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UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROGRAM: MARKETING  FOR  MEANING                                       Advanced  Research  Seminar,  Spring  2013   10  May  2013   By:  Anna  Abelson,  Sarita  Dan,  Emily  Desjardins,  Cristian  Peña  Suarez,  Gabrielle  McGinnis,  Koba   Sebiskveradze,  and  Kristen  Warden    

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY     This  white  paper  argues  for  an  increased  use  of  meaningful  marketing  to  promote  the   awareness  of,  education  about,  and  funding  for  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program.   Current  scholarship  on  the  Program  has  identified  the  areas  of  awareness,  education,   and  funding,  within  the  Program  to  be  lacking.  As  a  result  of  these  two  deficiencies,  the   UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  is  unable  to  effectively  carry  out  its  mission  of   conserving  and  preserving  the  world’s  heritage  that  is  of  outstanding  universal  value  to   humanity  for  current  use  and  future  generations.  To  successfully  fulfill  the  objectives  of   conservation  and  preservation  set  forth  in  the  World  Heritage  Convention,  the  UNESCO   World  Heritage  Program  must  address  the  areas  of  awareness,  education,  and  funding.       Many  studies  have  offered  ideas  as  to  how  to  improve  these  areas.  However,  a  majority   of  the  work  focused  on  improving  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  has  promoted   policy  change  as  the  vehicle  for  betterment.  As  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  is   part  of  a  larger,  bureaucratic  institution,  policy  changes  are  incredibly  difficult,  if  not   often  impossible  to  employ.  Though  the  recommendations  for  policy  expressed  in  these   previous  studies  are  warranted,  another  means  for  improvement  that  does  not  rely  on   policy  must  be  identified.  Through  qualitative  data  analysis,  this  study  has  identified  an   alternative  approach,  one  that  bypasses  the  regulations  of  policy  challenges,  but  will   improve  the  Program’s  ability  to  conserve  and  preserve.  This  white  paper  recommends   that  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  focus  on  implementing  a  comprehensive   marketing  for  meaning  program  to  address  issues  of  brand  awareness  and  education,   thus  augmenting  global  knowledge  on  the  Program  and  its  meaning,  as  well  as  funding.   By  improving  the  brand  awareness  and  funding  capabilities,  the  Program  will  be  able  to   better  serve  current  and  future  conservation  efforts.    

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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION   SIGNIFICANCE    

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UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROGRAM: CONTEXT

  WHERE   THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM  BEGAN      

THE   STRUCTURE  OF  THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM     THE   MISSION  OF  THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM       THE   PROCESS  OF  NOMINATION  AND  INSCRIPTION     AN     IMBALANCED  LIST,  AN  INEFFECTIVE  STRATEGY     A  LIST  IN  DANGER      

 

 

 

 

 

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THE PROBLEM: CONSERVATION

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CONSERVATION,   AWARENESS  and  EDUCATION       CONSERVATION  and  FUNDING      

 

 

 

 

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RECOMMENDATION

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RESEARCH DESIGN

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ISSUES IMPEDING CONSERVATION

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  AWARENESS   and  EDUCATION      

 

 

 

 

LACK   OF  LOCAL  KNOWLEDGE  ABOUT  WORLD  HERITAGE  SITES     LACK  OF  VISITOR  KNOWLEDGE  ABOUT  WORLD  HERITAGE  SITES       FUNDING                     THE   BRAND  and  FUNDRAISING         FACILITATING  THE  DONATION  PROCESS  

 

 

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MARKETING FOR MEANING: TACTICS

  TACTIC   1:  REACH  OUT  to  COMMUNITY       EVENTS           PARTNERSHIPS             TACTIC   2:  RE-­‐DESIGN  WEBSITE     FOR   LOCAL  STAKEHOLDERS       FOR   TOURISTS          

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SEARCH  ENGINE  OPTIMIZATION         TACTIC   3:  CREATE  a  SOCIAL  MEDIA  STRATEGY    

STAKEHOLDER   INVOLVEMENT               FOR  TOURISTS                     TACTIC   4:  IMPLEMENT  INTERACTIVE  ONSITE  INFORMATION  SYSTEMS     DIGITAL   APPLICATIONS           ONSITE  DONATION  SYSTEMS           TACTIC   5:  DEVELOP  SPONSORSHIP  PROGRAMS    

 

 

 

 

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PARTNER   FACILITATED             COMMUNITY  GENERATED           TACTIC  7:  UTILIZE  OUTBOUND  MARKETING    

 

 

 

 

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SITE   SPONSORSHIP           REWARDS  PROGRAMS         TACTIC   6:    PRODUCE  DEDICATED  MEDIA    

LIMITATIONS and OPPORTUNITIES

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CONCLUSION

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WORKS CITED

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APPENDIX

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INTRODUCTION   In  December  2012,  international  tourist  arrivals  hit  the  one  billion  mark  worldwide   (UNWTO  “1  Billion  Tourists”).  By  2020,  the  United  Nations  World  Tourism  Organization   projects  this  number  to  reach  1.5  billion.  As  access  to  and  ease  of  travel  continues  to   advance,  tourist  destinations  are  becoming  more  global  in  scope.  Additionally,  as  the   number  of  global  tourists  has  grown  exponentially,  much  research  has  focused  on  the   impacts  of  increased  visitation  to  destinations  and  their  sites  of  significant  universal   significant  heritage.  As  highlighted  by  Roders  and  van  Oers:  “over  the  last  three  decades   and  in  tandem  with  the  explosive  growth  of  tourism,  World  Heritage  [Sites]  have   become  the  icons  of  visitor  destinations”  (281).  In  an  effort  to  preserve  noteworthy   examples  of  the  world’s  collective  heritage  in  their  current  function  and  for  future   generations,  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific,  and  Cultural  Organization   (UNESCO)  adopted  the  World  Heritage  Convention  in  1972.  The  World  Heritage   Convention  was  meant  to  “to  encourage  the  identification,  protection  and  preservation   of  cultural  and  natural  heritage  around  the  world  considered  to  be  of  outstanding  value   to  humanity”  for  use  today  and  for  future  generations  (“World  Heritage”  unesco.org).       Today,  962  properties  comprise  the  World  Heritage  List  (WH  List);  the  sites  considered   by  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  (UNESCO  WHP,  the  Program)  to  best  embody   examples  of  the  world’s  unique  and  outstanding  collective  heritage.  However,  the   UNESCO  WHP  is  failing  at  achieving  this  mission  of  protecting  and  preserving  these  sites.   Of  the  962  sites  on  the  WH  List,  38  are  considered  to  be  in  imminent  danger  of  losing   the  very  characteristics  that  warranted  designation  in  the  first  place.  Appropriately,   these  properties  have  been  placed  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  and  have   been  earmarked  for  increased  attention.  The  38  sites  on  the  list  are  only  the  most  dire   examples  of  the  Program’s  failed  attempt  to  protect  universal  heritage.  Issues  of   conservation  currently  plague  many  of  the  sites  on  inscribed  by  UNESCO  on  the  WH  List.   Multiple  World  Heritage  Sites  (WH  Sites)  both  and  on  off  The  List  of  World  Heritage  In   Danger  feel  the  pressure  of  the  Program’s  inadequacies,  resulting  from  a  lack  of  

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awareness  and  education  as  well  as  funding  deficits  which  make  the  examples  of  unique   heritage  nearly  impossible  to  conserve  and  preserve.  Accordingly,  there  is  a  need  for  the   UNESCO  WHP  to  adjust  its  practices  to  better  serve  the  requirements  of  the  global   heritage  it  pledges  to  protect.       Many  studies  have  examined  the  organization,  calling  for  improvement  to  the  Program   through  policy  change.  However,  in  a  bureaucratic  supranational  organization  such  as   the  UNESCO  WHP,  policy  changes  are  difficult,  if  not  nearly  impossible  to  implement.  An   Alternative  approach  to  bettering  the  Program  must  be  devised  if  it  is  to  succeed  in   achieving  the  goal  of  global  heritage  conservation.  This  white  paper  argues  for  an   increased  use  of  marketing  for  meaning  to  promote  the  awareness  of,  education  about,   and  funding  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand.       Marketing  for  meaning  is  defined  in  this  white  paper  as  a  united  initiative  that   integrates  an  organization’s  efforts  behind  a  singular  goal  that  can  generate  significant   impact.  Marketing  for  meaning,  or  meaningful  marketing,  guarantees  brand  equity   through  marketing  assets  that  appropriately  communicate  brand  value  to  consumers.   Achieved  through  a  set  of  inbound  and  outbound  strategies  and  tactics,  meaningful   marketing  offers  audiences  useful  information  and  the  tools  for  interaction  with  the   goal  of  developing  long-­‐term  consumer  and  community  relationships.  It  is  argued  that   marketing  for  meaning  will  help  alleviate  the  issues  of  awareness  and  education  as  well   as  funding  that  hinders  the  UNESCO  WHP  from  successfully  safeguarding  the  worlds’   examples  of  outstanding  heritage  through  effective  conservation.  Through  the   enhanced  understanding  of  and  funding  for  the  program,  the  ultimate  goal  of   conservation  and  preservation  of  WH  Sites  can  be  achieved.                  

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SIGNIFICANCE     Scholarly  work  on  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  the  process  of  inscription,  management,   “policy  and  conservation”  is  well  established  (Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity   280;  Rakic  210).  Yet,  a  gap  remains  in  the  feasibility  in  and  understanding  of  “raising  and   efficiently  allocating  funds  to  preserve  the  World  Heritage”  (Bertacchini  et  al.   “Embracing  Diversity”  280).    Up  until  this  point,  much  of  the  research  conducted  in  this   area  has  centered  on  issues  of  organization  and  policy  (Badman  and  Debonnet  201-­‐04;   Bertacchini  et  al.  281-­‐86;  Galis  232-­‐33;  Rao  167-­‐70;  Ahmad  299;  Frey  and  Steiner  “World   Heritage  List”  564-­‐66;  Keogh  612-­‐615;  Frey  and  Steiner  “Correcting”  27,36,38;  Affolder   361;  Van  der  Aa  137).  A  highly  bureaucratic  institution,  policy  and  guidelines  are  not   easily  changed  and  thus  recommendations  to  change  these  are  ultimately  fruitless.   Interviewee  A,  a  Program  Specialist  at  the  head  of  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  Sustainable   Tourism  Program  echoed  this  sentiment  in  an  interview  on  the  topic.  In  the  interview,   Interviewee  A  remarked  that  “there  is  a  reluctance  to  change  the  guidelines”  a  lengthy   process  which  can  take  a  period  of  several  years  to  achieve,  if  at  all  (Interviewee  A).         As  access  to  international  travel  and  destination  choice  increase,  the  World  Heritage   brand  (Rakic  212;  Ryan  &  Silvanto  “World  Heritage  Sites”  535)  will  become  ever  more   exposed  to  global  tourism  competition.  “It  is  widely  assumed  that  the  brand  name   ‘World  Heritage  Site’  associated  with  the  UNESCO  logo  and  title  has  a  positive  brand   equity”  (Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”  198).  However,  this  assumption  is  not  a  reality.   Poria  et  al.  add,  “the  concept  of  ‘brand  equity’  is  rarely  addressed  in  tourism  studies,   although  it  is  highly  crucial  to  the  understanding  of  tourists  behaviors”  (“Archeological   Site”  199).  Dewar  et  al.  also  noted:  “awareness  is  the  key  component  since  without  it   there  is  no  recognizable  brand  nor  is  the  mission  of  […]  the  World  Heritage  Convention   met”  (325).  Currently,  there  is  no  meaning  behind  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand  and  without   awareness  the  program  has  failed  to  achieve  its’  goals.  Interviewee  C,  a  marketing   professional  who  has  worked  with  various  UNESCO  WH  Sites,  reiterated  this  sentiment   stating:       7  

there  needs  to  be  accountability  […]  the  UNESCO  WH  [Sites]  status  needs   to  mean  something  to  both  the  stakeholders  and  the  general  public  […]   without   meaning  the  brand  fails  at  what  it  is  trying  to  achieve.       By  focusing  instead  on  meaningful  marketing  to  increase  awareness  of  the  World   Heritage  brand,  this  paper  proposes  a  new  avenue  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  take  that   effectively  avoids  the  organizational  and  political  impasses  of  past  studies.       The  following  sections  will  provide  a  basic  context  to  the  UNESCO  WHP,  the  main   problem  of  the  program,  a  recommendation  to  solve  it,  and  the  research  design  and   findings  that  led  to  the  proposal  outlined  in  this  paper.  A  section  highlighting  specific   implementation  tactics  follows  as  well  as  the  limitations  to  and  opportunities  from  this   study  and  a  conclusion.  Throughout,  the  argument  for  marketing  for  meaning  as  a   means  to  overcome  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  inadequacies  is  made.            

