2012

Theme: Promoting Economic Empowerment of Women and Entrepreneurship as a Pathway for Fighting Poverty in Africa.

Issue 04 January - June 2012

DIRECTOR Dinah Musindarwezo EDITOR Carlyn Hambuba

African Women’s Journal THE

ASSOCIATE EDITOR Rachel Kagoiya

A bi-annual journal of the African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET)

Issue 04 January - June 2012

EDITORIAL ADVISERS Jacqueline Sylvie Ndongmo - Cameroon Pamela Mhlanga - Botswana Amie Joof - Senegal Doaa Abdelaal - Egypt GRAPHIC DESIGN & LAYOUT James Chunguli [email protected] PRINT PRODUCTION Pafido Enterprises [email protected]

Theme: Promoting Economic Empowerment of Women and Entrepreneurship as a Pathway for Fighting Poverty in Africa.

Photo Credits: FEMNET Photo Library, Nebila Abdulmelik Copyright © FEMNET 2012 The African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET) aims to strengthen the role and contribution of African NGO’s focusing on women’s development equality and other human rights through communications, networking, training and advocacy.

KUSCCO Center, Upper Hill Kilimanjaro Road, off Mara Road P.O. Box 54562, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2712971/2 Fax: +254 20 2712974 Cell:+254 725 766932 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.femnet.co

The African Women’s Journal

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Published with support from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)

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Contents Editorial …………………………………………………………………….….…..… 3 Forward ….........………………………………………………………………..….… 5 Africa’s Continental Free Trade Area: A Closer Look at the 20012 African Union’s Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade ......................................... 8 Entrepreneurship and Poverty Reduction: Issues and Challenges Faced by Women Farmers in the Middle Belt Zone (North Central) Nigeria ….............. 16 A Regional Study on the Visibility of Women Entreprenuers in the East African Community Intergration Process …………......................................…………..… 22 Africa Can Trade Itself Out Of Poverty - The Case of Zambia ...……….…........ 29 Gender Differentiated Impacts of Poverty Reduction on Women in Africa .... 31 FEMNET Conclude Research on Promoting African Women’s Economic Empowerment through Gender Responsive Trade Agreement .......................... 42 About FEMNET ........................................................................................................... 46

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Issue Issue No. No. 0404January January - June - June2012 2012 The The African African Women’s Women’s Journal Journal

Editorial How have African women benefited from the various trade agreements that their governments sign?

By Carlyn Hambuba

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romoting economic empowerment of women and entrepreneurship as a pathway for fighting poverty in Africa is definitely a smart way to contribute to the economic development of Africa because a majority of African women still have relatively limited access to material assets, low incomes and very limited opportunities to engage in regional and foreign trade. Currently there are few programmes by African governments that aim at creating employment and services by supporting women entrepreneurs particularly in informal sectors, including Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Medium Enterprises (MEs) and grow them to large businesses. Additionally, findings of the multi-country studies undertaken by FEMNET with support from Trust Africa in Egypt, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia in 2010 indicates that trade arrangements in Africa and with its partners in other regions of the world has had different impact on women and men and most often than not

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it affects women more negatively in their position as entrepreneurs, workers, consumers, producers, and care givers within the public and domestic spheres. African leaders particularly policy makers, trade negotiators, planners, economists and other key actors need to be aware of the gender differentiated impacts of economic development and should take them into consideration when formulating policy, making decisions and/or implementing economic empowerment programmes. As part of contributing to the African Women’s Decade (2010-2020) through provision of information on the themes of the Decade, the African Women’s Journal for January/June 2012 will focus on the theme: Promoting Economic Empowerment of Women and Entrepreneurship as a Pathway for Fighting Poverty in Africa. In this issue we share with you articles relating to the theme which are drawn from different parts of

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Africa. Sidikat Shitu from Nigeria interrogates the challenges that women entrepreneurs face as key players in boosting agricultural development in Nigeria. Benedict Tembo in his article opines that Africa can surely trade herself out of poverty and gives examples of how this can be done in Zambia making reference to quotes by speakers at the 2011 African Trade Forum. Patrick Agejo Ageh looks at the gender differentiated impacts of poverty reduction on women in Africa with a specific focus on Nigeria. Our regular contributor Henri J. Nkuepo has also elaborated the 2012 African Union’s Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade giving a critical analysis of some factors that African leaders should focus on in order to transform their political decisions into action.

agreements that their governments sign. We share with you the findings of this research. We also share with you research findings of a study undertaken by the East African Chamber of Commerce to assess the visibility of women entrepreneurs in the East African Community integration process. The Journal is packed with informative and thought provoking articles. Enjoy reading them. May I also take this opportunity to bid farewell as Editor of the African Women’s Journal and inform you that after 4 years (2008-2012) with FEMNET I am moving on to other prospects in the region. Best Wishes.

In 2011 FEMNET undertook a study to assess how Carlyn Hambuba African women have benefited from the various trade Head of Communication

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Foreword Favorable policies for trade in Africa are a catalyst for promoting economic empowerment of women and entrepreneurship in Africa. By Dinah Musindarwezo

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his year the African Union (AU) Summits are focusing on the theme: Boosting IntraAfrican Trade. This theme is a call to action for African governments to step up their efforts in boosting trade in Africa. The theme also provides an opportunity for African leaders to fully exploit the benefit of intra-African trade. It is time for the AU to coordinate with Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA), Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and other regional groupings to ensure trade policies are harmonized for the benefit of African citizens.

procedures. It has also achieved the elimination of non-tariff barriers (in particular import licensing), the removal of foreign exchange restrictions, and the removal of import and export quotas. While SADC has achieved the harmonization of policies in taxation, investment, stock exchange and insurance, while achieving macroeconomic convergence.

ECOWAS has equally removed tariffs on raw materials and has made progress towards macroeconomic policy convergence. A customs union has been established and harmonization of business regulatory framework and convergence on macroeconomic policies has been reached. Currently, there are some positive strides in The biggest concern is if these good policies have boosting trade in Africa. According to the Economic been simplified for ordinary women cross border Development in Africa 2009 Report, Regional traders to understand and benefit from them. The Economic Communities (RECs) have put measures AU needs to facilitate processes that will ensure in place to lessen the difficulties in conducting policies promoting trade or integration in Africa trade in Africa. For example, COMESA has designed deliberately contribute to promoting the economic single rules of origin and has simplified its customs empowerment of women and entrepreneurship as

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a pathway for fighting poverty in Africa. Currently, such policies have not delivered for ordinary people in the continent, especially women. Promoting women’s economic empowerment is a key priority for FEMNET. In the current Strategic Plan (2011-2013), FEMNET has identified five priority focus areas. One of these focus areas is generally referred to as “women’s economic empowerment and rights”. FEMNET seeks to facilitate promotion of African women’s economic empowerment including increasing access to information and productive resources, and ensuring African women’s effective participation in changing macroeconomic policy frameworks to be more gender-responsive, engendering trade arrangements between African countries and other regions and contributing to the discourse on development co-operation and new aid modalities from a gender perspective. A study was undertaken by FEMNET to assess how trade arrangements at the regional level between

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the European Union and Africa have impacted on women’s economic rights. The study highlighted the fact that analyzing the gender dimensions of trade arrangements in most African countries is a big challenge because sex-disaggregated data on trade issues, and particularly on trade agreements is lacking. Trade Arrangements (TA) within Africa and with its partners in other regions of the world has had different impacts on women and men. Favorable policies for trade in Africa are a catalyst for promoting economic empowerment of women and entrepreneurship in Africa. There is therefore an urgent need for African governments to ensure economic empowerment programmes benefit women as well. Specified measures need to be put in place to ensure women engage with and benefit fully from all policies aimed at boosting trade. Dinah Musindarwezo Executive Director-FEMNET

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....findings suggests that Africa trades little with itself and that the rates of trade between African countries or within African economic regions are lower than the rates of trade within other economic integrations around the globe.

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Africa’s Continental Free Trade Area: A Closer Look at the 2012 African Union’s Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade By Henri Nkuepo

Introduction he African Union (AU) 18th Summit of January 2012 was, according to me, a politically successful one. African leaders proudly heralded their commitment to establish a Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) by 2017. Their devotion and political willingness to increase intraAfrican trade, with the objective of generating employment, reducing poverty, increasing the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI), developing African industries and better integrating Africa into the global economy so that Africa can have a sustainable economic growth, pushed them to adopt a plan, Action Plan For Boosting IntraAfrican Trade1 and to agree on deadlines. In order to successfully establish the FTA, they decided that the current tripartite agreement among East African Community (EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) must be finalized by 2014; that other African trade blocs must follow the experience of the tripartite agreement and reach parallel agreement between 2012 and 2014 and that the tripartite and other regional free trade areas must be consolidated into the CFTA initiative between 2015 and 2016.2

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However, many scholars are skeptical about this initiative because the vast majority of African leaders are generally characterized by their passivity, slowness and their tendency to depend on foreign aids. Here are some of the questions that they ask: Can African countries really make it? Is it too soon for them to think of a CFTA? Will they need Cooperation with Foreign institutions (including states) and especially the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How can they learn from previous mistakes? What is the sustainable development aspect of their plan? And what is the gender aspect of it considering the increased number of informal cross-border trade by women? This paper will attempt to answer some of these questions. It will submit that African leaders have to transform their political decision into action and that they have to cooperate with their partners, not donors,3 and with the WTO/World Bank/African Development Bank4 and the UNCTAD if they want to establish a successful FTA that respects multilateral norms. Further, the paper critically analyzes the action plan highlighting some previous mistakes and warning African leaders not to fall into the same traps.