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROGRAM: CONTEXT   Since  its  inception  in  the  aftermath  of  the  Second  World  War,  UNESCO  has  acted  to   “contribute  to  peace  and  security  by  promoting  international  collaboration  through   education,  science,  and  culture”  (“The  Constitution”  unesco.org)  and  to  create  a  sense   of  international  community  that  would  help  to  avoid  another  global  conflict   (“Organization’s  History”  unesco.org).    To  achieve  that  mission,  the  organization   undertakes  projects  in  global  education,  natural,  human,  and  social  sciences,   communication  and  information  sharing,  and  culture  (“Introducing”  unesco.org).    Of   these  global  programs,  one  of  the  most  visible  and  renowned  is  the  World  Heritage   Program.  As  with  many  bureaucratic  intergovernmental  organizations,  however,  the   UNESCO  WHP  is  not  without  fault.    To  comprehend  the  critical  issues  plaguing  the   UNESCO  WHP  brand,  it  is  essential  to  understand  the  backbone  of  the  program.        

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WHERE  THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM  BEGAN    

As  the  Egyptian  temples  at  Abu  Simbel  came  under  threat  of  destruction  due  to  the   construction  of  the  Aswan  Dam  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  290,   294-­‐95;  Galis  208),  and  after  the  1959  appeals  from  the  governments  of  Egypt  and   Sudan,  UNESCO  organized  the  Nubia  Campaign  to  dismantle  and  move  the  threatened   structures  to  safety  (“The  World  Heritage  Convention”  unesco.org;  Ryan  and  Silvanto   “Making  and  Management”  290,  294-­‐95;  Galis  208).  In  total,  22  monuments  and   architectural  wonders  were  relocated  away  from  the  Nile  in  a  project  that  took  20  years   and  over  $80  million1  to  complete  (“Milestones”  unesco.org;  “The  World  Heritage   Convention”  unesco.org;  Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  290,  294-­‐95;   Galis  208).    As  a  result  of  the  Nubia  Campaign,  UNESCO  and  the  International  Council  on   Monuments  and  Sites  (ICOMOS)  collaborated  on  a  draft  convention  to  protect  the   world’s  international  heritage  (“The  World  Heritage  Convention”  unesco.org).  The   International  Union  for  Conservation  of  Nature  (IUCN)  also  drafted  a  resolution  (Galis   208),  which  was  combined  with  the  UNESCO/ICOMOS  document  to  into  a  single   international  mission,  and  on  November  16,  1972  the  Convention  Concerning  the   Protection  of  the  World  Cultural  and  Natural  Heritage  (the  Convention)  was  born  (“The   World  Heritage  Convention”  unesco.org;  Galis  208;  Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and   Management”  295;  Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  278).      

THE  STRUCTURE  OF  THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM       The  WHP  is  governed  by  a  General  Assembly  of  representatives  from  the  190  countries,   known  as  States  Parties  (Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  281;  Roders  and  van   Oers  105;  Figure  1).  These  parties  have  signed  the  Convention,  agreeing  to  ensure  that   the  world's  heritage  is  identified,  protected,  and  conserved  through  effective   management  that  maintains  the  integrity  and  authenticity  of  sites  on  the  list  (Roders   and  van  Oers  105;  Dearborn  and  Stallmeyer  268;  Rakic  211).    Within  that  body,  a  World   1

All  monetary  denominations  in  this  paper  are  in  USD  

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Heritage  Committee  of  21  representatives  (Figure  1)  oversees  the  implementation  of   the  Convention  in  functions  ranging  from  nominations  to  funding.  While  this  authority   seems  extensive,  it  is  actually  not,  as  the  General  Assembly  and  the  Committee  do  “not   deal  with  sites  directly”  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  299;  Interviewee   A)  and  lack  the  capability  to  enforce  site  specific  policies.  The  UNESCO  WHP  must  work   within  the  framework  of  the  “United  Nations  System,  which  does  not  challenge  the   sovereign  authority  of  Member  States”  (298).    As  described  by  Interviewee  A,  “The  State   Parties  are  the  decision  makers,  UNESCO  facilitates  [...]  it's  an  election  process”   (Interviewee  A).  The  Committee  can  only  advise,  not  directly  intervene  (Rakic  211),   which  ultimately  renders  it  ineffective  in  terms  of  the  day-­‐to-­‐day  management  and   operation  of  sites,  particularly  in  developing  countries  where,  as  Interviewee  A   admitted,  “they  have  no  resources”  (Interviewee  A).     Figure  1:  The  Structure  of  the  World  Heritage  Program          

   

                     

  The  Committee  enlists  the  aid  of  three  Advisory  Bodies  for  consultation:    the   International  Union  for  the  Conservation  of  Nature  (IUCN),  the  International  Council  on   Monuments  and  Sites  (ICOMOS)  and  the  International  Centre  for  the  Study  of  the   Preservation  and  Restoration  of  Cultural  Property  (ICCROM)  (“Advisory  Bodies”   10  

unesco.org;  Rakic  211;  Figure  1).  It  is  these  supplementary  organizations  that  do  the   main  support  work  providing  counsel  on  the  decision-­‐making  process,  evaluating   prospective  and  current  properties,  and  training  site  workers  in  restoration  methods   and  procedures  (“Advisory  Bodies”  unesco.org;  Rakic  211).  However  the  Advisory  Bodies   do  not  “directly  and  actively”  participate  in  the  “process  of  preparing  or  advising”  of   States  Parties  during  the  nomination  process  (Rao  164).           THE  MISSION  OF  THE  WORLD  HERITAGE  PROGRAM    

The  World  Heritage  Mission  seeks  “to  encourage  the  identification,  protection  and   preservation  of  cultural  and  natural  heritage  around  the  world  considered  to  be  of   “outstanding  value  to  humanity”  (“World  Heritage”  unesco.org;  Rakic  209).  By  declaring   a  site  of  Outstanding  Universal  Value,  the  onus  is  not  only  on  the  region  or  country  to   protect  this  place  of  heritage,  but  all  of  humanity  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and   Management”  299;  Rao  163).    That  declaration  becomes  problematic,  however,  when,   as  Buckley  states,  “World  Heritage  designation  acts  as  an  international  top  brand  in  [...]   tourism”  (70),  without  any  financial,  managerial,  or  operational  support  from  the   Committee  to  accompany  the  designation.  Additionally,  Rao  writes  that  the  phrase   'Outstanding  Universal  Value'  has  devolved  from  “'best  of  the  best'  towards   'representative  of  the  best'”  (163),  essentially  “devaluing”  of  the  label”  (162).       Beyond  site  designation,  additional  goals  of  the  mission  include:   i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Encourage  countries  to  sign  the  World  Heritage  Convention  and  to  ensure  the   protection  of  their  natural  and  cultural  heritage;   Encourage  States  Parties  to  the  Convention  to  nominate  sites  within  their   national  territory  for  inclusion  on  the  World  Heritage  List;   Encourage  States  Parties  to  establish  management  plans  and  set  up  reporting   systems  on  the  state  of  conservation  of  their  World  Heritage  sites;   Help  States  Parties  safeguard  World  Heritage  properties  by  providing  technical   assistance  and  professional  training;   Provide  emergency  assistance  for  World  Heritage  sites  in  immediate  danger;   Support  States  Parties'  public  awareness-­‐building  activities  for  World  Heritage   conservation;  

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vii. viii.

Encourage  participation  of  the  local  population  in  the  preservation  of  their   cultural  and  natural  heritage;   Encourage  international  cooperation  in  the  conservation  of  our  world's  cultural   and  natural  heritage.  (UNESCO  “World  Heritage”)  

  Through  achieving  these  goals,  it  was  the  Program’s  belief  that  inclusion  on  the  WH  List   will  retain  sites  for  both  current  use  and  preserved  for  future  generations.    Today,   however,  problems  with  awareness  and  education,  funding,  and  conservation  plague   the  program  and  inhibit  UNESCO  and  the  World  Heritage  Program  from  sufficiently   meeting  the  goals  put  forth  in  the  mission.       THE  PROCESS  OF  NOMINATION  AND  INSCRIPTION    

The  WH  Site  selection  process  occurs  over  the  course  of  about  two  years  from   nomination  to  inclusion.    Inherently  political  in  nature  (Dearborn  and  Stallmeyer  252),   the  process  begins  when  a  States  Party  places  the  prospective  site  on  its  country's   Tentative  List  (“Tentative  Lists”  unesco.org;  Galis  212;  Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and   Management”  295).  The  Tentative  List  is  in  essence  a  “waiting  list  [that  serves]  as  a   means  for  focusing  the  attention  of  [...]  donors  on  the  work  that  needs  to  be   completed”  (“Making  and  Management”  296)  before  an  official  nomination  can  be  filed.     Official  nominations  are  supposed  to  be  written  in  conjunction  with  UNESCO   recommended  stakeholders  such  as  “site  managers,  local  and  regional  governments,   local  communities,  NGOs”  (“Tentative  Lists”  unesco.org),  private  business  owners  and   the  general  public  (Dearborn  and  Stallmeyer  252;  Roders  and  van  Oers  107),  and  include   the  following:  justification  for  the  inscription  based  on  at  least  one  of  the  ten  selection   criteria  (“The  Criteria”  unesco.org;  Galis  209-­‐210;  Figure  2),  plans  for  “protection,   management,  authenticity  and  integrity”  (“The  Criteria”  unesco.org),  and  “willingness   and  capacity  of  the  countries  responsible  to  take  [...]  measures  to  protect  and  manage   the  sites”  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  295,  299).      

 

 

 

 

 

               

               

Upon  receipt  of  the  nomination  portfolio,  the  Committee  forwards  the  file  to  the   Advisory  Bodies  –  IUCN,  ICOMOS,  and  ICCROM  –  to  conduct  an  evaluation  of  the  

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submission  and  the  site.    Following  that,  the  nomination  portfolio  is  sent  back  to  the   Committee,  where  a  vote  is  held  to  approve  or  deny  the  request  for  inclusion  (“List   Nominations”  unesco.org).      