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See African Union Action Plan For Boosting Intra‐African Trade, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/Action%20Plan%20for%20boosting%20intra-African%20trade%20F-English.pdf (last visited 13/02/2012) See BuaNews Africa Targets Free Trade Area by 2017,(31 Jan 2012) http://www.buanews.gov.za/news/12/12013111051001 (last visited 13/02/2012) Partners here mean foreign institutions (developing and developed countries). African leaders must stop looking at other states as donors but as partners. Most of those developed countries do not have enough moneys to solve their problems and that of Africa and the time of negotiation or renegotiation has come. 4 The WTO and the WTO/World Bank/ADB working together to help African countries to develop the trade-related skills and infrastructure that is needed to implement and benefit from WTO agreements and to expand their trade, WTO Aid for Trade http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/a4t_e/aid4trade_e.htm (last visited 25/02/2012). In the Aid-for-Trade Work Program 2012-2013, the WTO aims to deepen coherence and regional trade integration is one of the five key areas of focus. See WTO Committee on Trade and Development, Aid-for-Trade Work Program 2012-2013: “Deepening Coherence”, WT/COMTD/ AFT/W/30, (15 November 2011). 2 3

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Free Trade Area and Africa: What is a Free Trade these levels of integration are an exception to the Area and why does Africa need to establish one? non-discrimination principle; the most-favoredIn theory, there are five levels of economic nation (MFN) treatment. In theory, a WTO member integration. The first one is the Free Trade Area/ is not allowed to discriminate between its trading Agreement (FTA). This level of integration means partners. In other words, when a member accords a that two or more countries decide to eliminate all favor to one partner, it has to extend that favor to 8 internal barriers to trade as among themselves and other members. But, in these levels of integration, that each of them is free to decide what tariffs it countries are allowed to accord to one another applies to products imported from or exported to a treatments that are different from those applied to country which is not party to their agreement. The non-members. It is a WTO strategy to increase trade 9 second level of integration is the Custom Union (CU). between countries of a specific region and to help It is an arrangement between two or more countries African countries (developing countries) use trade to achieve their development to liberalize trade between and job creation objectives. or among them and to have common external tariffs ...each African country has Thus, African countries (harmonization of foreign to mainstream intra-African 5 want to increase intraeconomic policy). The third African trade and to, in the trade in its national trade and level of integration is the Common Market (CM). This development strategies and to future, have a Continental Economic and Monetary includes the elements of CU allocate a budget for that. Union (CEMU). Indeed, plus the free movement of finding suggests that Africa labor and capital among its trades little with itself and members. The fourth level of integration is the Economic and Monetary Union that the rates of trade between African countries or (EMU). This includes the elements of a CU and CM within African economic regions are lower than the with fixed exchange rates and coordination of fiscal rates of trade within other economic integrations 10 and monetary policies. Finally, the fifth level of around the globe. African leaders believe that a integration is the Total Economic Integration (TEI) CFTA will help to significantly increase the volume of which is the pursuit of a common economic policy by trade within Africa and that increased intra-African the political units involved6 It is an economic union trade will help to address the challenges that Africa with all relevant economic policies conducted at the faces in the multilateral trading system and in the 11 supranational level, in compliance with the principle global economy. Further, Africa trading with Africa 12 of subsidiarity’, i.e. EU.7 In the world trading system, will help the continent save billions of dollars. 5

See Raj Bhala Dictionary of International Trade Law, LexisNexis (2008). See International labor Office (ILO) Forms of Economic Integrations, http://www.actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/global/ilo/globe/integrfo.htm (last visited 16/02/2012) See Francesco P. Mongelli European economic and Monetary Integration, and the Optimum Currency Area Theory, European Commission, (2008) http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/publication12081_en.pdf (last visited 15/02/2012). 8 See WTO Understanding the WTO: Principles of the World Trading System, http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact2_e.htm (last visited 16/02/2012) 9 See Article XXIV of the GATT. 10 See Paul Brenton and Gözde Isik, Introduction, in World Bank De Fragmenting Africa: Deepening Regional Trade Integration in Goods and Services, The World Bank Report, (2012) http://siteresources.worldbank. org/INTAFRICA/Resources/Defrag_Afr_English_web_version.pdf (last visited 16/02/2012) 11 See African Union Action Plan For Boosting Intra‐African Trade, supra. 12 See World Bank De-Fragmenting Africa: Deepening Regional Trade Integration in Goods and Services, The World Bank (2012) 6 7

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The AU Action Plan: an Analysis According to the Action Plan For Boosting IntraAfrican Trade, Africa does not trade with itself because of the differences in trade regimes; the restrictive customs procedures, the administrative and technical barriers; the limitations of productive capacity; the inadequacies of trade‐related infrastructure, trade finance, and trade information; the lack of factor market integration; and the inadequate focus on internal market issues.13 In order to address these challenges, African leaders believe that they have to focus on several factors: i) Trade Policy African leaders realized that in order to help Africa trade with itself, African countries have to adopt and to implement coherent and efficient trade policies at the national, regional and continental level and that those policies have to be geared to the promotion of intra-African trade. They further acknowledged that there still exist substantial differences in trade regimes within and between African Regional Economic Communities (REC) although trade liberalization is a key element of each of those RECs. They then concluded that the trade policies of African countries have to be redesigned in favor of African countries with no non-African country receiving favor more favorable than an African country. In order to meet this objective, they developed a list of policy programs and activities to be implemented in short, medium and long terms. For instance, they agreed that in the short-term, each African country has to mainstream intraAfrican trade in its national trade and development strategies and to allocate a budget for that. This is a politically important and encouraging decision taken by African leaders because African countries  10

are often reproached of raising tariffs and taxes to increase their government’s revenue and this is illustrated by the fact that an important part of the budget of many African countries comes from taxes and tariffs. Thus, if a country reduces taxes on import and export and if it reduces the number of road controls, its budget will be reduced. The question, then, is: where are they going to get the money if they are asked to liberalize their trade and to cut tariffs? This is a question that the action plan did not consider and, therefore, did not address. This can be a huge challenge in the future with many countries arguing that they did not have the necessary budget. Further, it can push some leaders to seek foreign aids and, therefore, to sign deals with non-African countries. That is, in the short term, many African countries might conclude that they are losing money by reducing barriers to trade and, pushed by lobbies, they can decide not to follow the timetable decided in Addis Ababa during the 18th AU summit. This is why I would like the AU to follow-up with trade policy-makers in each African country and to help them understand that the benefits of boosting intra-African trade by reducing tariffs will come with time (in the long-term). In addition, African leaders agreed that in order to boost the trade in food within Africa, all tariffs, nontariff barriers and quantitative restrictions have to be removed immediately or in the short-term. My questions here are: what is the mechanism put in place to verify if those trade restrictive measures are actually removed? What will happen (accountability) if a government does not remove those barriers to trade? What if a government does not know how to harmonize that removal with its WTO commitments or with its existent commitments with a non-African country? These are, once again, some points that the action plan did not consider. Issue No. 04 January - June 2012

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decided to eliminate those constraints by setting In order to successfully achieve their objective, up programs and activities whose implementation I believe that a peer review mechanism has to be will be necessary for boosting intra-regional trade. established to constantly assess the implementation Among the programs and activities are the reduction of the different programs and activities adopted by of road blocks by 50% or more, the harmonization African countries; such mechanism has to be used and simplifying of customs and transit procedures, as a tool for African policy dialogue.13 It will help documentation and regulations, the establishment African improve their policies and comply with laid and operationalization of one-stop border posts and down standards and principles.14 However, for the the integrated border management. success of this peer review, there needs to be value & experience sharing, mutual learning and trust, While these are important programs and activities, analytical credibility of the peer review process, it can be argued, knowing the situation on the commitment to compliance15 and the peer review ground, that these are incomplete. First, African countries have to consider mechanism has to be part of the problem of corruption the action plan. The African seriously and to work Peer Review Mechanism ...a peer review mechanism has more closely with businesses to (APRM) could play this role if it was not an optional to be established to constantly address it. For instance, assess the implementation of goods’ transporters have to mechanism. know the exact documents, the different programs and the exact number of road ii) Trade Facilitation activities adopted by African Another important political countries; such mechanism has blocks, and have an idea of the amount of money that point made in Addis Ababa to be used as a tool for African they will need while crossing was the recognition, by policy dialogue. one border (transparency African leaders, of the fact principle of the WTO). These that the removal of tariffs and are important because non-tariff barriers alone will not suffice to boost intra-African trade. Considering they will help to identify cases of corruption that trade facilitation constraints (complex customs and to hold the perpetrators accountable. The and administrative procedures and regulations, governments have to create a system of record to inefficient and costly transit systems as evident by verify the transactions between custom officials numerous informal roadblocks along trade corridors, and transporters. Second, African countries have to differences in rules of origin, trade documentation, facilitate the trade by women, cross-border trade, and standards) have been a major factor in the by mainstreaming gender in their trade facilitation low level of trade between African countries, they programs and activities and in all their policies 13

For instance, in Asia, the have the ASEAN Surveillance Process (ASP). See John AA Ayoade African Peer Review: Toward Casa-Rovia Doctrine, African Studies program University of Pennsylvania, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/ayoade-casa.html (last visited 20/02/2012) 15 Id. 14

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and strategies aimed at increasing cross-border trade. This is because women are more involved in cross-border trade than men and because they are often harassed and physically abused. This gender mainstreaming also entails mixing the custom officials at the borders (men and women working together). I think that women, mostly householders in Africa, would better understand their counterparts and the chances of women harassing other women sexually are lower.16 Gender mainstreaming can also help reduce corruption at the borders because higher levels of women’s participation in public life are associated with lower levels of corruption and women are more trustworthy and less prone to corruption than men.17 Third, African leaders should implement programs and activities to eradicate conflicts, terrorism and political instabilities on the continent. These are other trade facilitation constraints that they did not consider.18

that, they think, will be necessary for developing the manufacturing sector and boosting the intra-African trade of manufactured goods. They also understood that the inadequacy of basic infrastructure has, over the years, played a major role in the current lack of diversification and competiveness of Africa’s economy, and of the continent’s marginalization in the dynamic sectors of global trade. They further realized that the non-implementation of existing initiatives has also been a challenge and call on each member state to effectively implement those initiatives.

African leaders, therefore, decided to prioritize the implementation of these existing programs; Action Plan for the Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa, (in place since 2007), the Africa’s Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action (in place since 2005), the African Productive Capacity Initiative (in place since 2004) and the African Agribusiness and Agroindustry Development Initiative (in place since iii) Productive Capacity and Trade-Related 2010). The most striking remark here is that from the Infrastructures African leaders are aware that Africa remains the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) least-developed manufacturing region of the world in 2001 to the Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African and that Africa heavily relies on the outside world Trade in 2012, the AU and its agencies, sometimes to meet its demand for manufacturing goods. helped by some international organizations, come They are also aware that Africa exports more up with programs and plans almost every year. And natural resources than it imports and agree that from the NEPAD to the recent action plan, one notes Africa has to upgrade its productivity capacity the non-involvement of African businesses and civil in the manufacturing sector to have a better societies in the design process of those plans, the structure and balance of trade with the world and continue tradition of power and patronage of African 19 to use trade to meet their developmental and job leaders, and the tendency to depend on foreign aid creation objectives. They, therefore, developed some for the success of any African initiatives. Developing productive capacity building programs and activities an action plan is one thing and implementing such 16

See Henri J. Nkuepo Completing the World Bank Report: De-Fragmenting Africa: Deepening Regional Trade Integration in Goods and Services, Commenting on the World Bank Report (15th February 2012 at 01:14) http://ictsd.org/i/news/bridges-africa/124657/ (last visited 20/02/2012) See Omar Azfar, Steve Knack, Young Lee and Anand Swamy, Gender and Corruption, IRIS Centre Working Paper No. 232 (1999) 18 See Henri J. Nkuepo Reducing the Non-tariff Obstacles to Intra-African Trade: A Developmental Strategy, Africa’s Trade Law Newsletters, Issue 3 http://www.africantradexpert.com/ The_Benefit_of_Africa.pdf (last visited 20/02/2012) 19 See Vanessa K. Snoddy The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)--Will it Succeed or Fail? USAWC Strategy Research Project, (2005) http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/ GetTRDoc?AD=ADA431749 (last visited 21/02/2012) 17

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plan is another. Having a plan and not implementing it is useless and, a fortiori, a political failure. African leaders have to develop the spirit of accountability. They need a mechanism in place to ensure that the programs and activities that they adopt are actually being implemented or to help them implement their programs. A mechanism like the APRM has to be imposed, not optional.

of inconvertible currencies, underdevelopment of institutions that can provide finance, credit and guarantee) and that the lack of adequate trade information system are a challenge to intra-African trade. They also understand that the obstacles to factors of production’s mobility have to be removed. These factors are labor, enterprises and capitals.