AN  IMBALANCED  LIST,  AN  INEFFECTIVE  STRATEGY    

To  date  there  are  962  properties  on  the  WH  List  of  which  745  are  cultural,  188  are   natural,  and  29  are  considered  “mixed  attractions,”  or  sites  that  possess  both  cultural   and  natural  importance  (“World  Heritage  List”  unesco.org).  The  overwhelming  majority   of  sites  are  in  Europe  and  North  America  (Figure  3),  are  cultural  in  classification  (“Global   Strategy”  unesco.org),  and  are  primarily  “towns  and  cities,  religious  monuments,   Christianity,  certain  historical  periods  and  'elitist'  [...]  architecture”  (Bertacchini  et  al.   278-­‐79).  As  a  result  of  this  Eurocentric  distribution  of  sites  across  the  globe  (Meskell   149;  Rakic  211;  Bertacchini  et  al.  278-­‐79;  Figure  4),  “non-­‐western  and  […]  'traditional   cultures'”  (Bertacchini  et  al.  278-­‐79)  are  under-­‐represented  on  the  list.    

Figure  2:  The  Selection  Criteria  for  Placement  on  the  World  Heritage  List  (“The  Criteria  for  Selection”   unesco.org;  Galis  209-­‐210)  

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Figure  3:  The  Number  of  World  Heritage  Properties  by  Region  (“World  Heritage  List  Statistics”  unesco.org)  

 

Figure  4:  The  Number  of  World  Heritage  Properties  Inscribed  by  Each  State  Party  (“World  Heritage  List   Statistic’s  unesco.org)  

 

                                     

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In  1994,  Advisory  Body  ICOMOS  completed  a  six-­‐year  study  that  proved  the   Eurocentrism  of  the  program  and  resulted  in  a  “Global  Strategy  for  a  Representative,   Balanced  and  Credible  World  Heritage  List”  (“Global  Strategy”  unesco.org;  Bertacchini  et   al.  278-­‐79;  Rakic  211).  The  new  strategy  was  employed  to  broaden  and  balance  the   World  Heritage  List  with  regard  to  type  of  site  and  geographic  location.  While  there   remains  “a  lack  of  empirical  evidence  evaluating  the  development  of  the  imbalance”   (Steiner  and  Frey  38),  as  of  2010  about  half  of  sites  were  located  in  Europe  and  North   America,  leading  scholars  to  conclude  that  the  strategy  has  proven  ineffective  (Leask   and  Fyall,  Leask  qtd  in  Rakic  211-­‐212;  Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  278-­‐79).       A  LIST  IN  DANGER    

The  function  of  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  is  to  educate  the  global  community   on  threats  to  sites  on  the  WH  List,  and  to  provoke  global  action  to  save  the  endangered   sites  (“WH  in  Danger”  unesco.org).  The  Committee  adds  sites  to  the  List  of  World   Heritage  in  Danger  when  they  are  “under  threat  from  natural  or  man-­‐made  conditions”   (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  297).  The  conditions  can  range  from   over-­‐commercialization  and  commodification  (Reeves  and  Long  6;  Wang  and  Zan  323),   to  operational  neglect,  “management  deficiencies  and  aggressive  development”  (Roders   and  van  Oers  106),  and  lack  of  funding  –  particularly  on  the  African  continent  where   42%  of  the  “in  danger”  sites  are  located  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”   298;  Figure  5).              

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Figure  5:  The  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  by  Region  (“World  Heritage  List  Statistics”  unesco.org)

  The  poor  management  that  leads  to  an  “In  Danger”  designation  is  often  caused  by  a  lack   of  education  on  the  part  of  local  stakeholders  who,  while  viewing  the  World  Heritage   designation  as  a  “real  privilege  and  status”  symbol,  fail  to  comprehend  certain  concepts   such  as  management  and  carrying  capacity  (Wang  and  Zan  322-­‐323).  This  conception   disparity  can  be  detrimental  to  sites  like  Luang  Prabang  in  the  Lao  People’s  Democratic   Republic  where  tourism  impacts  threaten  the  very  quality  of  the  city  that  made  it  special   to  begin  with  (Starin  649-­‐51;  Dearborn  and  Stallmeyer  248).  The  city  of  Lijiang  in  China  is   another  example  where  too  many  bright  lights  and  commerce  have  caused  the   Committee  to  give  the  city  a  warning  (Wang  and  Zan  323).     The  goal  of  placing  a  site  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  is  to  draw  urgent   international  attention  to  the  site's  issues,  with  the  hope  that  said  attention  will  bring   money  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  298).    While  some  scholars   believe  that  the  Committee  is  “making  good  use  of  the  limited  means  and  resources   available  to  it”  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  299).  The  impact  of  being   on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  is  tenuous  at  best,  particularly  due  to  differing   perceptions  of  what  being  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  means  (Gross  657;   Meskell  147)  or  the  lack  of  awareness  that  a  site  is  “In  Danger”  at  all.      

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Due  to  already  limited  authority  of  the  Committee  because  of  the  sovereign  powers  of   States  Parties  (Badman  and  Debonnet  201;  Reeves  &  Long;  Interviewee  A),  the   Committee  can  only  add  and  remove  sites  from  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,   and  advise  States  Parties  whose  sites  are  on  that  list  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and   Management”  298;  Rakic  211).  The  Committee  cannot,  however,  enforce  any   conservation  efforts  to  take  place.  Removal  from  the  WH  List  thus  becomes  a  critical   measure.  Yet  this  stripping  of  World  Heritage  status  has  only  been  done  twice:  to  the   Arabian  Oryx  Sanctuary  in  Oman,  and  to  Dresden,  Germany  (Bertacchini  et  al.  279;   Reeves  and  Long  14;  Lee  6;  Connolly  1).    While  not  completely  devoid  of  consequences,   the  infrequent  nature  of  de-­‐listing  leave  the  threat  on  the  empty  side.      

Scholarly  work  on  the  process  of  inscription,  management,  policy,  and  conservation   (Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  280;  Rakic  210)  is  well  established,  but  a  gap   remains  in  the  understanding  of  how  to  raise  and  effectively  allocate  “funds  to  preserve   the  World  Heritage”  (Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  280).  As  the  UNESCO   World  Heritage  brand  becomes  ever  more  exposed  in  travel-­‐related  press,  it  becomes   increasingly  important  to  identify  and  acknowledge  areas  of  weakness  and  the  solutions   to  fix  them  (Ryan  and  Silvanto  “World  Heritage  Sites”  535-­‐536,  541;  Rakic  212).  The   impotent  structure  of  the  Program  has  resulted  in  an  abundance  of  conservation,   education,  and  funding  weaknesses,  as  well  as  a  largely  weak  brand  equity.    

 

THE PROBLEM: CONSERVATION  

Though  the  mission  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  to  conserve  and  preserve  the  sites  on  the   WH  List,  the  Program  is  currently  not  meeting  its  objective.  Thirty-­‐eight  sites  are   inscribed  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger.  Some  of  the  sites  on  the  list  include   the  Liverpool  Maritime  Mercantile  City  in  the  United  Kingdom;  the  Church  of  the   Nativity  in  Palestine;  the  Fortress  of  Santiago  in  Portobelo,  Panama;  the  Chan  Chan   Archeological  Park  in  Peru;  the  Venezuelan  City  of  Coro  and  its  Port;  the  Historical  

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Monuments  of  Mtskheta  in  Georgia;  the  Humberstone  and  Santa  Laura  Saltpeter  Works   in  Chille;  and  the  Everglades  National  Park  in  the  United  States.       In  Liverpool,  the  weak  brand  value  associated  with  UNESCO  WH  List  designation  and  a   lack  of  understanding  of  the  heritage  value  to  the  city  has  caused  the  green-­‐lighting  of   Liverpool  Waters,  an  upcoming  development  project  which  will  change  the  architectural   character  of  the  city  (“Liverpool  on  List”  NationalGeographic.com).  Sheer  neglect  has   thrust  the  Fortress  of  Santiago  into  almost  complete  degradation  (“Five  World  Heritage   Sites”  NationalGeographic.com).    At  the  Historical  Monuments  of  Mtskheta  almost  the   opposite  has  occurred.  Conservation  efforts  have  been  underway  to  maintain  the   properties  against  environmental  damage  and  age;  however,  a  lack  of  awareness  on  the   importance  of  appropriate  conservation  materials  has  led  to  the  loss  of  authenticity  at   the  sites  (“Mtskheta”  unesco.org).  Ignorance  as  to  the  importance  of  proper   conservation  mechanisms  has  also  caused  the  colonial  Venezuelan  city  of  Coro  and  its   Port  to  lose  architectural  coherence,  in  building  deterioration  (“Coro”  unesco.org;  Larkin   “Endangered  Site”).       The  Church  of  the  Nativity  in  Palestine  is  under  severe  threat  as  well:  lack  of  available   funding  has  significantly  hindered  the  church’s  ability  to  repair  the  fragile  wooden  15th   century  structure  from  the  stresses  of  time  and  the  environment  (“Endangered  Site”   SmithsonianMag.com).  Similar  funding  issues  have  also  plagued  the  Humberstone  and   Santa  Laura  Saltpeter  works  in  Chile  and  the  Chan  Chan  Archeological  Park  in  Peru,   which  require  more  resources  to  protect  the  vulnerable  properties  (“Humberstone”   unesco.org;  “Chan  Chan”  unesco.org).  The  Everglades  National  Park  in  the  United  States   faces  monetary  setbacks  towards  conservation  efforts  as  well.  Park  authorities  have   lacked  the  funds  to  remedy  pollution  and  water  drainage  problems  that  threaten  the   unique  ecosystem  (Ramsar  1-­‐5).  Lack  of  local  and  visitor  awareness  of  conservation   needs  further  compounds  the  problem.      

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Though  38  WH  Sites  are  registered  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  In  Danger,  far  more   require  immediate  attention  if  they  are  to  preserve  the  qualities  of  outstanding   universal  value  that  put  them  on  the  WH  List  to  begin  with.  UNESCO  WH  Sites  ranging   across  five  continents  including  the  Historic  Town  of  St.  George  in  Bermuda;  Taos   Pueblo  in  the  United  States;  the  Town  of  Luang  Prabang  in  the  Lao  People’s  Democratic   Republic;  China’s  Old  Town  of  Lijiang;  the  Valley  of  the  Kings  in  Egypt;  the  Philippine  Rice   Terraces  in  the  Cordilleras;  the  Old  City  of  Dubrovnik  in  Croatia;  Kunte  Kinteh  Island  in   the  Gambia;  Ghana’s  traditional  Asante  Buildings;  Robben  Island  in  South  Africa;  and  the   Galapagos  Islands  in  Ecuador  are  all  in  conservation  related  peril  (“Watch  List  2012”   wmf.org;  “Projects”  GlobalHeritageFund.org).       The  World  Monuments  Fund  designates  11  sites  from  the  UNESCO  WH  List  as  being   endangered  in  addition  to  those  on  the  formal  UNESCO  List  of  World  Heritage  In  Danger   (“Watch  List  2012”  wmf.org).  Similarly,  the  Global  Heritage  Fund,  a  separate  but  similar   organization,  identifies  an  additional  five  sites  as  being  in  need  of  immediate  restoration   and  conservation  (“Projects”  GlobalHeritageFund.org).  World  Heritage  Sites  such  as  the   Taj  Mahal  in  India  (“How  to  Save”  SmithsonianMag.com),  Venice  and  its  Lagoon  in  Italy   (National  Geographic  “Destination  Scorecard”),  and  Machu  Picchu  in  Peru  (Roach   NationalGeographic.com)  are  just  a  few  of  the  properties  that  have  been  additionally   recognized  by  research  institutions  as  in  imminent  need  of  conservation  for  reasons   ranging  from  age  and  environmental  damage  to  the  direct  actions  of  tourists  at  the   attractions.  These  sites  and  others  have  become  threatened  due  similar  awareness,   education,  and  funding  issues  described  in  the  paragraph  above.  Moreover,   conservation  efforts  at  sites  on  the  WH  List  need  to  be  ongoing,  to  maintain  each  WH   Site  and  safeguard  against  future  degradation.       While  there  are  many  issues  that  affect  the  UNESCO  WHP  from  effectively  conserving   and  protecting  the  sites  on  the  WH  List,  the  problems  arising  from  a  lack  of  awareness   and  education  and  funding  issues  are  manifold.  The  following  section  will  address  the   relationship  between  awareness  and  education  and  conservation.    