A Will for Boosting Trade and No Will for African leaders have to know one thing; they have to Protecting the Environment cooperate with non-African countries and institutions One mistake that African trade policy-makers if they really want to develop the manufacturing generally make is to believe that trade and sector and if they want to bring new technologies environment or trade and human rights are distinct. to Africa. This cooperation It is, according to me, means negotiation inconceivable, at the pace (concessions), liberalization that our environment is Gender mainstreaming can also of the service sector degrading and African help reduce corruption at the and attraction of foreign 20 borders because higher levels of people starving, that an investors (multinationals). African policy-maker adopts The continent does not only women’s participation in public life program for increasing need new technologies; are associated with lower levels of trade without considering it needs electricity to corruption and women are more that increased trade affect support them and Africa the environment. In other trustworthy and less prone to have the resources not the word, no initiative or corruption than men. technologies and money. program that is adopted Further, African leaders have for boosting trade should to share their powers. The era be environmentally blind. of patronage and government running all businesses Africa might be the least-developed manufacturing is over. A well regulated privatization, important for region in the world or the continent that trade competition, will help develop important sectors like less with itself but, African leaders, should always information and communication technologies (ICT). remember that climate change affects Africa more iv) Trade Finance, Trade Information and Factor Market Integration African leaders are conscious that the continent’s financing mechanisms are inadequate (multiplicity

than any other region of the world for: ‘climate change … does not affect us all equally. The poorest and most vulnerable –those who have done least to contribute to global warming- are bearing the brunt of the impact today.’21

20 Climate Change is among the causes of food insecurity in Africa. See Henri J. Nkuepo The Real Causes of Food Insecurity in Africa: Helping Dr. De Schutter (UN) and Director Pascal Lamy (WTO) Identify the Causes of Hunger in Africa, Africa’s Trade Law Newsletters, Issue 4, http://www.africantradexpert.com/Blog--Have-Your-Say.html (last visited 25/02/2012). 21 Ban Ki-moon Green Growth: Korea ‘S New Strategy : Power Green Growth, Protect The Planet, Korea Herald (Republic of Korea) 14 April 2009 http://www.un.org/sg/articles/articleFull. asp?TID=101&Type=Op-Ed (last visited 25/02/2012)

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That is, for sustainable development and environmental protection purposes, African leaders have to double their efforts, to negotiate and liberalize the trade of environmental goods and services while working toward a CFTA. They need to mainstream environmental protection in all their trade policies and projects. Further, they have to work closely with the WTO in order to know how to benefit from all the advantages that the organization accords them as developing countries.

trade distorting subsidies and export subsidies and because concessions made in the WTO negotiations are made available to all WTO members. This makes multilateralism important for several countries in Africa. Further, it is because the WTO permits FTAs as a departure from its fundamental rule of nondiscrimination, MFN treatment, between countries so long as they cover “substantially all trade”.23 Thus, establishing a CFTA is good for Africa and it is good for the WTO as well because it shows that African countries are working to meet their objectives, those of the organization and to further liberalize trade. They, therefore, have to work in close collaboration with the organization to make sure that any measure that they implement does not go against their commitments. By adopting WTO consistent policies, they will be respecting the international law of treaties and the principle Pacta sunt servanda (agreements and stipulations of the parties to a contract must be observed), ‘Every treaty in force is binding upon the parties to it and must be performed by them in good faith’, Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969.

WTO: Africa’s Number one Priority Because of the delay in concluding the WTO Doha Round of Multilateral Negotiations, African leaders, who originally expected a lot from that Round, are now disappointed and believe that it is time for them to seek alternative ways of using trade to meet their developmental objectives. Establishing a CFTA as strategy to boosting intra-African trade will, according to them, help address the challenges that Africa faces in the multilateral trading system and the global economy.22 It is clear that because of the delay of the Doha Round, the WTO is losing credibility and many of its detractors see it as a failure. African countries should not make that mistake and should understand, in establishing the CFTA, that the WTO is their number one priority. This is because it Henri J. Nkuepo is a Research Scholar, Law School is only in the WTO negotiations that countries can – University of Iowa (USA) Associate Fellow, CISDL – effectively and possibly deal with issues such as University of McGill (Montreal- Canada)

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See the Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade supra. See New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade, A Basic Guide to Free Trade Agreements: Ten questions and answers about Free Trade Agreements, http://mfat.govt.nz/downloads/trade/FTAart.pdf (last visited 24/02/2012) 23

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It is often said that when you empower a woman you empower a nation and when you invest in women and girls, the world becomes a better place for all.

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Entrepreneurship and Poverty Reduction: Issues and Challenges Faced by Women Farmers in the Middle Belt Zone (North Central) Nigeria By Sidikat Shitu

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their own businesses. Olagunju (2004) defines an entrepreneur1 as a person, organization or government who establishes an organization for profit or other personal aims, social, welfare, growth etc.   Suleiman (2006) defines entrepreneurship as “the willingness and ability of an individual to seek for investment opportunities to establish and run an enterprise successfully”. Agriculture has long been the dominant sector in the North Central Zone of Nigeria in terms of output, employment, and export earnings. However, for the past two decades, much of the history of agricultural development in Nigeria is a story of development failure. This failure is reflected in a rate of agricultural output growth that lags well behind the rate of population growth, the population of the country which is presently at about 156million2 (National Population Commmision, 2011) with over 70% residing in the rural areas, the country still remains food insecure, while imports is growing and agricultural export is declining.

igeria is a country divided into six geopolitical zones with a population of almost 156million people, with over 70% of her population living in the rural areas. Women make about 52% of Nigeria’s population, contribute 69% of agricultural labour force and produce about 75% of food for local consumption and export. In the North-Central zone majority of the women are predominantly occupied with agricultural activities, with farming being their major means of livelihood. Research has shown that production, processing and marketing of food crops are their major microenterprise. Most of their activities are still done in the traditional way, for instance hawking still remains the major method of disposing products to their customers/consumers. This paper, therefore presents a perspective of what deters women farmers from becoming successful entrepreneurs and it aims to provide key stakeholders with better recommendations to reduce or eliminate the challenges faced by women farmers in the North It is often said that when you empower a woman you Central Zone. Though not conclusive, but points out empower a nation and when you invest in women and girls, the world becomes a better place for all. critical issues that affect women farmers. Since 1999 when Nigeria returned to democracy, restoration of sustainable agricultural growth is Introduction among the highest development priorities of the Entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon. government and the people. It therefore became Across the globe, growing numbers of people are pertinent to recognize the role of Nigerian women realizing their dreams of owning and operating in agricultural development, because they have key 1 See definition “Olagunju, Y.A (2004), Entrepreneurship and Small Scale Business Enterprises Development in Nigeria. University Press Plc. Ibadan 2 source : www.population.gov.ng

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roles to play in revitalizing agriculture, especially Savadogo 1980) In Nigeria the preparation of garri food production. from cassava involves many steps, and to produce a typical 35kg bag of garri (enough to feed a family North Central Nigeria is the most productive region of 6for 2 to 3 weeks) requires 200 tubers of cassava in terms of agriculture. Majority of women here are and a processing time of around 70hours4 . predominantly occupied with agricultural activities. Six states make up the North Central, they are as The role of women in developing agriculture in follows: Benue, Nassarawa, Niger, Kogi, Kwara and Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. In this zone the Federal Capital Territory inclusive. Farming women are known for the production of maize, remains the major means of livelihood here in terms cowpea, millet, beans, cassava, benniseed, soybeans, of production, processing and marketing of food and groundnut, etc. Even though, it is usually in small cash crops. commercial quantities. Majority of this women also engage in keeping domestic animals such as goats, The Role of Nigerian Women in Agriculture rams, chicken, pig etc. with all this efforts they Women constitute the majority of small farmers; contribute about 75% of food consumed locally and they provide most of the labour and manage many for exportation. To a greater extent this has created farms individually or collectively. In Nigeria the job opportunities for women at the grassroot and female-headed household is a growing phenomenon, enabled them to contribute to the welfare of their most of these women have lost their husbands to families. undisclosed diseases and some have been divorced as a result of their inability to contribute to the welfare Research Analysis of their families. This experience drives most of From the six states in the North Central Zone, one these women into begging, prostitution, illegitimate Local Government each was strategically selected businesses and over dependence on the government. for this survey. 20 women farmers within the ages of 25 and 40 were used for the survey in each of (Nwosu 1998) In Nigeria 16% of households the 6 Local Government Areas in the zone. A total surveyed were headed by women but with marked of 120 respondents were randomly chosen and regional variation3. In the eastern part of the country interviewed for the purpose of this survey. The “farming is traditionally loved by women”, in the research instrument used is structured interview. It southwest, women traditionally trade rather than was revealed that 32% of the women were heads of farm. In Middle-belt 15% households were female households; widowed or divorced. 82% do not have access to their own farmlands; they rent or work on headed. their family farmlands, 72% lack access to external Also, women carry out processing and marketing supports; from government and non-governmental of agricultural products, which can be extremely organizations. 32% claim they lack capital, 86% still labor- intensive and time consuming. (Timi and use the traditional system of storage. Nwosu B. (1998) Agricultural Economics, 7th Edition, Ibadan Mavriel Associate Press see Anyanwu J.C, Oyefusi A., Oaikhenan, H.F.A (1997), The Structure of the Nigerian Economy (1960-1970), Nigeria: Joanee Educational Publishers Ltd.

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One respondent noted, “As I travel to and from work every day, between Minna and Lapai town , I see young and old women in linear villages engaged in one activity or the other, some of them work on their farm lands, some hawk yam tubers, some break fire woods, some carry loads of fire wood on their shoulders, some trekking to other villages with loads on their heads and some standing by the main road with their farm produce waiting under the sun for commercial vehicles to convey them to the markets where they can sell their products, I imagine the negative effect all this will have on their health”

institutions and NGOs in their own capacity at different periods play applaudable roles in the quest to agricultural development.

The Challenges Faced by Women Farmers in North Central Nigeria In this zone farming activities are still done in the traditional way which cannot really lead to development. For instance the use of simple hand tools, direct labour, hawking still remains the major methods of production, processing and marketing. Women are usually exposed to problems which have negative effect on their economic power, health Government Policies, Institutions/Schemes and social life. This has left majority of the women Since independence in 1960, the Government powerless and vulnerable despite their struggle to of Nigeria under different political dispensations make a better life. It was discovered in Doma Local enacted policies to support entrepreneurship Government that a structured business opportunity and small businesses, to create wealth, reduce is available for the benniseed farmers, because the unemployment and alleviate women’s poverty with product is mainly produced for export. It’s also almost the fact that entrepreneurship is the surest way to very impossible for women farmers to have access development. Nigeria Agricultural and Cooperative to small loans because of their inability to meet the Bank (NACB) which is now called Bank of Agriculture criteria’s set by Micro- Finance Banks. Some issues was established in 1973, as a bank primarily dedicated and challenges relating to skills and infrastructures to agricultural financing at both micro and macro have emerged, they are discussed below. level. a) Education: here there is a false belief that National Directorate of Employment (NDE) women are weak and that they should not be given established in 1989 renders agricultural, vocational any serious education, resulting in the problem of and apprenticeship training for jobless Nigerians Girl-Child education. In the 6 rural communities and provides loan to young entrepreneurs. Small where this research was carried out, only 13% of and medium Enterprise Development Agency of the girls go to school while 64% hawk various items Nigeria (SMEDAN) was established in 2003 to on the streets and go to farm. There is need to promote the development of the micro, small and realize that knowledge is key to efficiently running medium enterprises sector of the Nigeria economy. a successful enterprise. With education women will Better Life for Rural Women Programme (BLRWP) a be able to improve on their enterprises, can easily national women poverty alleviation programme for source for fund, and even organize themselves into grassroot women and WOFAN (Women Farmers multipurpose cooperative societies, and become Advancement Network) provides micro credits more efficient. to women farmers in Northern Nigeria. Such  18

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b) Finance: This seems to be the biggest challenge farmers’ face but this research showed clearly that access to information is more challenging than finance. In past years models for assessing loans were put together by the government to enable women secure loans for their businesses, such as the World Bank FADAMA project but it was hijacked by corruption, thereby denying a greater number of women groups at the grass root assess to this small loan. Rural women still very much rely on the traditional and unofficial cooperatives which is widely referred to as (Adashi) in the Northern part of Nigeria. The Micro finance banks which are very close to the farmers in most cases do not have sufficient funds to finance farmers and the commercial banks are not willing to take risks associated with small farmers. c) Farm Land Ownership Rights: Nigerians share similar culture when it comes to right to ownership of land, women are perceived to be ‘weak’, and should not be given free hand to own valuable assets such as land. In this zone some women are not even allowed to participate in personal economic activities, they rely solely on their husbands properties therefore they work only on their husbands farms. Even though, women are economically productive in terms of agriculture yet they are been handicapped by cultural practice. All of these and many more are seen as violation of women’s rights in face of economic hardship. d) Technology: women still engage in the use of traditional technology, the use of simple farm tools such as hoes and cutlasses, these requires man power energy, ideally women are not expected to use so much energy on farm alone because they have other domestic household activities to attend to.

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e) Extension Services and Research: It’s only very recently that matters affecting women farmers started gaining attention from the government, there is a realization that women are more economically productive in terms of agriculture if given the opportunity, in the past male farmers are given more attention than the women. Local Governments have begun working closely with the farmers. NGOs are targeting women with economic empowerment programs at the grassroots. f) Storage: Storing farm produce is very challenging to farmers. In the Northern part of Nigeria storage facilities are inadequate and ineffective. It is estimated that 1/4 of all food produced is lost to spoilage, insects and rodents (OKOJIE 1991) “the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute estimates losses in storage in 1985 as being 30-50 percent for grain and tubers” g) Pricing and Marketing: Poor pricing is another big challenge to women farmers, for instance ten tubers of yam goes for about 500naira, most people in the cities think farmers are not civilized and as such they can price their products very low. Some of the farmers also suffer low self esteem, so they attach very little prices to their products, while some of them feel they are contented with little gains. Also due to lack of good roads many farm produce perish thus discouraging women farmers. Recommendations: Government should increase women farmers’ access to information through the extension workers by organizing empowerment programs for them at the grassroot. Government should increase women’s access to farm land, water, loan (credits), trainings, new technology, modern storage facilities and most importantly the

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knowledge of value chain at the grassroot.Price floor mechanism should be introduced and sustained by all levels of government to rescue them from poor pricing. There is a need for the private sector to collaborate with the farmers while the financial institutions should come to their aids for micro financing.

References: Akpa A. (2007): Challenges of the Nigerian Entrepreneur in the Twenty-First Century. A paper presented at the Maiden Annual College of Management Sciences Seminar, University of Mkar. 10p

Anyanwu J.C, Oyefusi A., Oaikhenan, H.F.A (1997), Government should formulate policies that will be The Structure of the Nigerian Economy (1960-1970), directed at women farmers, there is a need to put Nigeria: Joanee Educational Publishers Ltd. critical infrastructures in place such as good roads, Olagunju, Y.A (2004), Entreprenuership and Small water and electricity. Scale Business Entreprises Development in Nigeria. University Press Plc. Ibadan Women should be encouraged to form co-operatives, work together as groups this will give them better Suleiman, A.S. (2006): The Business Entrepreneur; Entrepreneurial Development, Small and Medium opportunities to access loans from banks Enterprises, 2nd Edition, Entrepreneurship Academy Publishing, Kaduna. Conclusion: Across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria women farmers are known to be key players in agriculture in terms of production, processing and Sidikat Shitu is an Economist, presently a lecturer marketing. Acknowledging this fact women still at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, face a lot of challenges which is traceable to gender Niger State, Nigeria. She is the Founder of Women discrimination. With the country’s ever growing and Girl-child Empowerment Initiative (WOGCEI), population, there is a rapid increase in the demand of She is an independent Researcher/Consultant on food crops. We need food for survival especially now Women and Girls Issues, she has empowered a great that the government is trying to discourage food number of rural women and girls in Nigeria. She has importation. Therefore, serious entrepreneurship also participated in various Gender, Development trainings for women are necessary to reduce meetings, forums and conferences in many countries, unemployment, poverty and food insecurity in including the launch of the African Women’s Decade Nigeria. That way we can collectively achieve the (2010-2020) in our countries. goals of the African Women’s Decade.

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...women entrepreneurs (micro, small, medium and large) have a right to benefit from and a role to scale up private sector involvement in all activities... The African Women’s Journal

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A Regional Study on the Visibility of Women Entreprenuers in the East African Community Intergration Process By Carol Idembe

Abstract recent Study undertaken by the East African Women Chamber of Commerce (EAWCC) indicates that there is need for an inclusive and gendered approach to the representation of roles and interests within the East African Community integration process. The study was undertaken to assess the visibility of women entrepreneurs in the integration process and as well as review the business growth and formalization constraints faced by micro and small women entrepreneurs. This paper will share the Executive summary of the interim report that documents the findings of the research by EAWCC.

A

Introduction East Africa has embraced regional integration as a major driver for economic, social and political transformation of her countries, namely; Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda. This was legitimized by signing the 1999 Treaty for establishing the East African Community (EAC). The Treaty stipulates that: “Partner States undertake to establish amongst themselves and in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty, a Customs Union, a Common Market, a Monetary Union, and ultimately a Political Federation.” Accordingly, key functional organs were created to pursue these four (4) pillars underlined by the Treaty. These organs include; the EAC Summit, the Council of Ministers, Legislative Assembly, Court of Justice and the EAC Secretariat. Through these or-

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gans, the Protocol on the Customs Union was signed in March 2004, became operational in January 2005 and fully actualized in 2010. A Common Market Protocol was also signed in November 2009, and came into effect in January 2010. Furthermore, a model for the Monetary Union is being developed with a target to operationalise it in 2012. Similarly, fast tracking the Political Federation was done and consultations about it are being made in the 5 partner States, with a focus on promoting human rights, good governance, peace and conflict resolution within the region. One of the key targeted outcomes of the EAC is to improve the standard of living of the people, by actively involving the business community in ensuring increased competitiveness, value-added production, and providing an enabling environment for access to trade and investment opportunities. Certainly, the EAC has already and will continue to have a deep impact on business in the region, whether micro, small, medium or large enterprises, in both manufacturing and service-oriented sectors. In this sense, the Customs Union has eliminated internal tariffs on intra-EAC trade and significant progress is being made towards effective monitoring and removal of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade (NTBs). The Common Market is expected to ease business transactions by eliminating restrictive trade policies and protecting the basic trading rights of business owners and consumers to freely leave, or enter and reside in a Partner State for purposes of work, or establishment, or provision of services. The Monetary Union hopes to harmonize macro-economic policies Issue No. 04 January - June 2012

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in the 5 partner States, provide a regionally acceptable currency for commerce, and consolidate the rights and opportunities associated with the Common Market, while the Political Federation envisages mitigation of conflicts that hamper intra-EAC business growth, and enhance protection against human rights abuses across the region.

(MSMEs) are still minimal relative to their disadvantaged position in business growth and formalization at regional scale. On one hand, women’s intra-EAC business interests are at risk due to socio-cultural restrictions on their mobility, fear of sexual manipulation and other women’s human rights violations, especially in insecurity-prone cross-border environments. On the other hand, women’s enterprises are still concentrated in micro and small urban informal economies and in low value-added production systems, characterized by disenabling working conditions that hamper access to investment opportunities, in spite of women’s continued clientele to large and predominantly male-owned companies in the region. If these gender-based business inequalities remain unchecked, women’s commercial activities at country level will not only stagnate but also put at risk the longevity of the gains made so far by the EABC and EAC in regards to intra-regional trade. To address this possible threat to a private sector-driven EAC, there is need for an inclusive and gendered approach to the representation of private sector roles and interests within the integration process. For this reason, EAWCC commissioned a study to assess the business growth and formalization constraints faced by micro and small women entrepreneurs, with the aim of developing advocacy strategies that promote the active participation and visibility of women’s role in creating a competitive business environment for wealth and job creation in East Africa.