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CONSERVATION,  AWARENESS  and  EDUCATION     Poor  communication,  lack  of  local  involvement,  political  allegiances  and  rivalries,  and   improper  prioritizations  are  all  symptoms  of  a  lack  of  education  and  awareness  (Aplin   161-­‐2,  167-­‐8;  Jimura  293-­‐4;  Frey  and  Steiner  560-­‐2;  Gillespie  289,  296-­‐298;  Meskell  146-­‐ 150),  which  ultimately  prevent  conservation  efforts  at  WH  Sites.  Lack  of  awareness  and   education  with  regard  to  WH  Sites  are  two  significant  shortcomings  that  must  be  fixed  if   conservation  efforts  are  to  succeed.  This  knowledge  gap  often  gets  lost  in  the  shuffle  of   political  maneuverings  inherent  in  the  UNESCO  WHP.  Awareness  and  education  issues   related  to  conservation  manifest  through  miscommunication  regarding  the  impact,   meaning,  and  importance  of  a  UNESCO  WH  Site  designation  to  local  stakeholders  and   visitors  and  an  inadequate  understanding  the  physical  and  cultural  needs  of  WH  Sites   (Aplin  156-­‐7,  160-­‐1,  164-­‐6;  Frey  and  Pamini  3;  Frey  and  Steiner  564;  Gillespie  289,  295-­‐6,   299;  Gross  657;  Jimura  293-­‐4).         Understanding  what  WH  Site  designation  means  in  terms  of  tourism  impact  and  how  it   relates  to  conservation  by  all  stakeholders,  from  site  managers  to  visitors,  has  direct   physical  and  social  impacts  on  sites.  Destructive  impacts  are  often  the  result  of  little   communication  from  the  Committee  to  the  local  site  managers  and  communities  about   proper  conservation  efforts  and  needs,  as  well  as  the  value  of  upholding  the  World   Heritage  brand,  in  the  form  of  WH  Sites,  to  the  community.  The  Program’s  ability  to   conserve  WH  Sites  is  affected  by  education  and  awareness  on  and  at  the  sites  including,   where  the  designation  lines  fall,  what  designation  means  to  the  community  and  visitors,   and  if  the  site  is  considered  as  one  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  In  Danger  (Aplin  156-­‐7,   160-­‐1,  164-­‐6;  Frey  and  Pamini  3;  Frey  and  Steiner  564;  Gillespie  289,  295-­‐6,  299;  Gross   657;  Jimura  293-­‐4).   This  concept  is  most  easily  understood  by  examining  situations  where  effective   communication  has  actually  worked,  such  as  in  Jimura's  study  of  Ogimachi,  Shirakawa-­‐ mura  in  Japan.  In  the  study  Jimura  found  that  despite  problems  that  arose  with  

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increased  visitation  (high  traffic,  congestion,  exploitation  of  local  culture),  the  majority   of  locals  in  the  community  saw  tourism  as  an  important  and  successful  industry  for   creating  jobs,  using  heritage  as  a  resource,  enhancing  community  infrastructure,  and   generating  income  by  using  donation  fees  at  sites  (Jimura  289-­‐91,  293).  The  benefits  of   the  tourism  industry  and  designation  were  properly  communicated  to  local  stakeholders   at  Ogimachi,  Shirakawamura  and  thus  affected  their  perceptions  on  and  involvement  in   preserving  and  promoting  heritage  tourism.       Additional  studies  of  tourists  in  Israel  (Poria  et  al.  “Tourist  Perceptions”  272)  and  locals   in  Australia  (Aplin  168)  demonstrated  that  when  positive  influences  of  tourism,  brought   about  by  the  marketing  cultural  and  natural  heritage  through  World  Heritage   designations  are  understood  by  the  stakeholders,  a  sense  of  pride  in  the  site  invokes  an   increased  desire  to  participate  in  the  conservation  of  culture  and  heritage  (Jimura,  291-­‐ 3).  This  pride,  brought  about  by  awareness  and  education  and  fostered  through  direct   engagement  with  a  WH  Site,  allows  locals  to  feel  more  invested  in  the  management  of   the  sites  and  conservation  of  their  heritage.  Likewise,  when  the  Galapagos  Islands  in   Ecuador  were  put  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,  the  Environmental  Minister   backed  by  the  Ecuadorian  Government  made  significant  strides  towards  bettering   preservation  efforts  (Gross  657;  savegalapagos.org).  As  a  result  of  the  listing  on  the  List   of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,     immigration  and  quarantine  measures  have  been  tightened,  a  $15  million   Invasive  Species  Fund  has  been  set  up  and  the  governance  of  the  Islands   has     been  strengthened  (savegalapagos.org).     The  illustrative  cases  highlighted  by  the  Galapagos,  Jimura,  Aplin  and  Poria  et  al.   illustrate  the  importance  of  awareness  and  education  of  the  impact  of  WH  Designation   in  local  communities  to  conservation  efforts.  As  noted  by  Interviewee  D,  there  is  a  need   for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  raise  brand  awareness  amongst  professionals  and  the  public  to   help  protect  WH  Sites.  In  addition  to  brand  awareness,  monetary  capital  needed  for   conservation  and  maintenance  projects.  The  following  section  highlights  the  critical   relationship  between  funding  and  conservation.    

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CONSERVATION  and  FUNDING     Successful  conservation  programs  not  only  involve  sufficient  awareness  and  education   of  local  stakeholders  and  tourists.  Funding  issues  additionally  exist  regarding  monetary   distribution  on  local  and  governmental  levels  and  allocation  of  funds  towards   conservation  (Jimura  291-­‐5;  Frey  and  Pamini  1-­‐2;  Meskell  148).  Conservation  is  a  costly   endeavor,  and  without  sufficient  funding  such  efforts  are  bound  to  come  up  short.   While  it  can  be  argued  that  funding  issues  arise  out  of  failures  on  the  local  government   level  to  allocate  funds  towards  conservation  (Jimura  291-­‐5;  Frey  and  Pamini  1-­‐2;  Meskell   148),  in  the  case  of  UNESCO  WH  Sites  that  is  not  exclusively  true.         The  Committee  is  supposed  to  provide  “influence,  expertise,  and  funding”  (Rakic  211),  a   flawed  idea  mainly  due  to  the  reality  of  the  Committee's  organizational  weakness  and   actual  budget  for  conservation  (Rakic  211;  Ryan  and  Silvanto  298;  Bertacchini  et  al.  279).   The  World  Heritage  Fund  (WH  Fund;  the  Fund),  the  financial  arm  of  the  Committee,   does  not  have  the  means  to  manage  or  finance  site  conservation,  with  a  total  budget  of   only  $4  million  per  year  and  includes  administrative  and  staffing  costs  (Frey  and  Steiner   559).  In  2011,  the  total  amount  left  for  conservation  projects  was  a  mere  $1.7  million   (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).  This  is  especially  insufficient  when  in  reality  it  would  take  a   yearly  budget  upwards  of  $11  million  to  fully  execute  the  conservation  goals  of  the   Convention  (Frey  and  Steiner  559).    Though  funding  issues  are  still  relatively  unexplored   (Bertacchini  et  al.  280),  scholars  such  as  Frey  and  Steiner,  Frey  and  Pamini,  and   Bertacchini  et  al.  have  provided  solutions  to  solve  the  fiscal  issue  that  has  inspired  the   recommendation  outlined  in  this  white  paper.       The  current  funding  scheme  in  place  is  political  and  bureaucratic.  The  authors  above   argue  for  policy  change  as  a  solution  to  the  fiscal  problem.  While  the  strategies   highlighted  in  their  research  would  most  likely  prove  to  be  fruitful,  they  are  also  highly   implausible  as  policy  changes  to  the  Operational  Guidelines  are  nearly  impossible  to   implement  (Interviewee  A).  Subsequently,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  turn  to  other  means   of  funding,  and  help  WH  Site  managers  do  the  same,  in  order  to  increase  capital   22  

available  for  conservation  efforts  worldwide.  Increased  and  smartly  allocated  capital  for   conservation  efforts  is  of  cyclical  benefit  to  the  UNESCO  WHP  at  large.  Improved   preservation  of  sites  increases  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand  value  which  in  turn  leads  to   increased  awareness  and  education,  followed  by  increased  funding,  and  then  again   more  money  available  for  conservation  (Frey  and  Pamini  3,  7;  Frey  and  Steiner  555,  565-­‐ 566;  Gillespie  296-­‐299;  Meskell  150;  Interviewee  D).          

For  a  property  to  successfully  enable  conservation  through  tourism,  political  bodies   involved  in  the  process  must  work  together  with  other  stakeholders  in  the  local  tourism   industry  to  communicate  with,  and  educate  locals  and  tourists  about  conservation   needs  as  well  as  the  significance  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  the  meaning  behind  site   designation  (Frey  and  Steiner  566-­‐569;  Jimura  290-­‐292;  Poria  et  al.  “Tourist   Perceptions”  273-­‐4;  Meskell  145;  Interviewee  C).  The  Program  must  improve  its   conservation  efforts  by  increasing  the  awareness  of  and  education  about  conservation   issues  and  by  promoting  a  new,  interactive  and  comprehensive  fundraising  approach.   Education  and  awareness  drive  conservation  practices  and  development  at  WH  Sites   (Jimura  291;  Poria  et  al.  “Tourist  Perceptions”  273,  555;  Frey  and  Steiner  558-­‐560).   Through  marketing  for  meaning,  awareness  of,  and  education  on  the  UNESCO  WHP   brand  on  a  global  level  can  be  achieved,  and  ultimately  through  the  resulting  increase  of   program  funds,  conservation  initiatives  and  the  goal  of  the  Convention  can  be  met.  The   recommendation  to  apply  marketing  for  meaning  as  a  means  to  better  the  UNESCO   WHP  is  discussed  in  detail  below.          