In light of these EAC impacts on the business community, an institution known as the East African Business Council (EABC) was set up to voice the needs of the private sector within the integration process. To this end, EABC has undertaken a number of visible activities that are targeted at enhancing the role of the business community in enabling EAC achieve a sustainable competitive edge. Examples of such activities include; annual business climate surveys that were undertaken in 2007 and 2008; studies on the impact of the Customs Union on business; a border survey of Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) in October 2008; and sensitization of the business community about the benefits of the Customs Union and Common Market. Indeed, women entrepreneurs (micro, small, medium and large) have a right to benefit from and a role to scale up private sector involvement in all activities pertaining to EAC and EABC. It is against this background that EAWCC, with support from the Joint Action Fund, commissioned a study on the visibility of entrepreneurs in the EAC integration process, with an initial focus on micro and small women-owned enterprises at 5 border posts: Namanga Tanzania, Malaba Uganda, Malaba Kenya, This interim report documents the findings that have Bujumbura Burundi and 2 inland commercial towns, been gathered so far from a study on the visibility that is; Kigali Rwanda and Gulu in northern Uganda. of women entrepreneurs in the East African Community integration process. The study aims at develResearch Problem oping advocacy strategies that promote active parAlthough EAC and EABC have remarkably made ticipation and visibility of women’s role in creating progress towards the representation of private sec- a competitive business environment for wealth and tor interests in the integration process, efforts that job creation in East Africa. The specific objectives of specifically focus on the unique and unmet priorities the study included: of women’s micro, small and medium enterprises

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1. Identify and document the business growth tion constraints faced by micro and small women enand formalization constraints faced by micro trepreneurs in East Africa. The findings for objective 2 and small women entrepreneurs in East Africa. will appear in the draft report, upon which advocacy 2. Review the status of implementation of the interventions (objective 3) will also be proposed. EAC and draw implications pertaining to the business development needs of micro and small women enterprises in East Africa.

Key Interim Findings Formalization Constraints: The level of formalization amongst women MSEs is still low. For instance, 3. Disseminate the research findings and propose only 23.4 percent of the businesses in Namanga advocacy interventions through a multi-stake- had business plans, 12.6 percent in Kigali, 33.4 holder regional validation workshop. percent in Malaba, and 13.9 percent in Gulu. The implication here is that most women MSEs do not Methods used in the Study have well-documented goals, objectives, strategies The study mainly used a survey questionnaire as and financial plans that can be used to guide their the basic tool for capturing and collecting data on day-to-day business operations. According to the the profile of women’s micro and small enterprises; respondents, the main reason for not having busimotives for starting the business; extent of growth ness plans is lack of skills in preparing such plans. and formalization; business growth and formalizaTherefore women MSEs are yet to fully access option constraints; role of business extension services; portunities that equip them with the requisite skills levels of awareness and access to information about in business planning. EAC and EABC, at border post and inland commercial towns in the 5 Partner States. The border posts On the issue of owning Certificates of Registration, included; Namanga Tanzania, Malaba Uganda, Bu- for purposes of legalizing the business, only 14.7 perjumbura Burundi, and Malaba Kenya. The inland cent in Namanga, 11.6 percent in Kigali, and 23.9 commercial towns included; Kigali Rwanda and Gulu percent in Malaba agreed that they had Certificates in Northern Uganda. So far a total of 110 women re- of Registration. A woman interviewee in Malaba atspondents, comprising of 52 used clothing and tex- tributed this to the low levels of knowledge about tile dealers, 47 food crops and vegetable vendors, 23 the necessity of registering a business. Most women, African craft sellers, 6 restaurant owners, 3 insurance according to the interviewee, view business registrabrokers, 15 retail shopkeepers, 3 drug shop owners, tion as an expensive undertaking that only benefits 4 hair salon operators, and 2 bar owners were sur- the income needs of local government authorities in veyed. Data from the survey was further comple- their respective countries. This means that women’s mented by interviews with 12 business women, se- perception towards the legal aspects of business can lected across the towns, using an in-depth question be constraint to formalization, if local authorities do guide. The analytical framework of this study was not invest in awareness-raising. structured basing on common thematic areas that With regard to banking, fewer women in the study were drawn from the objectives of the study. sample had bank accounts, and most of these were Structure of the Interim Report a savings account, which was indicated by 76.9 perThe findings presented in this interim report are cent of those who said that they have bank aclargely focusing on objective 1 of the study: Identify counts. Most the women interviewed did not own and document the business growth and formaliza- any account at all, represented by 33.7 percent in  24

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Namanga, 37.9 percent in Kigali, 47.8 percent sessed business growth in terms of changes in emin Malaba, and 46.8 percent in Gulu. This im- ployment size, quality of employment, market covplies that the banking and saving culture is still low erage, equipment used and premises used. Findings amongst women MSEs. Findings from the in-depth from the study revealed that the average number of interviews revealed that some women are barred by workers in women MSEs has grown from one emthe minimum banking requirements, others have low ployee when the business started to three in espelevels of knowledge about the benefits and risks as- cially, used clothing and textiles, restaurants, drug sociated with banking, and in certain instances bank- shops, hair salons and insurance brokerage. The iming is perceived to be a service for bigger businesses. plication here is that women’s enterprises have the These reasons further explain why the few women, potential to create jobs across all countries within who owned a bank account in the sample, said that the EAC. However, most of the employees were on such a service was being rendered by mostly MFIs in temporary terms. Many of the women in the sample their respective countries. Therefore there is need to said that they use their close relatives as part-time heighten the coverage of MFIs in East Africa but also workers in their own businesses, and others use their businesses as learning invest in knowledge acquisigrounds for their children. tion about commercial bankThis indicates that women ing amongst women MSEs in ...there is need to heighten the MSEs not only depend on the region. the availability of housecoverage of MFIs in East Africa The study further examined hold labor but also inadbut also invest in knowledge whether women MSEs have equately skilled part-time acquisition about commercial formal addresses. Findings workers, something may from the survey in revealed banking amongst women MSEs in hamper the growth of their that there are very few busibusinesses at regional scale. the region. nesses that have formal adOn the whole, the quality dresses in the regions. This of employment in women was indicated by 19.8 percent in Namanga, 13.8 percent in Kigali, 17.8 MSEs is not satisfactory. This is mainly due to abpercent in Malaba, and 11.6 percent in Gulu of sence of written contracts between suppliers and the respondents in the sample. A sector-wise analy- customers to these businesses, insurance and other sis showed that dealers in insurance services, drug important business protection services and emshops, and restaurants had postal addresses that ployee benefits. This indicates the fragility of women could be used for locating such businesses in the MSEs with regard to working conditions and ability country. An interview with a drug shop owner re- to mitigate or cope with risks associated with such vealed postal addresses are mainly used to transact fragility. Conversely, the in-depth interviews rebusiness with importers of drugs within and outside vealed that with time, some of the women are inEAC. This means that formal addresses are a signifi- tending to introduce a number of changes to their cant factor in tapping into opportunities that may businesses with the aim of their employees. Such changes vary from woman to woman and from busicome with the regional integration. ness to business, but they include free meals while at Business Growth Constraints: The study also as- work, allowances for house rent in town and assis-

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tance in meeting part of medical expenses. According to female entrepreneur in Malaba such changes will benefit the business owner, especially in terms of retaining loyal and trust worthy employees as well as bettering employee standards of living. She added that most of her business friends are struggling with daily loss of loyal workers, and hiring new ones sometimes results into poor customer relationships and expenses on orienting recruits into the nature of the business. These lived business experiences imply that employee loyalty and morale in women MSEs is critical for maintaining a good relationship with customers, something that ought to be considered while designing business capacity building programs.

Implications for the East African Region Integration Basing on the study findings, the following implications can be drawn for the EAC:

1) Gender Responsive Economic Integration Policies and Institutional Mechanisms: The EAC needs to be guided by gender responsive policies and institutional mechanisms. This will provide a legal enabling environment for women entrepreneurs to optimally utilize the opportunities that come with, for example: Interim EAC-EU Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), the EAC Common Market Protocol and Customs Union. However, the formulation and enforcement of such gender responsive policies is currently hampered by Asked whether they sell to scanty information on the localities within their coun- ...lived business experiences imply unique business developtries, most women admitted ment needs of women enso. Although the proportion that employee loyalty and morale trepreneurs and the conin women MSEs is critical for of enterprises selling to marstraints faced in operating kets outside their districts maintaining a good relationship their MSMEs at a regional was high (51.3 percent), most with customers, something that scale. Although annual women are yet to focus on business climate surveys ought to be considered while the regional market. Accordhave been undertaken by designing business capacity ing to a respondent in Kigali the East African Business town, the main reasons as building programs. Council (the key represento why MSEs have not pentative body for the private etrated the regional market sector in the EAC), these include; lack of the necessary surveys have not comprehensively captured the diffinancial capital to invest in a larger business, low fering business development needs of female relalevels awareness about customer needs in different tive to male entrepreneurs. countries, lack of the minimum legal documentation such as a Certificate of Registration, lack of a Additionally, the approach used by EABC to sensitize passport or other relevant documents, restriction business owners on the elimination of Non-Tariff Baron movements by the spouse and inability to trans- riers (NTBs) to trade and benefits of the EAC Comport goods across the region. As such, women at mon Market, lacks in-depth gender disaggregated the MSE-level also have specific Non-Tariff Barriers information. This means that regional interventions (NTBs) that ought to be considered in the regional are unlikely to equitably support female relative to male entrepreneurs. Accordingly, this study has been integration process.

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the initial step in generating gender disaggregated information for advocacy positions on mainstreaming gender into economic integration policies and institutional mechanisms in East Africa.

respond to the infrastructure support needs of women MSEs. 3) Cross-border Conflict Mitigation for Business Growth and Development: The study has also indicated that the history of conflict, across border, is one of the main hindrances to women’s growth in business. Therefore regional conflict mitigation is an indispensible factor in achieving the goals of the EAC Political Federation and the AU Protocol Relating to Peace and Security. This is because intra-regional trade has a substantial contribution to East Africa, with an export value of USD 2.012 billion and an import value of USD 13.39 billion (EABC, 2008). In order to protect this economic value, EAC should prioritize conflict mitigation over costlier recovery, which predominates the peace building and recovery development planning frameworks of African governments.

2) Gender-Responsive Planning and Budgeting for Export and High-tech Economic Zones: The formalization and growth constraints documented by the study imply that there is need for genderresponsive planning and budgeting in the creation of export and high-tech zones across the EAC Partner States. This is because the 3rd EAC Investment Conference Report (2010) documented that infrastructural bottlenecks continue to be the main cost disadvantage for doing business in all the EAC Partner States. This study has further indicated that the absence of adequate basic infrastructural support, that is; transport, telecommunications, energy and ICTs, hampers women’s market coverage and expansion. Therefore there is need to create export Carol Idembe is the Executive Director of the East and high-tech economic zones that insufficiently African Women Chamber of Commerce (EAWCC).

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...when the non-tariff barriers are also tackled through improved trade facilitation, intra-African trade could rise to about 22 percent in the next 10 years, all of which goes to show that if we do what is required, we can optimize intra-African trade.  28

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Africa Can Trade Itself Out Of Poverty The Case of Zambia By Benedict Tembo

B

EATRICE Mwanza’s entrepreneurial skills as one of the traders at the regional 1Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) market in Lusaka, Zambia are limited by several obstacles, the major one being trade-related economic policies. As a vibrant businesswoman whose business entails travelling to Tanzania and South Africa where she buys blankets and clothes to sell in Zambia, Ms Mwanza hopes to make reasonable returns to meet her family’s basic needs.

and quits business, regressing into poverty. In the meantime, micro-finance institutions from which she got a loan to start the business keep knocking at her door – they want their money!

“Government does not help poor people, policies should be changed to target poor people,” said Cross Border Traders Association Comesa ‘A’ branch chairperson, Donald Kachingwe. According to Mr. Kachingwe Zambian businessmen and women find it difficult to reduce their respective poverty levels because of the taxes imposed on their goods. This results into taxes eating into their capital. The Armed with a seemingly elaborate business plan, Government of Zambia charges 25 percent import Ms Mwanza began her business a year ago, crossing duty on clothes and 16 percent value added tax borders to buy goods. At this point – planning (VAT) which Mr Kachingwe said makes it difficult to process – she thought she had it all under wraps, do business. projecting a double-figure percentage growth of her business. She, however, encountered frustrations at “Government should put in place policies to improve the borders where customs duty almost put her out our businesses. Traders in Africa find it difficult to access funding from financial institutions because of business and back into abject poverty. of not being in formal employment. ,” explained Mr. Ms Mwanza soon realised that the exaggerated taxes Kachingwe. imposed by the Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA) at border posts rendered doing business unprofitable Ms Mwanza and Mr Kachingwe’s woes represent the because the taxes ate into the diminishing capital, challenges of intra-African trade. paralysing her business. Besides that, Ms Mwanza has challenges transporting her merchandise to Statistics from the United Nations Economic Lusaka because of inadequate transport, which often Commission for Africa (UNECA) indicate that one times forces her to send her goods in batches. Faced billion people in China are in a single market and with such a plethora of dilemmas, she succumbs another one billion people in India are in a single 1 The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is a Regional Integration Grouping of 19 African States which have agreed to promote regional integration through trade development and to develop their natural and human resources for the benefit of their people. www.comesa.int

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market, while one billion people in Africa are fragmented in 54 states2. Impediments to intraAfrican trade was the focus of the just-ended Africa Trade Forum (ATF) 2011 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Kasumbalesa.“We are heading somewhere,” he noted. He said the business environment in Zambia faces several challenges; mostly infrastructure such as roads, rail and communication. He also said many companies in Zambia have limited capacity to produce for export because of high production costs.

The ATF is the flagship programme of the Africa Trade Policy Centre (ATPC), which is an initiative of UNECA. Its primary goal is to enhance advocacy for trade in Africa and to put trade at the centre of the Mr Chishimba explained that the road to make development agenda. Zambia competitive and trade as an engine for The theme of the inaugural forum was Accelerating development which should be part of Africa trading Intra-AfricanTrade and Enhancing Africa’s Participation itself out of poverty lies in, among other factors, in Global Trade at which the approximately 400 increased flow of development finance. He said participants representing the width and breadth of there is need to strengthen and expand capacities of the African trade constituency in attendance, sought parliamentarians to respond effectively to challenges to respond to the question, “Can Africa trade itself and expectations in trade-related issues. out of poverty? Albert Muchanga, Zambia’s outgoing ambassador A member of Parliament for Kamfinsa in Zambia to Ethiopia, said ATF was created to promote the Moses Chishimba, who represented Zambia at the development of trade in Africa. “In every economy, forum, said Africa can trade itself out of poverty trade is the engine of growth, so if we have to because of its vast natural resources.Emphasising promote African development, we have to promote the need for African governments to enhance free the development of intra-African trade which stands movement of its people within the continent, Mr at 10 percent,” Mr Muchanga said. “So the work of Chishimba said there is need to harmonise the tariffs. this summit will go to the African Union ministers’ Mr. Chishimba who is also a member of the Economic conference starting in Accra, Ghana, and running up Affairs Committee in the Parliament of Zambia said to December 2, 2011. African governments should formulate policies and laws to facilitate intra-African trade.“Trade as a tool “Ministers will come up with a theme document can reduce poverty,” he said. Mr Chishimba said on boosting intra-African trade, which will be the legislators should look at challenges of intra-African theme document for the African heads of State and trade and regional integration, citing conflicts government summit in January. The heads of State between national and regional interests as reasons and government will come up with a declaration which will outline ways and means to develop intrafor low trade. African trade.”Speaking at the opening of the forum, Mr Chishimba expressed satisfaction that Zambia UNECA’s Executive Secretary Abdoulie Janneh said has taken steps to boost trade by removing barriers that Africa’s share of global trade remains low at with the creation of border posts at Chirundu and about three percent and continues to be dominated 2

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)

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various constraints. Mr Janneh also highlighted what he saw as encouraging signs emerging from Mr Janneh pointed out, however, that there is cause ECA’s analysis to be published in the forthcoming to be more upbeat about Africa’s trade prospects Economic Report on Africa (2012) and said some if development is looked at the sub-regional and regional economic communities have exceeded the national level. He also noted that there is much that average intra-African trade growth. can be done to reap gains from intra-African trade and expressed optimism on the scope for expansion “The intra-COMESA trade is growing by at least in regional trade, with intra-African trade at just 35.4 percent between 2009 and 2010, rising from about 11 percent of total trade as compared to 72 US$12.7 billion to US$17.2 billion,” he added. Mr Janneh further lauded the efforts by the East percent in Europe and 52 percent in Asia. African Community (EAC), COMESA and Southern “Africa must perforce explore and utilise the benefits African Development Community (SADC) for of regional value chains starting with the important committing themselves to realising by 2014 a Free agro-processing sector,” Mr Janneh said. According Trade Area (FTA) that will be based not just on to Mr Janneh, the ATF provided the African trade market integration, but on shared benefits through constituency with an opportunity to build on the industrialisation and infrastructure development. success stories in intra-African trade in spite of by primary commodity exports.

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and trade with the rest of the world and noted that the coming months is crucial as African leaders work towards establishing a Continental Free Trade area by 2017. “The establishment of the EAC, COMESA and SADC FTA is a win-win situation,” he said and added that there is already evidence of growing Mr Janneh added that when the non-tariff barriers diversification within the FTA, “which should in turn are also tackled through improved trade facilitation, help in identifying our competitiveness vis-à-vis intra-African trade could rise to about 22 percent in global trade”. “Furthermore, these efforts can go a the next 10 years, “all of which goes to show that long way and help position ourselves better vis-à-vis if we do what is required, we can optimise intra- the stalled Doha Rounds,” Mr Mwencha added. African trade.” He emphasised that harmonisation of Regional Economic Community (RECs) trade policies through a continental FTA would result into an additional US$34 billion in intra-African exports, “just from eliminating current intra and inter-RECs tariffs,” he said.

Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Erastus Mwencha expressed optimism Benedict Tembo is Production Editor at the Zambia at the prospect of increasing both intra-African trade Daily Mail based at the head office in Lusaka.

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Women setting up microenterprises, SMEs, or formal large-scale businesses all encounter varying degrees of difficulty in obtaining capital, collateral, and fair lending terms. The African Women’s Journal

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Gender Differentiated Impacts of Poverty Reduction on Women in Africa various policies and decisions taken to help women start and run Small Medium Enterprise (SME) and Medium Enterprise (ME) at the local level (whether Abstract he world is dominated by the male nationally i.e. Cameroon and internationally) and community, whereas, women occupy half of how they have improved the status of women, the population of the world and works two- their dependants and reduced human right abuses third of total work of the world. Women do most of among women. Gender mainstreaming as a the work and some in very unhygienic conditions. strategy for making women’s and men’s concerns The woman’s struggle for equality and equal and experiences an integral dimension of poverty treatment has been so rough with a lot of obstacles reduction. The paper highlights how human rights and abuses perpetrated by their male counterparts of women improve if they have access to livelihood/ and communities. Some of these obstacles range income i.e. by being financially independent. from poverty, culture, and social status. The African woman is the most hardworking and paradoxically Introduction the poorest woman as compared to women from The United Nations’ Charter proclaims gender other parts of the world. Women entrepreneurship equality as fundamental right since 1945. Over the to overcome poverty through the establishment of years of the first half of 20th century, the struggle Small Enterprises (SE) and Medium Enterprises (ME) continued and women coined the phrase “Bread and did almost not exist in most parts of Africa even Roses” after James Oppenheim’s poem of the same the desire to set up a small enterprise will not be name. The reference to “Bread” is freedom from realized because of lack of access to credit or high hunger or poverty, and “Roses” is the satisfaction of bank charges for loans. But in recent time, there has the wants. In many parts of the world, women are been widespread engagement of women in various given a loaf of bread and a rose as a symbolic gesture entrepreneural activities across Africa. to celebrate International Women’s Day on March 8. It has been a male dominated world and especially in The paper will illustrate various human rights abuses Africa all along the ages. The woman was condemned women endure due to poverty. The researcher to lead the life of a slave within the four walls of the will highlight the various obstacles women face house. She was reduced to be just an appendage which policy makers, trade negotiators, planners, to man. Human rights abuses against women have economists should take into consideration when been committed since antiquity. Human rights must formulating policy, making decisions or implementing become part of local consciousness1 in order to fulfill trade related programmes. The author also highlights women emancipating potentials. Pt. Jawaharlal By Patrick Agejo Ageh

T

1

Human Rights and Gender Violence – Translating International Law into local Justice ; Sally Engle Merry

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Nehru (then) Indian Prime Minister said; “you can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of women2.” The centrality of gender equality as one of the prerequisites for poverty reduction was further recognized as the world leaders agreed to a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets, now called Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), for halving poverty and hunger, ensuring universal primary schooling, reducing child and maternal mortality and infectious diseases, improving environmental sustainability and achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment3. At the World Summit in 2005, Governments of Africa and other regions and international development organizations, reaffirmed their commitment to gender equality and women’s entrepreneurship as essential to development, peace and security. African Governments and international organizations expressed their commitments to implement the Dakar and Beijing Platforms for Action in their declarations and speeches at the Dakar and Beijing conferences on women. The subsequent National Action Plans showed their commitments further, outlining planned modalities for implementation. These Plans showed that an overwhelming majority of African Governments placed poverty reduction and the economic empowerment of women among their top priorities for action. According to the International Trade Centre,4 more government contracts should be awarded to female entrepreneurs, particularly in developing and least developed countries, as they learn about the ins and outs of the procurement process and acquire

the necessary skill-building with the assistance of the International Trade Centre (ITC). Women in Africa5 must focus on selling goods and services internationally. In the area of policies and institutional mechanisms, countries reported the establishment or the strengthening of national machineries for the promotion of women’s Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME) to fight against poverty. In addition, some countries reported the adoption of the principle of gender mainstreaming for all public policies and programmes. Other countries also reported the passage of affirmative action laws to facilitate women’s entry into decision-making bodies, especially parliament as well as credit facilities being made to women via micro-finance institutions and local contributions to improve their economic status. Gender differences as cause for poverty In nearly all economies around the world and most importantly in Africa, women perform a larger share of unpaid work than men. Time use surveys provide information about the kind and length of different activities that are carried out by women and men over the course of 24 hours. In Africa, societies confer only secondary, usufruct rights to women. Women are normally entitled to cultivate land controlled by their husband’s lineage but not to alienate or inherit it. Men c o n t r o l nearly all the property and decisions relating to it. This is proving increasingly problematic as greater numbers of women are assuming the position of household head in place of their husbands who are migrating to