RECOMMENDATION   The  UNESCO  WHP  must  develop  a  meaningful  marketing  strategy,  to  be  funded  by   diverting  the  WH  Fund.  While  the  Committee  exercises  day-­‐to-­‐day  control  over  the  WH   Fund  (“Convention  Text”  unesco.org),  Regulation  6.7  of  the  Financial  Regulations  of  the   UNESCO  WHP  gives  the  Director-­‐General  of  UNESCO  certain  control  over  the  use  and  

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allocation  of  funds  and  the  ability  to  change  financial  regulations  regarding  how  the   Fund  can  be  spent  (“Financial  Regulations”  unesco.org).  Diverting  a  portion  of  the  WH   Fund  into  marketing  for  meaning  will  increase  awareness  of  and  education  about  the   UNESCO  WHP,  which  will  increase  funding  through  online  and  on-­‐site  donations.   Increased  awareness  and  funding  are  essential  in  assisting  conservation  efforts  at  WH   Sites.  Properly  maintained  and  preserved  WH  Sites,  in  turn  help  to  augment  UNESCO   WHP  brand  equity  and  value.       Product  and  company  branding  has  generally  been  associated  with  private  enterprises   and  less  with  the  public  sector,  including  international  intergovernmental  organizations   (Interviewee  C;  Mihaita  and  Sebe  563;  Hankinson  98).  However,  in  the  last  decade   international  organizations,  particularly  non-­‐profit  organizations,  have  developed  public   relations  departments  in  an  attempt  to  communicate  their  vision  and  objectives  with  a   global  audience  (Andreasen  and  Kotler  150).  Donohoe  adds,  “[marketing]  should  be  one   of  the  many  tools  used  to  balance  preservation  and  tourism  priorities”  (123)  and  is   especially  applicable  for  the  UNESCO  WHP.  With  a  new  focus  on  marketing  and  brand   equity,  many  of  these  international  organizations  are  creating  a  “commercial  identity’   and  have  started  to  develop  recognizable  brands  (Mihaita  and  Sebe  563).     As  Tapp  notes,  such  practices  are  the  very  essence  of  brand  management,  irrespective   of  whether  an  organization’s  management  chooses  to  call  them  such  (335).  The   Convention  has  been  hindered  from  achieving  its  original  objectives  by  a  lack  of   awareness  and  insufficient  funding  (IUCN  1,3)  and  consequently,  has  suffered  an  image   decline.  New  communication  measures  and  increased  brand  awareness  are  necessary.   Olins,  in  his  article  “On  Brand”  states  that  all  successful  businesses  and  organizations   contain  three  key  ingredients:  technical  or  professional  competencies,  financial  skills,   and  the  ability  to  sell  (7-­‐8).  Without  a  balance  of  the  three  elements,  no  organization  or   company  can  be  managed  successfully.  Branding  and  the  ability  to  sell  are  intrinsically   tied  together;  without  strong  brand  equity,  one  cannot  sell  a  brand  product.      

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Hankinson  identifies  five  principles  that  must  act  in  concert  for  a  brand  to  be  strong:  “(1)   brand  culture,  (2)  brand  leadership,  (3)  departmental  coordination,  (4)  brand   communications,  (5)  stakeholder  partnerships”  (99).    Interviewee  A  additionally  stressed   the  need  for  interconnected  relationships  across  public  and  private  sectors  as  a  key   component  to  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  subsequently  brand.  As  the  figurehead  of  the   World  Heritage  symbiosis,  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  “in  a  position  to  provide  help”   (Interviewee  A).  However,  to  be  effective  in  delivering  aid  in  the  form  of  conservation   and  protection,  the  program  must  continue  to  foster  “strong  relationships  not  only  with   customers”  (Hankinson  102)  –  in  this  case  the  States  Parties,  site  managers  –  “but  also   with  suppliers,  the  community,  shareholders,  and  even  competitors  in  order  to  deliver   long  term  economic,  social,  and  environmental  value  “  (102).  Though  the  UNESCO  WHP   is  not  a  commercial  organization  in  the  traditional  sense,  the  importance  of  “fostering  of   stakeholder  partnerships  and  building  strong  communication  platforms  [that  focus]  on   funding  and  service  delivery”  (Hankinson  109),  still  apply.  The  UNESCO  WHP  mirrors   international  non-­‐profit  organizations  like  the  World  Wildlife  Fund,  Amnesty   International,  Habitat  for  Humanity,  and  importantly,  UNICEF,  which  also  operates   under  the  auspices  of  the  United  Nations  umbrella.  Adapting  the  successful  marketing   practices  of  these  organizations  would  help  revitalize  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  image  and   increase  global  knowledge  about  the  organization.  Nathalie  Kylander,  an  adjunct   lecturer  at  Harvard  University  and  noted  scholar  on  non-­‐profit  branding,  stated  in  an   interview  with  Forbes.com:   a  strong  brand  drives  cohesion  and  helps  an  organization  build  the   capacity  and  skills  to  implement  its  social  mission  [and]  results  in  trust   among  its  many  constituents,  be  they  donors,  beneficiaries,  partners,  or   otherwise,  which  enables  the  organization  to  have  greater  impact  (Kanani   “Branding  For  Nonprofits”  forbes.com).         Achieving  increased  brand  awareness  and  positive  communication  channels  for  the   mission  and  meaning  behind  designation  becomes  a  crucial  ingredient  in  the  long-­‐term   viability  of  the  Program.      

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The  changing  landscape  of  the  modern  world  has  altered  the  mindset  and  duties  of  non-­‐ profit  managers  and  leaders,  propelling  them  into  new  competitive  arenas  where  astute   brand  stewardship  can  be  a  differentiating  advantage  (Kylander  et  al.  254).   Organizations  that  are  highly  visible  on  an  international  scale,  such  as  the  Red  Cross  and   Greenpeace,  are  often  regarded  as  some  of  the  most  widely  recognized  brands  in  the   world,  and  are  more  trusted  by  the  public  than  the  best  known  for-­‐profit  brands   (Kylander  and  Stone  37).  An  Edelman  Public  Relations  annual  study  from  2012  revealed   that  for  the  fifth  year  in  a  row,  global  NGOs  are  the  most  highly  regarded  organizations   globally;  and  in  16  countries  of  the  25  surveyed  they  were  more  trusted  than  private   business  (Edelman).  Consumer  trust  in  a  brand  is  regarded  as  a  key  component  to  brand   loyalty  (Lau  and  Lee  341).  In  the  United  States,  Amnesty  International  is  ranked  as  the   13th  most  trusted  brand,  with  a  55%  trust  rating.  Equally  important  perhaps,  Amnesty’s   brand  trust  increased  from  36%  in  2001  to  55%  in  2004.  In  Europe,  global  non-­‐profit   brand  trust  is  even  greater,  with  Amnesty  International  ranking  first  with  63%  followed   by  the  World  Wildlife  Fund  in  fourth  place,  just  behind  Michelin  and  Microsoft  at  59%   and  57%,  respectively.  Research  in  the  field  of  non-­‐profit  branding  has  concluded  that   branding  plays  a  critical  role  for  non-­‐profit  organizations  and  provides  the  opportunity   to  speak  to  various  stakeholders  (Kylander  and  Simonsin  64;  Stegeman  and  Thompson   10;  Faircloth  3).  This  white  paper  contends  that  by  focusing  on  increasing  the  brand   equity  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  through  meaningful  marketing,  the  issues  of  awareness  and   education,  funding,  and  conservation  can  be  improved.       In  this  and  the  previous  section,  awareness,  education  and  funding  identified  as  major   problems  hindering  the  UNESCO  WHP  from  achieving  its  mission  of  conservation.  This   white  paper  has  examined  the  aforementioned  inadequacies  presents  the  UNESCO  WHP   with  an  original  solution:  marketing  for  meaning.  The  research  conducted  to  identify  the   above  concerns  is  detailed  in  the  following  section.        

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RESEARCH DESIGN   The  recommendation  for  this  paper  has  been  based  on  an  analysis  of  current   scholarship,  interviews,  illustrative  examples,  and  a  survey.  The  details  of  the  research   methods  used  in  this  study  are  outlined  below.        

DOCUMENT  ANALYSIS     A  range  of  issues  regarding  the  UNESCO  WHP  were  examined  through  analysis  of   scholarly  articles,  Program  policy  documents,  and  the  UNESCO  WHP  website.           INTERVIEWS:  SEMI-­‐STRUCTURED  and  SCOPING       Chosen  by  purposive  and  convenience  sampling,  individuals  including  tourism  industry   consultants,  heritage  conservation  experts,  UNESCO  staff  members,  marketing   professionals,  and  academic  scholars  were  questioned  in  semi-­‐structured  or  scoping   interviews.  In  total,  six  industry  experts  were  interviewed.         ILLUSTRATIVE  EXAMPLES     Illustrative  examples  were  used  to  explore  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  approach  to  the   management  and  preservation  of  heritage  attractions  at  specific  sites,  and  the   implementation  of  management  practices  that  have  shown  to  be  either  successful  or   deficient.       SURVEY     Of  the  962  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites,  270  were  selected  through  nonprobability  and   purposive  sampling  to  determine  how  many  of  these  sites  had  a  presence  on  the   Internet.    The  first  of  the  two  criteria  for  selection  was  the  availability  of  information  for   the  WH  Site  on  an  official,  authorized  website  after  no  more  than  two  inquiries  by  a  

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global  search  engine.  The  second  was  how  many  positive  results  had  social  media   integration.         After  a  thorough  examination  of  the  qualitative  data  gathered  through  the  document   analysis,  interviews,  illustrative  examples,  and  survey  noted  above,  it  is  clear  that  the   UNESCO  WHP  must  focus  its  attention  on  increasing  brand  equity  through  awareness.   The  rest  of  this  white  paper  is  organized  around  presenting  marketing  for  meaning  as   the  key  method  to  bettering  the  UNESCO  WHP  deficiencies  of  awareness  and  education,   funding,  and  conservation.    

ISSUES IMPEDING CONSERVATION Through  the  qualitative  research  methods  outlined  in  the  previous  section,  it  was   determined  that  a  lack  of  awareness  and  education  as  well  as  insufficient  capital  to  fill   the  WH  Fund  are  the  two  main  components  thwarting  the  UNESCO  WHP  from  fulfilling   the  objectives  of  the  Convention.  The  following  section  will  discuss  the  area  of   awareness  and  education  in  detail.         AWARENESS  and  EDUCATION       The  available  literature,  research,  and  interviews  examined  in  this  study  point  to  a  lack   of  awareness  in  and  understanding  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  the  meaning  behind  site   designation,  which  leads  to  deficiencies  in  conservation.  Even  those  working  with  and  in   the  same  industry  as  the  UNESCO  WHP  are  unaware  as  to  why  the  Program  is  an   important  one  and  what  the  values  and  meanings  behind  designation  are  (Interviewee   C;  Interviewee  F).  A  problem  with  the  brand  as  a  whole,  this  deficit  was  pointed  out  in   both  the  current  research  and  the  conducted  interviews  to  be  a  reality  for  both  site   visitors  and  the  local  populations  surrounding  designated  properties  (Interviewee  C;   Interviewee  D;  Interviewee  F,  Hall  and  Piggin  406,  409;  Poria  et  al.  “Religious  Site”  485;  

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Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”  202;  Dewar  et  al.  323,  329;  Marcotte  and  Bourdeau  5;   Somuncu  and  Yagit  9).         LACK  OF  LOCAL  KNOWLEDGE  ABOUT  WORLD  HERITAGE  SITES       Community  involvement  in  destination  development,  including  that  of  UNESCO  WH   Sites  is  essential  to  a  property’s  success:  it  is  the  community  and  “their  place  of   residence  that  is  being  promoted”  (Prideaux  and  Cooper  37).  The  local  populations   direct  involvement  in  the  tourism  industry  is  critical  to  the  long-­‐term  success  and   development  of  attractions.  WH  Site  communities  “are  [the]  carriers  and  immediate   custodians  of  cultural  resources”  of  the  UNESCO  designated  destinations  (Keitumetse   49).  However,  for  many  UNESCO  WH  Site  communities,  the  local  population,  businesses,   and  property  managers  are  often  unaware  of  the  meaning  of  designation  or  that  the   local  attraction  is  even  designated  at  all  (Marcotte  and  Bourdeau  6).  In  a  study  by  Hall   and  Piggin  in  “Tourism  Business  Knowledge  of  World  Heritage  Sites  in  New  Zealand,”  a   number  of  the  surrounding  businesses  surveyed  “were  unaware  of  the  status  of  the   area,  and  also  of  what  World  Heritage  means”  (406).  Timothy  and  Boyd  that  found  WH   Site  designation  to  be  “not  generally  understood  by  the  public  or  even  by  WHS   management  and  personnel”  (Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”  204).       In  the  case  of  many  designated  sites,  World  Heritage  status  is  pursued  by  national   governments,  with  little  involvement  by  local  populations  (Hall  and  Piggin  406;  Ryan  and   Silvanto  “Making  and  Management”  291;  Aref  348;  Interviewee  E),  despite  the  advising   of  the  Committee  (Interviewee  A).  As  Aref  makes  note  in  his  study  on  Shiraz,  Iran,  as  in   many  destinations  in  the  developing  world,     tourism  development  activities  […]  have  been  historically  undertaken  by   the  government  and  there  has  been  little  participation  by  communities.   As  a  result,  local  communities  have  never  really  understood  the  need  for   tourism,  or  perceived  tourism  as  an  enterprise  that  contributes  to  the   development  of  their  lives  and  social  welfare  (348).      