2

Gender injustice and Its various forms (Law and Social Transformation in India) – Malik & Raval Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa - by Yeshiareg Dejene (AfDB) ITC Communication Dec. 17, 2011 5 Robert Anderson, a counsellor in the WTO’s intellectual property division. 3 4

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find better opportunities for work. Given that women often work in the informal sector, their economic contributions are also seldom statistically measured in the ‘paid sector’. This leads to a distorted representation of what women and men respectively contribute to economic wealth and production. Specific information about how women and men use their time are of pivotal importance for the planning of economic and socio-political interventions and for assessing the impact of a government’s revenue and spending policies.6

or social norms governing gender roles in the household production.8

Women Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in Africa The main women’s human rights instrument in Africa most notably the African Charter for Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) and the Protocol to the ACHPR (Africa Women Rights Protocol) prohibit discrimination and protect the equal enjoyment of rights of women. It is accordingly widely recognized that international norms of non-discrimination and equality, which In Cameroon, the GTZ Gender Programme com- demand that particular attention, be given to missioned a study on the vulnerable groups (such as elaboration of a Gender Gap women) and individuals Profile on the basis of existfrom such groups9. The main women’s human rights ing national data. The data instrument in Africa most notably set was analyzed in a genderThe ACHPR and the the African Charter for Human sensitive way and the results Rights of Women in and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) and show precise values on preAfrica vailing gender gaps mainly in the Protocol to the ACHPR (Africa The ACHPR contain education, employment and four main provisions Women Rights Protocol) prohibit earnings. In this context, a discrimination and protect the equal protecting women against second study – based on own discrimination. Article 2: enjoyment of rights of women. data collection – was elabo“every individual shall be rated in the agricultural secentitled to the enjoyment tor of Southern Cameroon. It of rights and freedoms revealed and statistically demonstrated male domi- recognized and guaranteed in the present Charter nation in the control of revenue of a specific agricul- without distinction of any kind such as…sex.” This is tural product – cocoa. Concurrently the work load enforced by article 3 of the Charter which deals with was shown to be the same for males and females.7 equal protection of every individual.10 These gender differences affect occupational choices the most, disparities due to constraints in access The reluctance to ratify the Protocol by some to productive assets, biases in the labor markets, dif- countries is itself indicative of the approach of ferences in preferences and attitudes towards risk, African States to the protection of women’s human 6

World Bank: World Development Indicators 2008, Washington DC GTZ Programme Promoting Gender Equality and Women‘s Right (April 2010 Report) Gender and occupational choices in Africa: the role of time poverty and associated risks by Renata Serra 9 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Women in International Law by – Manisuli Ssenyonjo (2009) 10 African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights(Banjul June 27th, 1981) 11 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - UDHR 7 8

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rights. Apart from re-emphasizing the extending UN instruments on human rights of women, the Protocol enshrines human rights and gender equality into the mainstream of African affairs, an objective and principles of the African Union (AU).

part of the socio-economic structure of the society. These social values, norms which influence social expectations regarding the behavior of women will determine as role and her positional in society to a great extent. The growing emphasis on rural small and medium size entrepreneurship for economic The Universal Declaration of Human Rights development, especially in the context of poverty (UDHR) alleviation in developing countries has thrown up some Article 2 states that “everyone is entitled to all the major challenges for the commercial ventures led by rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, women, even in the developing world, has been far from without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, uniform or nonlinear in this emerging global scenario. language, religion, political or other opinion, national With the advent of global economy followed by or social origin, property, birth or other status.11” information society and subsequent knowledge The Convention on the Elimination of all forms economy, new image appeared in the mass media; women who are ready to break away from traditional of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) roles and the ‘circumstantial helplessness’ that Article 1 defines discrimination against women as; hindered their entrepreneurial growth for many years. “distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis From women business leaders of the multinational of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or corporations to the village women in Ghana all are nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by now aware of their own advantages, challenges women, irrespective of their marital status, on the basis ahead as well as opportunities.13 The challenges and of equality between men and women, of human rights opportunities provided to the women of information or fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, society are turning them fast into job creators. social, cultural, civil or any other field.12” Women Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation Women entrepreneurship is defined as the process by which women take control and ownership of their choices. This has been defined as agency, awareness of gendered power structures, self-esteem and self consider. Entrepreneurship is a highly personal, subjective process. Becoming an entrepreneur is an evolution of encountering, assessing, and reacting to a series of experiences, situations, and events produced by political, economical, social, and cultural change. African women have to be made as an integrated

The following pull factors to entrepreneurship are relevant to women entrepreneurs, i.e. the need for independence, achievement and selffulfillment; providing a challenge to the female entrepreneur; improving the financial position of women entrepreneurs and their families; the desire to be their own boss and to control their own life; it provides more flexibility for balancing work and family; they can develop and commercialise a hobby; entrepreneurship gives them the opportunity to make a contribution to the community and be reckoned for that; and the influence of role

The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Rural Entrepreneurship for Women: A case for Wealth Creation by Africa’s Rural Poor amidst Global Financial and Economic Crises – KM Baharul Islam 14 An Empirical Investigation of Women Entrepreneurship In Lesotho (Stéphan P van der Merwe) 12 13

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models such as their parents, family, friends or leading entrepreneurs in the community can make entrepreneurship an attractive prospect or career choice to them14. n In the last thirty years the situation of women in Africa has greatly changed ,before going, the beginning of 1970s women were blind in both developments for the welfare purpose of women there were some of the important institutions that have been opened for the development of women in dominated societies. Nomsa Daniels, Executive Director of “New Faces New Voices” said” Ultimately, for Africa to succeed in the next decade, be competitive in the global economy, and reach the growth rates required to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, it needs to develop the SME sector and women will play a key part in achieving that goal.”15 Women abilities to set up Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) in rural and urban communities are a big boom to gender mainstreaming. Enhancement of women’s self respect and self dignity has resulted in women becoming economically independent. Women entrepreneurship can be viewed as a continuum of several interrelated and mutual rein faring components, such as: n Awareness building about women’s situation discrimination and opportunities as set towards gender equality collective awareness building providing a sense of group identity and power of working as a group. n Capacity building skills development, business orientations and development especially the ability to make decisions, organize, manage and

carry out business activities to deal with people and institutions (financial institutions) for credit around the world. Participation and greater control and decision making in the home, community and society.

n Economic empowerment; poverty eradication, micro credits, women and economic, globalization, women and agriculture, women and industry, support services, etc. Ngwo Women Soya Beans Group Ngwo is a small community in the North West Region of Cameroon, Central Africa. Soya beans cultivation is a major farming activity by the women of this community. They produce soya beans per season in a very large quantity. This agricultural activity is a major income generating activity among these women. Soya beans harvested by these women who dried and package in big bags of 75 – 100kg each and supply to the urban cities of Cameroon. CAMLAIT Company is the highest buyer of the soya beans which is then processed into milk. These women have seen that soya beans cultivation has improved greatly their poverty level as they are able to sponsor their children in schools, make financial contributions in their homes and community development. This women group receives micro credit from small micro finance institutions located around Njikwa Subdivision, North West Region. The women group has established a micro financial institution in the community called CONFIDENCE CREDIT FINANCE AND LOANS (CONFICO). 16This financial institution provides loan or credit to the members of this group on almost an interest free basis. As a result of this

15 Nomsa Daniels, the Executive Director of New Faces New Voices, an African organization of women in business and finance whose mission is to accelerate the economic empowerment of African women. 16 Integrated Health for All Foundation (IHAF) – field study 2009

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entrepreneurial strength of this group, the First practices remain, for the most part, rigidly opposed Deputy Mayor of Njikwa Council is a woman and to microcredit concepts. plays a major role in development planning of the In many African countries, women have fewer Council. inheritance rights either by law or obstacles However, the progress of this women group is not preventing women from realising their economic fully successful as there is a lot more to do in order potentials as well as constraining economic to improve the economic status of these women. development. Other impediments for women There are a number of constraints like any other are societal, cultural, and religious attitudes. In revitalizing economies they may also face intractable women group in Africa to operate their SMEs. infrastructure problems. Constraints in Women Businesses Training is the essential component for producing Women businesses in Africa are facing a number of an able corps of entrepreneurs who not only survive constraints for their progress but thrive and contribute in economic empowerment to the local, and ultimately, through Small and Medium African economy. Skillsize Enterprises (SMEs) In many African countries, based training, technical to alleviate poverty. The training, technology women have fewer inheritance importance of access to rights either by law or obstacles training, and delivery of credit is identified as a major management skills are preventing women from realising barrier to entry into selfnecessary to strengthen their economic potentials as employment throughout the not only entrepreneurs, but well as constraining economic world. Women setting up also associations. Technical microenterprises, SMEs, or assistance, in other words, development. formal large-scale businesses is especially valuable in all encounter varying degrees developing and transitional of difficulty in obtaining economies in Africa where capital, collateral, and fair lending terms.17 Lack of business and managerial skills are often completely self-confidence by women, discrimination against lacking18. The combination of two jobs, one at work women and not being taken seriously by providers of and one at home, is a difficult task for women funds when applying for funds. Women in particular especially in patriarchal traditional societies that are tend to seek small personal loans because, in still followed in many African countries. It is doubly general, they tend to start small firms. The banking taxing for a woman in a developing or transitional world has thus far shown little interest in small loans economy where poverty and lack of infrastructure or microcredit, given the relatively high handling can make the most basic tasks harder and more costs, with the result that institutionalized banking time-consuming. 17

Women Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy by Susanne E. Jalbert (March 2000) Keynote Address at a public meeting of African and international Experts meeting with Dutch audience to discuss the millennium Goals by Lucia Quachey (Mrs), Netherlands Nov. 2005 18

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Conclusion and Recommendations Women entrepreneurship in operating Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Medium Enterprises (MEs) at local and international level especially in Africa have improved the status of women. African leaders should make the required move to encourage Africans in the Diaspora to make the necessary investments needed for the take off of the informal sector and the empowerment of women through entrepreneurship for self-employment activities.

n African governments to formulate policies that will place value in Science and Technology (S&T) and Research and Development (R&D). n Appreciate the value that women can derive from science enterprises, there are disconnections between activities of scientific communities and the overall development aspirations of most African countries with the net result being the absence of a strong scientific culture. n Trade Protocols and commercial instruments like OHADA (Organization for the Harmonization of Business in Africa) open more windows of business opportunities for African women to move from small business firms to big businesses. n Willingness of governments and public institutions to transform themselves to business facilitators rather than barriers to private sector development.