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In  a  New  Zealand  case  study,  “the  overriding  majority  of  businesses  […]  never  received   information  regarding  the  World  Heritage  status  of  the  area”  (Hall  and  Piggin  409).   Somuncu  and  Yagit  also  discovered  that  only  27.88%  of  locals  who  live  in  and  around   World  Heritage  Sites  in  Turkey  were  aware  of  WHS  designation  (9).  “Limited  access  to   information”  and  a  “lack  of  awareness”  are  top  barriers  to  successful  tourism   development  regarding  community  involvement  (Aref  349).  Local  people  –  the   “employees”  (Hankinson  99)  –  are  the  stakeholders  who  interact  with  tourists–  the   “customers”  (Hankinson  99)  –  on  a  daily  basis  and  it  is  their  relationship  with  the   tourism  industry  and  their  understanding  of  and  pride  in  UNESCO  WH  Site  designation   that  ultimately  decides  a  destination’s  appeal  and  viability,  or  as  Hankinson  wrote,  the   “brand  values  and  those  perceived  by  external  stakeholders”  (99).    If  the  service  is  good,   Interviewee  A  stressed,  the  visitor  experience  is  better;  if  the  visitor  experience  is   better,  “then  it  means  the  site  is  well-­‐managed”  and  will  be  better  preserved   (Interviewee  A).  Local  populations  should  be  well  informed  on  the  meaning  behind   designation  and  of  the  program  itself.        “In  most  parts  of  the  developing  world  […]  resident  communities  are  invaluable   custodians  of  cultural  heritage  and  cultural  landscapes”  especially  since  they  often   inhabit  and  constantly  put  to  use  the  monuments  and  sites  also  utilized  as  tourist   attractions  (Keitumetse  51).  To  engage  the  public  in  the  tourism  industry,  the   population  must  be  educated  on  WHS  designation  and  the  benefits  of  tourism  that   follow.  In  their  review  of  WH  Sites  in  Turkey  Somuncu  and  Yigit  found  that  a  lack  of   social  awareness  contributed  to  poor  management  and  conservation  of  sites  (4,  8)  a   point  also  noted  by  Interviewee  E.    Additionally,  Kaltenborn  et  al.  note:   A  key  issue  linked  to  the  success  in  terms  of  utilizing  the  World  Heritage   Site  status  effectively  […]  is  the  development  and  local  support  and   involvement,  which  has  been  increasingly  been  emphasized  as  crucial  for   obtaining  sustainable  development  (99).    

  Without  education  on  the  meaning  and  benefits  of  WH  Site  status,  local  populations  are   not  aware  of  the  benefits  that  development  can  bring  and,  as  a  result,  site  managers  

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lack  the  required  support  and  involvement  necessary  to  make  their  respective   destinations  thrive  (Somuncu  and  Yigit  9).  As  argued  by  Pike  and  noted  in  the  study  by   Poria  et  al.,  “awareness  is  essential  in  creating  brand  equity  […]  and  there  is  an  apparent   need  to  create  [that]  awareness”  regarding  WH  Site  status  and  meaning  (“Archeological   Site”  206).  Tourism  is  a  “phenomenon  of  affluent  contemporary  societies”  and  is  still    “a   difficult  concept  to  grasp  for  people  in  developing  countries”  (Aref  350).  As  discussed  at   length  by  Interviewee  E,  many  people  in  the  developing  world,  who  have  not  traveled   themselves,  are  often  only  greeted  by  the  negative  aspects  of  the  industry,  because   they  are  not  aware  or  in  control  of  the  preservation  efforts  taking  place  around  them.   These  communities  are  not  aware  of  the  benefits  of  the  tourism  industry  in  general,  let   alone  any  positive  aspects  WH  Site  designation  can  bring.       Once  made  aware  of  how  designation  and  the  ensuing  developments  can  better  the   lives  of  local  populations,  however,  community  support  for  the  tourism  industry  has   been  shown  to  consistently  increase  (Jimura  289-­‐91,  293;  Poria  et  al.  “Tourist   Perceptions”  272;  Aplin  168;  Interviewee  E).  As  highlighted  by  Interviewee  E:     if  the  educational  and  awareness  side  [of  the  program]  could  be   strengthened,  then  more  people  would  be  educated  in  sustainable   development  and  management  [and]  then  the  sites  would  be  better   managed.      

In  their  article  “The  World  Heritage  List:  the  Making  and  Management  of  the  Brand”,   Ryan  and  Silvanto  argue  that  “the  danger  to  heritage  sites  comes  from  overuse,  but   even  more  so  from  neglect”  (298).  Interviewee  C  observed  this  first  hand:  in  Bermuda,   capital  city  and  UNESCO  WH  Site,  St.  George  and  it’s  Related  Fortifications,  has   deteriorated  into  nothing  but  a  collection  of  “decaying  empty  buildings,  cheesy   restaurants,  and  a  museum  that  is  closed  most  of  the  time”.  Community  support  yields   the  opportunity  for  community  investment  in  an  industry  they  see  as  being  essential  to   their  livelihood  and  to  enhancement  of  their  home.  Additionally,  “the  support  given  by   local  residents  to  encouraging  the  development  of  tourism  may  also  be  a  key  factor  in   the  level  of  support  given  to  tourism  promotion  by  the  public  sector”  (Prideaux  and   Cooper  38).  In  the  more  successful  UNESCO  designated  WH  Sites:   31  

the  sense  of  creating  change,  development  and  socio-­‐economic  benefits,   appear  to  be  those  where  the  community  itself  has  responded  actively   through  actions  and  investments  rather  than  waiting  for  the  externally   driven  effects  of  designation  (Kaltenborne  et  al.  101).       The  active  participation  that  Kaltenborne  et  al.  explain  and  support  is  almost  impossible   if  the  communities  themselves  are  not  aware  of  the  meaning  behind  UNESCO  WH  Site   status  or  if  their  communities  have  properties  designated  at  all.  As  seen  in  Bermuda  and   described  by  Interviewee  C,  the  lack  of  local  awareness  and  involvement  with  the   UNESCO  WHP  has  led  to  the  near  degeneration  of  a  site  that  represents  the  “earliest   English  urban  settlement  in  the  New  World”  (“St.  George”  unesco.org).

LACK  OF  VISITOR  KNOWLEDGE  ABOUT  WORLD  HERITAGE  SITES     Research  has  shown  that  local  communities  are  not  the  only  ones  who  lack  knowledge   on  the  meaning  behind  UNESCO  WHP  and  site  designation  (Poria  et  al.  “Religious  Site”   485;  Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”  202;  Dewar  et  al.  323,  329;  Marcotte  and  Bourdeau   5;  Interviewee  D).  Even  more  so  than  local  populations,  many  visitors  to  UNESCO  WH   Sites  are  unaware  of  the  property’s  status  or  the  value  of  designation.  In  their  study  on   designation  effectiveness  at  religious  sites,  Poria  et  al.  note  a  study  by  Hazan  who  found   that  “56%  of  her  sample  of  visitors  to  National  Heritage  Parks  in  the  United  States   designated  as  WHS  were  not  aware  that  the  site  [was]  a  WHS”  (“Religious  Site”  485).   Incredibly,  the  44%  awareness  rate  among  visitors  in  Hazan’s  study  is  actually  high  when   compared  to  other  global  studies  on  the  topic  of  UNESCO  WHP  brand  knowledge.  In  the   study  conducted  by  Dewar  et  al.  on  WHS  awareness  of  the  Historic  Center  of  Macao   “the  average  visitor  had  only  a  vague  understanding  of  WHS”  (323)  and  “only  24%  of  the   total  respondents”  (329)  could  recognize  the  UNESCO  WH  Site  logo.  In  Poria  et  al.’s   survey  on  the  same  topic  at  Caesarea  in  Israel,  they  found  only  24.7%  of  the  participants   had  seen  the  WH  Site  logo  before,  and  only  “10.5%  of  the  total  sample,  knew  its   meaning”  (“Archeological  Site”  202).  A  slight  improvement,  34.7%  of  their  sample   “claimed  they  were  familiar  with  the  term  World  Heritage  Site”  and  “25.8%  of  the  total  

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sample  were  able  to  explain  it’s  meaning”  (Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”  202).  In  a   study  Poria  et  al.  carried  out  at  the  Basilica  of  the  Annunciation  in  Nazareth,  Israel  only   10.2%  of  visitors  recognized  the  WH  Site  logo  and  only  6.5%  knew  what  it  meant  (Poria   et  al.  “Religious  Site”  487).  Marcotte  and  Bourdeau  additionally  revealed  in  their  study   of  Quebec  City  that,  “tourists,  especially  those  from  the  United  States,  as  well  as   business  visitors,  were  found  to  be  generally  unfamiliar  with  the  World  Heritage   designation  and  its  role”  (5).  The  findings  of  these  studies  challenge  the  assumption  that   WH  Site  designation  is  a  recognized  and  valued  brand.       The  lack  of  awareness  among  visitors  to  WH  Sites  hinders  the  development  of  the   properties  and  the  promotion  of  tourism  to  the  sites.  For  consumers  to  purchase  brand   products,  in  this  case  UNESCO  WH  Sites,  they  must  first  be  aware  that  the  brand  exists   and  the  benefit  of  the  products  offered.  Ryan  and  Silvanto  note:     labels  such  as  the  WHS  designation  exercise  an  important  influence  on   consumption  decisions  [and  that…]  Research  suggests  that  endorsements   or  seals  of  approval  reduce  consumer  search  costs  and  provide  a   competitive  advantage  for  a  recommended  product  or  service  (“Making   and  Management”  292).       Marcotte  and  Bourdeau  add,  “tourists  for  whom  the  cultural  aspect  is  a  key  factor  in  the   choice  of  a  destination  would  thus  be  more  sensitive  to  a  World  Heritage  brand”  (6).   Pike,  too,  agrees  with  Ryan  and  Silvanto  and  Marcotte  and  Bourdeau:  “with  travelers   spoilt  by  choice  of  available  destinations,  never  before  has  it  been  more  important  for  a   destination  to  develop  an  effective  brand”  (258).  The  same  sentiments  are  echoed  again   by  Buil  et  al.  who  state:  “brand  awareness  positively  impacts  perceived  quality  and   brand  associations”  and  that  brand  equity  has  a  positive  impact  on  consumer  response.   The  authors  state:   Brand  awareness  is  the  first  step  to  creating  brand  equity.  This  dimension   refers  to  whether  consumers  can  recall  or  recognize  a  brand  and  is   related  to  the  strength  of  a  brand’s  presence  in  consumers’  minds  (Buil  et   al.  62-­‐63).       As  branding  and  brand  equity  are  integral  to  tourism  development  strategies  and  tourist   demand  (Ryan  &  Silvanto  “Brand  for  all  Nations”  206;  Poria  et  al.  “Archeological  Site”   33  