Adequate infrastructure to facilitate the easy movement of people and goods and services, and long term investment loans at reduced interest rate, else the private sector would not be able to take advantage of the vast investment opportunities in the respective sub regions. The viability of the African Union (AU) and its program NEPAD (New Partnership for African Development) will depend Patrick Agejo Ageh Department of Law, University of Pune, India on the following:

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PROMOTING WOMEN’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT THROUGH GENDER RESPONSIVE TRADE AGREEMENTS EXPERIENCES FROM EGYPT, KENYA, UGANDA, RWANDA AND ZAMBIA

Edited by Roselynn Musa and Carol Idembe

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FEMNET Conclude Research on Promoting African Women’s Economic Empowerment through Gender Responsive Trade Agreement By Carlyn Hambuba study conducted by the African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET) in 2011 with support from Trust Africa has reviewed that analyzing the gender dimensions of trade arrangements in Africa is a big challenge because of lack of sex-disaggregated data on trade issues.

A

partnership agreements that the European Union is currently negotiating with different economic blocs in Africa and how African women can fully benefit from these new trade arrangements. FEMNET entered into partnership with Trust Africa to implement the one year project titled: Promoting African Women’s Economic Empowerment through Gender - Responsive Trade Agreements.

Findings of the Research Findings of the country studies undertaken in Egypt, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia indicates that trade arrangements in Africa and with its partners in other regions of the world has had different impact on women and men and most often than not it affects women more negatively in their position as entrepreneurs, workers, consumers, producers, and care givers within the public and domestic spheres. The study was necessitated by the fact that a Research has also shown that even among women, majority of African women still have relatively trade arrangements affect urban dwellers differently limited access to material assets, low incomes and compared to the rural dwellers and younger women very limited opportunities to engage in regional differently from older women. and foreign trade. As result of the prevailing gender inequalities in trade agreements in Africa, FEMNET decided to initiate a regional project that seeks to understand better the gender effects of the economic The study was commissioned in five (5) African countries Egypt, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia to assess the gender effects of the economic partnership agreements that the European Union is currently negotiating with different economic blocs in Africa, specifically how African women have benefitted from these new trade arrangements and their impact on women’s economic rights.

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Key Findings of the Research n As a result of trading as regional blocs, country specific issues may lose visibility or suffer from regional level negotiations. n Each of the 5 EAC countries has different labour conditions and free movement of labour within the EAC is still limited. In these circumstances, adoption of the core International Labour Organization (ILO) standards, including work place discrimination, maternity, compensation and other aspects, has to be considered. n For all countries it was a common concern that many stakeholders across the public and private sectors were unaware of or do not have access to sufficient information on TAs processes. n There is limited dialogue around TA negotiation and implementation processes. There appears to be a general perception among some government and most civil society stakeholders that public policy formulation, including international relations like trade agreements, are a matter for the Government, hence limited involvement of the civic population. n Inadequate communication: The Trade Secretariats do not have a clear communication mechanism or help desk specifically to provide information on international trade arrangements. There has not been any effort to simplify the complex legal text for various stakeholders. n Lack of sex-disaggregated data on trade issues, trade agreements is lacking. Analyzing the gender dimensions of trade arrangements in all countries was cited as a challenge.

Key Recommendations Ongoing activities/initiatives should ensure that trade agreements are gender responsive and fulfill the aim of empowering women, as expressed by the country stakeholders:There must be deliberate partnership (Public-private sector partnerships) between government, Civil Society Organizations and gender based organizations on building capacities of communities of international trade on issues of trade negotiations and agreements to ensure gender responsiveness, equity and enshrining of economic and human rights in such frameworks. This must be complemented by availability of relevant data and information on trade negotiations, arrangements and business opportunities readily accessible by the public for effective application.

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Inorderto continuefollowingonthe recommendations from the report FEMNET established national gender lobby groups (NGLs) in each of the five countries where the research was conducted (Kenya, Zambia, Uganda, Rwanda and Egypt). The NGL’s have been undertaking advocacy and lobby activities targeting government and key stakeholders (such as trade negotiators, planners, economists) in their respective countries to ensure that they are all fully aware of the gender differentiated impacts and take them into consideration when formulating policy, making decisions or implementing trade related programmes. The following are the Lead Organizations for the NGLs:n The Consultative Umbrella of Women As-

sociations in the Great Lakes region (COCAFEM-GL) in Rwanda

n Business and Professional Women (BPW)

International – Zambia chapter in Zambia

n East African Women Chamber of Commerce

(EAWCC) in Uganda

n Need to assist women to patent their good as

well as understand intellectual property rights

n Simplify and disseminate trade agreements

specifically in local languages for majority of women to understand and benefit from them

n Enhance or provide opportunities of trade for

rural women by creating value chain

n Re-visit trade agreements and assess how

women have benefitted from them

n Need to empower and enhance the skills of

women who are already in business so they can mentor grass root women

n Harmonise tax system to make it easy for

women in business

n Harmonise social security issues n Develop data base and directory of women in

business

n Federation of Women Entrepreneurs Asso-

n Need to sensitise women on international stan-

n Fairtrade in Egypt

n Accessibility of loans by women in business

ciations (FEWA) in Kenya

Based on the key findings from the research and also recommendations from a strategy meeting held for National Gender Lobby Groups, the following are the Key Issues to be considered in order to make trade agreements benefit women in Africa: n Build women’s capacity in financial literacy as well as negotiation and communication skills n Need to consult and engage women when de-

veloping policies on women and empowerment

dards for export goods need to be improved

n Work with media to promote trade issues

The full report is available on FEMNET website www.femnet.co The report is also available in hard copy on request to [email protected] Carlyn Hambuba is the Head of Communication at FEMNET.

n Reduce the cost of doing business for women in

business

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about FEMNET The African Women’s Development and Communication Network (FEMNET) was set up in 1988 as a pan-African, membership-based Network for women’s organizations. Since inception, FEMNET continues to play a central role in sharing information, experiences, ideas and strategies among African women’s NGOs in order to strengthen women’s capacity to participate effectively in the development processes at different levels in Africa. This has been successfully done through communication and networking, advocacy and capacity building initiatives. Over the years, FEMNET has played a leading role in building the women’s movement in Africa and ensuring that African women voices are amplified and influence decisions made at national, regional and global levels, which have direct and indirect impact on their lives.

and documenting women’s experiences and best practices in changing their status and position in the development processes in Africa has been a major activity of FEMNET in the promotion of women’s rights and the gender equality agenda.

FEMNET continues to advocate for action in addressing gender equality issues within the context of national, regional and global plans of action. These have included the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women up to and beyond the Year 2000, which gave rise to the Africa and Beijing Platforms for Action (PfA) of 2004 and 2005 respectively, and the Beijing+5, Beijing+10 and Beijing +15 outcome documents. Monitoring progress in implementing the NFLS and the BPfA

 an elected seven member Board of Trustees to oversee FEMNET’s assets;

FEMNET is governed by a Constitution and the following governance and administrative structure:  national focal points in African countries whose representatives attend a tri-annual Programming Conference and General Assembly;  an elected seven member Executive Board which includes five Board members representing each sub-region (North, South, East, West and Central Africa) and a Chairperson and Treasurer.

 two Ex-Officio Board members (immediate past Chairperson and the Executive Director); and  a Secretariat which implements FEMNET’s programmes and is headed by an Executive Director.

FEMNET Executive Board Members Central Africa Sylvie Jacqueline Ndongmo F. Chairperson, FEMNET B.P. 10135 Akwa - Douala, Cameroun Email: [email protected] Onanga Germaine nee Nguenoni Executive Board Member, FEMNET B.P. 686, Rue Mayama Ouenze Brazzaville, Congo Email: [email protected] Eastern Africa Patricia Munabi Babiiha Executive Board Member, FEMNET P.O. Box 7176 Kampala, Uganda Email: [email protected] [email protected]

Northern Africa Souad Belaazi Executive Board Member, FEMNET 43,rue de Ghana Ben Arous Tunis 2013 Tunis, Tunisia Email: [email protected] Southern Africa Margaret Ali Treasurer of the Executive Board, FEMNET P/B A225, Lilongwe, Malawi Email: [email protected] Emma Kaliya Executive Board Member, FEMNET P.O. Box 891 Lilongwe, Malawi Email: [email protected]

Western Africa Célestine Navigué Executive Board Member, FEMNET FEMNET Côte d’Ivoire 08 BP 2237 , Abidjan 08 Cote d’Ivoire Email: [email protected] [email protected]

Dinah Musindarwezo Executive Director, FEMNET PO Box 54562, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2712971/2 Email: [email protected]

Ex-Officio Mama Koite Doumbia Immediate Past Chairperson, FEMNET BP 1866, Bamako, Mali E-mail: [email protected] [email protected]

FEMNET Board of Trustees Eastern Africa Mary Okioma Chairperson Board of Trustee, FEMNET Women for Justice in Africa P O Box 48493, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya, Email: [email protected] URL: www.womenforjustice.org Fatima Ahmed Board of Trustee, FEMNET Sudan, AlGadarif City, Alnasr Dist., House 3, P.O. Box 79 Email: [email protected]

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Central Africa Assumpta Umurungi Board of Trustee, FEMNET AVEGA-AGAHOZO BP 1535, Kigali, Rwanda E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Western Africa Astou Sylla Ndeye Board of Trustee, FEMNET FEMNET-Senegal 17 bis cité SOPRIM DAKAR BP 10358, Dakar LIBERTE, Senegal Email: [email protected]

Northern Africa Imane Belghiti Board of Trustee, FEMNET Head of International Relations Association Nationale Al HIDN Focal Point, Morocco 24, Résidence A Boustane N° 14 Rue Ibnoukatitr - 5èm étage Casablanca, Morocco Email : [email protected]/ [email protected]

Southern Africa Sally Chiwama Board of Trustee, FEMNET C/O Zambia Media Women Association (ZAMWA)

Alliance Hse, 4th Floor, South-end, Cairo Road P O Box 33710, Lusaka, ZAMBIA Email: [email protected] http://sallychiwama.wordpress.com

Issue No. 04 January - June 2012

The African Women’s Journal

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