199),  the  awareness  levels  discovered  in  the  aforementioned  studies  of  WHS   recognition  must  be  augmented  and  addressed  for  the  World  Heritage  Program  to  be   effective.  Awareness  and  education  can  be  achieved  through  improved  communication   and  collaboration  among  all  stakeholders.  Effective  marketing  with  the  goal  of   increasing  brand  knowledge  provides  a  viable  solution  and  allows  the  Convention  to  be   proactive  in  achieving  its  mission  of  conservation  (Aplin  172).       Awareness  and  education  are  not  the  only  requirements  for  a  successful  conservation   program.  The  funding  to  support  conservation  activities  is  also  needed.  The  following   section  discusses  the  lack  of  funding  available  to  the  UNESCO  WHP  for  conservation   efforts,  and  illustrates  the  connection  between  the  insufficient  capital  and  Program   deficiencies  in  conservation.         FUNDING       Along  with  the  spirit  of  international  solidarity  and  starting  with  the  preservation  of  Abu   Simbel,  the  Convention  established  the  WH  Fund  (“The  Convention”  unesco.org)  to  be   used  for  the  protection  of  the  WH  List.    The  fund  was  established  as  a  trust,  and  is   managed  by  the  Committee  as  a  special  account  and  in  accordance  with  the  financial   regulations  of  UNESCO  (“Article  15”  unesco.org).  The  purpose  of  the  WH  Fund  is  to   support  States  Parties  in  need  of  international  assistance  to  secure  the  protection,   conservation,  presentation,  or  rehabilitation  of  a  designated  site  (Interviewee  A).  The   fund  is  also  the  main  source  for  supporting  the  daily  activities  and  staff  of  the   Committee.  States  Parties  provide  a  majority  of  the  available  capital  to  the  fund,  the   compulsory  payment  from  which  account  for  60%  of  the  total  reserve  (  “WHC-­‐12/36”   unesco.org).  The  remaining  40%  is  made  up  by  voluntary  States  Parties  contributions,   private  donor  contributions,  profits  from  the  sale  of  official  publications,  and  Funds-­‐In-­‐ Trust  (“Funding”,  “WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).      

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Although  there  are  a  few  revenue  streams,  coming  mainly  from  the  compulsory  and   voluntary  contributions  of  the  states  parties,  current  available  funds  are  inadequate  to   meet  the  mission  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  (Interviewee  A).  The  ongoing  financial  crisis  has   furthermore  exasperated  this  already  existing  problem,  as  public  spending  on   conservation  has  decreased  (Interviewee  A).       Figure  6:  World  Heritage  Fund  Income  2011  (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org)  

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The  World  Heritage  Fund  is  only  able  to  generate  roughly  $4  million  (“WHC-­‐12/36”   unesco.org)  annually.  The  resources  available  to  properties  through  the  Fund,  and   especially  to  those  in  need  like  sites  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,  are  too   limited  to  assist  in  the  necessary  levels  of  conservation  (Francioni  and  Lanzerini  290).  In   addition  to  conservation  projects,  the  annual  budget  also  pays  for  organization’s   administrative  costs.  As  a  result,  in  2011,  only  $1.7  million  was  used  towards  the   conservation  of  the  962  WH  Sites  (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).     The  financial  restrictions  of  the  WH  Fund  becomes  clear,  when  compared  to  the  World   Monuments  Fund  (WMF)  a  New  York  based  non-­‐governmental  organization  founded  in   1965  with  a  similar  mission  and  objectives  to  the  UNESCO  WHP.  In  the  2011  fiscal  year,   the  WMF  supported  approximately  100  fieldwork  projects  funded  by  $52.6  million,  an   35  

average  of  $500,000  per  project  (World  Monuments  Fund  26).  Additionally,  the  Global   Heritage  Fund  (GHF),  founded  only  ten  years  ago  and  relatively  new  to  the  cultural   conservation  scene,  has  spent  an  average  of  $2  million  on  each  of  the  18  sites  they  have   supported  (GlobalHeritageFund.org).       Considering  the  comparison,  it  is  no  surprise  that  the  monies  available  are  limited  in   reach  (Frey  and  Pamini  3;  Zacharias  309),  especially  when  bearing  in  mind  the  cost  of   conservation  projects  noted  by  the  World  Monuments  and  Global  Heritage  Fund’s.  If   only  accounting  for  the  38  sites  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,  each  property   would  only  receive  approximately  $45,000  per  year  in  comparison  to  the  millions  of   dollars  that  conservation  efforts  per  site  actually  cost.  For  example,  costs  for  the   conservation  of  the  Colosseum  in  Rome,  have  been  estimated  at  $32  million  dollars   (“Consumer  Group”  ansa.it)  The  preservations  plans  for  Pompeii,  Italy  have  been   undertaken  by  the  European  Union  with  a  projected  budget  of  $137  million  (Povolido   “Latest  Threat  Pompeii”  nytimes.com).  Moreover,  the  restoration  of  St.  George’s  Church   in  London  cost  $15.6  million  dollars  over  a  period  from  2002  to  2006  (“Preservation   Quarterly”  World  Monuments  Fund  9).  If  the  UNESCO  WHP  provided  financial  support   to  all  962  properties  designated  on  the  WH  Site  list,  the  average  funding  available  would   only  be  $1,750.  The  amounts  are  inadequate  in  the  ability  to  meet  any  conservation   needs.       The  limited  budget  prevents  any  meaningful  support  to  a  large  number  of  WH  Sites   (Sayer  et  al.  306)  and  what  financial  support  exists  is  minimal  compared  to  the  existing   needs  (Frey  and  Pamini  3).  The  capital  available  towards  the  support  and  conservation   of  the  properties  on  the  growing  list  is  an  amount  that  is  inadequate  by  any  reasonable   standard  (Bertacchini  et  al.  “Embracing  Diversity”  282).  The  fund  falls  far  short  of   covering  the  whole  cost  of  implementing  the  Convention  (Francioni  and  Lanzerini  279;   Interviewee  A)  and  thus  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  prohibited  from  fulfilling  the  goals  of  its   mission.            

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The  lack  of  monetary  resources  to  fund  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  not  a  new  problem,  but   rather,  has  dogged  the  program  from  the  start.  As  previously  noted,  compulsory   payments  by  States  Parties  finance  the  biggest  portion  of  the  Fund.  However,  several  of   the  States  Parties  are  far  behind  in  their  compulsory  payments  and  the  Operational   Guidelines  lack  the  power  to  enforce  compliance  (UNESCO  “Operational  Guidelines”   61),  which  further  deepens  the  budget  deficit.  The  best  remedy  would  be  to  apply  policy   changes  and  force  the  States  Parties  to  remit  owed  payment,  however,  the  total   amount  unpaid  as  of  October  31,  2011  was  only  $874,585.    Even  if  the  UNESCO  WH   Committee  could  enforce  payment,  the  core  funding  issue  will  not  be  alleviated  (“WHC-­‐ 12/36”  unesco.org).     The  current  support  from  individual  donations  and  other  sources  ($57,393  in  2011)   furthermore  guarantees  a  limited  and  unreliable  budget  for  the  program  to  work  with   (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).  Therefore,     the  WHP  is  failing  to  achieve  an  effective  source  of  capital  to  fund  the   goals  of  conservation.  The  need  to  develop  an  additional  mechanism  to   leverage   funds  is  obvious  (Rao  169).         Accordingly,  meaningful  marketing  is  an  alternative  and  implementable  approach  that   can  be  used  to  leverage  additional  funds  without  the  need  for  policy  change.  The  idea   behind  the  concept  and  its  relation  to  funding  as  well  as  implementation  tactics  are   outlined  below.         THE  BRAND  and  FUNDRAISING       The  UNESCO  WHP  must  address  the  funding  and  budget  deficiencies  in  a  manner  that  is   effective  and  surpasses  the  current  financial  shortcomings  (Interviewee  A;  Interviewee   B;  Interviewee  D).     A  strong  brand  is  essential  for  fundraising  and  for  enabling  non-­‐profit  organizations  to   implement  their  missions  successfully  (Kylander  et  al.  274).  Hou  et  al.  (225)  and  Poria  et   al.  (“Religious  Site”  483)  also  argue  that  brand  personality,  brand  image,  and  brand   awareness  of  non-­‐profit  organizations  have  a  direct  positive  impact  on  individual  giving   37  

intentions,  making  it  easier  for  the  organizations  to  collect  donations.  Lauer  moreover   contends  that  the  communication  of  a  non-­‐profit  brand  image  to  individual  donor  is   important,  since  identification  with  non-­‐profit  goals  and  values  is  a  significant   contributor  to  positively  biased  support  behavior  toward  the  non-­‐profits  by  consumers   (51).  Dixon  (52)  and  Harvey  (84)  additionally  claim  that  branding  can  convey  the  values   and  beliefs  of  a  non-­‐profit  to  potential  donors  and  suggest  potent  reasons  why  the   organization  might  be  worthy  of  support.  Poria  at  al.  add  that  there  “seems  to  be  an   increase  in  volunteer  support  to  the  designated  sites,  resulting  in  savings  on  human-­‐ resources  costs”  (“Religious  Site”  483).  The  research  reveals  that  brand  awareness  and   equity  directly  influence  giving  intentions  of  individuals  and  ultimately,  the  funding   available  to  inscribed  sites  on  the  WH  List.     Currently,  studies  note  indifference  in  visitor’s  willingness  to  pay  for  UNESCO  WH  Sites   versus  others  available  attractions  (Poria  et  al.  “Religious  Site”  488;  Dewar  et  al.  326).   Alternatively,  other  studies  have  proved  a  positive  correlation  between  strong  brand   equity  the  willingness  to  pay  (Buil  et  al.  64;  Ryan  &  Silvanto  “Brand  for  all  Nations  “  307;   Chung  et  al.  1044-­‐1045,  Han  et  al.  457-­‐458,  Wehrli  et  al.  15).  This  is  especially  true  when   a  brand  and  a  cause,  such  as  conservation,  are  linked.  The  studies  by  Chung  et  al.  (1044-­‐ 1045),  Han  et  al.  (457-­‐458)  and  Wehrli  et  al.  (15)  all  demonstrated  an  increase  in   tourists’  willingness  to  pay  once  they  were  made  aware  of  conservation  needs  and  how   their  donations  would  help.  Combined,  these  findings  signify  the  need  for  the  program   to  strengthen  awareness  of  and  the  meaning  behind  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand,  a   recommendation  also  confirmed  by  Frey  and  Steiner  (558-­‐9),  Poria  et  al.  (“Tourist   Perceptions”  273-­‐4),  and  Interviewees  C  and  F.  Accordingly,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must   emphasize  strategic  planning  in  regard  to  building  brand  awareness  and  equity.  For   UNESCO  and  the  Program  to  improve  brand  equity,  it  is  requisite  that  the  organization   alters  its  main  revenue  stream  by  facilitating  the  donation  process.           38  

FACILITATING  THE  DONATION  PROCESS     According  to  the  Financial  Regulations  for  the  WH  Fund,  voluntary  private  donations  are   one  of  the  methods  that  the  UNESCO  WHP  has  to  obtain  funds  (“Funding”  unesco.org).   However,  the  UNESCO  WHP  has  not  focused  efforts  in  this  area,  and  has  instead  relied   on  the  cooperation  of  the  States  Parties  to  contribute  to  an  incredibly  limiting  budget   (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).  During  2010  and  2011  the  fund  only  collected  $42,291  in   online  private  donations,  an  average  of  $1,762  per  month  (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).   The  most  recent  Statement  of  Cash  Flow  is  even  more  alarming,  as  in  the  first  quarter  of   2012  only  $4,143  was  collected,  an  even  lower  monthly  average  than  in  previous  years   (“WHC-­‐12/36”  unesco.org).       A  critical  success  factor  in  an  organizations  ability  to  obtain  donations  is  perception.  The   company  must  be  perceived  as  a  trusted  entity  (Long  and  Chiagouris  239;  Martin  143;   Waters  71).  Therefore,  it  is  essential  to  provide  relevant  information  about  the   organization  and  the  need  for  contributions  during  the  solicitation  process  (Martin  143;   Waters  62).  The  mission  statement  and  examples  of  current  project  are  examples  of   pertinent  information  that  must  be  presented  to  potential  donors  (Martin  143;  Waters   62).       Providing  this  key  information  is  a  necessary  first  step,  but  doing  so  only  establishes   one-­‐way  communication  if  not  done  in  tandem  with  additional  outreach  (Waters  63).   Donors  must  be  engaged  in  order  to  properly  create  awareness  and  convey  the  needs  of   the  organization  (Ingenhoff  and  Koelling  “The  Potential”  66;  Long  and  Chiagouris  241;   Sargeant  189).  The  solicitation  process  must  not  only  transmit  the  organization’s   message  but  also  to  receive  feedback  and  comments  from  current  and  potential  donors,   creating  a  two-­‐way  communication  process.       The  benefit  of  reciprocal  communication  is  two-­‐fold:    interactive  communication  with   the  donors  will  help  to  identify  information  gaps  in  what  is  provided  during  the  donation   process.  Successful  communication  with  first-­‐time  donors  is  an  opportunity  for  the  

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UNESCO  WHP  to  build  relationships  that  go  beyond  one-­‐time  donation.  Building   relationships  with  donors  is  fundamental  to  long-­‐term  program  viability  (Ingenhoff  &   Koelling  “Web  Sites”  147).  Organizations  need  to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity  not   only  to  communicate  with  contributors,  but  also  to  persuade  them  to  participate  in   long-­‐term  program  memberships  (Ingenhoff  &  Koelling  “Web  Sites”  147;  Waters  61).  If   properly  planned  and  nurtured,  ongoing  relationships  with  loyal  contributors  will  create   a  sustainable  revenue  stream  for  the  future.       Finally,  the  process  of  donations  must  simple  for  the  donor  (Ingenhoff  and  Koelling  “The   Potential”  67;  Waters  63).  The  more  the  process  is  simplified  for  potential  donors  the   easier  it  will  be  for  them  to  complete  the  donation.     The  UNESCO  WHP  must  also  create  new  partnerships  to  support  an  improved  online   donation  process.  Organizations  such  as  JustGive.org  not  only  provide  simplicity  on  the   donor  side,  but  also  for  the  participating  organization  (“What  Makes  Just  Give   Different?”  justgive.org)  and  include  the  four  essential  components  for  successful   fundraising  outlined  above.  For  potential  donors,  JustGive  shows  suggested  donation   amounts  and  what  impact  each  amount  will  have  on  the  organization  or  program  the   money  will  go  to.  Through  the  site  potential  donors  have  the  option  to  make  a  donation   as  a  'Guest'-­‐  without  having  to  create  a  login  and  password,  make  regularly  recurring   donations,  or  to  make  memorial  or  gift  donations  in  another  person's  name  (“You  and   JustGive”  justgive.org).  For  the  organization,  JustGive.org  enables  the  creation  of  a   “branded  donation  process”  which  includes,  in  addition  to  the  same  capabilities  given  to   donors,  the  ability  to  send  immediate  tax  receipts  and  thank  you  notes  as  well  as  the   ability  to  track  donations  and  donor  information  for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  an   ongoing  relationship  (“You  and  JustGive”;  “Customize  Donation  Page”  justgive.org).     There  is  currently  no  uniform  system  to  collect  donations  at  WH  Sites.  As  a  result,  the   UNESCO  WHP  is  missing  a  great  fundraising  opportunity.  At  each  site  there  can  be  an   “Official  UNESCO  WHP  Area,”  designated  for  collecting  funds  to  help  generate  revenue  

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for  both  site-­‐specific  conservation  efforts  and  global  program  needs.  This  area  will  be   dedicated  to  providing  information  about  the  Program,  its  mission,  the  specific  site,  as   well  as  significant  projects  currently  under  way  and  completed.  The  area  will  bolster  the   connection  between  visitors,  the  attraction,  and  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program   at  large.  Often  visitors  to  WH  Sites  do  not  know  that  the  sites  are  designated  and  part  of   the  UNESCO  WH  List  or  what  that  even  means.  On-­‐site  donation  centers  will  not  only   help  the  awareness  gap,  but  also  increase  voluntary  donations  to  the  World  Heritage   Fund.     On-­‐site  donations  must  be  divided  evenly  between  the  actual  collection  site  and  the   World  Heritage  Fund  at  large.  The  split  system  will  guarantee  that  visitors  are   contributing  to  the  sites  they  visit,  and  also  will  ensure  the  availability  of  funds  to  all   designated  properties.         The  recommended  tactics  towards  implementing  marketing  for  meaning  aimed  at   increasing  funding,  as  well  as  awareness  and  education,  are  outlined  in  the  following   section.          

MARKETING FOR MEANING: TACTICS As  part  of  the  comprehensive  marketing  for  meaning  approach  recommended  in  this   white  paper  the  following  seven  tactics  are  suggested  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  improve   brand  awareness  and  education  as  well  as  funding  to  aid  the  Program’s  conservation   efforts.  The  seven  tactics  include:  reach  out  to  the  community;  re-­‐design  website;  create   a  social  media  strategy;  implement  onsite  information  systems;  develop  sponsorship   programs;  produce  dedicated  media;  and  utilize  outbound  marketing.  These   implementation  tactics  are  described  in  the  following  section.             41  

TACTIC  1:  REACH  OUT  to  COMMUNITY       Local  WH  Site  communities  are  a  vital  component  of  the  UNESCO  WHP.  Accordingly,  the   Program  must  employ  an  on-­‐the-­‐ground  approach  to  engage  and  educate  site   communities.       Site  nomination  is  often  driven  by  national  governments  without  the  knowledge  of  or   input  from  local  populations  (Hall  and  Piggin  406;  Ryan  and  Silvanto  “Making  and   Management”  291;  Aref  348;  Interviewee  E),  despite  the  World  Heritage  Program's   emphasis  on  community  involvement  from  the  outset  (Interviewee  A).  Community   participation  in  the  Program  must  start  before  sites  are  placed  on  the  Tentative  List,  so   that  communities  are  involved  from  the  beginning  (Interviewee  C).  Policies  of  the   UNESCO  WHP  hinder  the  ability  to  enforce  any  education  efforts  through  official   national  channels,  but  the  program  does  have  the  ability  to  open  communication   channels  itself.      

EVENTS     One  method  to  facilitate  community  engagement  will  be  the  placement  signs  at   strategic  locations  around  the  attractions  and  within  the  community  to  communicate  to   local  populations  that  their  sites  of  cultural  and  natural  heritage  are  under  consideration   for  inclusion  in  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  what  that  designation  would  mean  (Interviewee   C).  Additionally,  events  for  the  community  at  or  near  the  nominated  attractions  can  be   used  to  relate  the  meaning  behind  designation  and  illustrate  how  each  specific  site   represents  an  example  of  the  world’s  “outstanding  universal  heritage.”  If  a  site  makes  it   on  to  the  official  UNESCO  WH  List,  outreach  efforts  must  continue  and  highlight   education  components  including  how  local  citizens  can  use  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand  to   their  advantage,  marketing  and  promotional  material  strategy,  and  how  they  can  help  in   the  direct  conservation  of  the  sites  themselves.      

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Meaningful  marketing  techniques  in  the  form  of  community  outreach  are  the  first  step   towards  involving  the  community  with  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  help  with  conservation.  The   local  community  must  be  given  the  opportunity  to  engage  in  the  site  planning  and   management  process,  and  specifically  with  local  marketing  initiatives  from  the  onset   (Interviewee  A).  To  facilitate,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  act  in  its  advisory  role,  training  key   stakeholders  through  a  series  of  workshops  targeted  at  both  site  managers  and   volunteers  from  local  tourism  organizations.  For  conservation  efforts  at  WH  Sites  to  be   appropriate  to  the  communities  they  are  located  within,  local  stakeholder  involvement   in  the  creation  of  marketing  materials  is  key  (Interviewee  A).  By  facilitating  interaction   between  these  parties,  the  promotion  of  a  WH  Site  and  the  Program  will  include  a   consistent  and  uniform  marketing  message.       Moreover,  these  workshops  will  teach  the  positive  and  negative  impacts  of  tourism  and   how  every  community  member  can  contribute  to  alleviating  the  negative  effects.  The   workshops  will  communicate  the  potential  physical  impacts  a  WH  Site  designation  will   have  on  the  local  community,  and  the  necessary  steps  that  must  be  made  in  order  to   conserve  the  site  and  maintain  its  viability  to  the  local  tourism  industry.  Highlighting  the   great  potential  benefits  of  tourism  will  be  key,  but  also  making  the  communities  aware   of  the  possible  negative  impacts  the  industry  can  bring,  local  stakeholders  will  be  better   prepared  to  handle,  and  more  willing  to  participate  in,  the  tourism  process  (Poria  et  al.   “Tourist  Perceptions”  272;  Aplin  168;  Jimura  291-­‐3)     This  on-­‐the-­‐ground  engagement  of  the  local  community  will  elevate  the  UNESCO  WHP   brand,  which  in  turn  improves  the  ability  to  market  and  promote  the  Program,  and   empowers  all  stakeholders  to  partake  in  direct  conservation  of  the  sites.         PARTNERSHIPS     Partnerships  are  an  effective  means  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  facilitate  the  community   outreach  engagements,  which  will  benefit  both  the  Program  and  the  local  stakeholders.  

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Though  the  term  “partnerships”  tends  to  conjure  the  idea  of  corporate  relationships  and   sponsors,  the  local  community  can  also  establish  relationships  with  the  UNESCO  WHP   that  will  benefit  the  Program  and  local  stakeholders.  The  UNESCO  WHP  can  develop   cooperative  relationships  with  educational  institutions,  specifically  photography  related   programs.  Photography  students  can  donate  their  skills,  creating  unique  and  original   imagery  for  promotional  materials,  in  return  for  the  opportunity  to  exhibit  their   photographs  locally  at  the  sites  themselves,  at  larger  international  exhibitions.  This   system  helps  to  both  increase  local  awareness  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  through  their  direct   involvement,  and  generates  materials  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  use  for  broader  awareness   campaigns.       Corporate  partnerships  should  also  be  used  to  sponsor  local  training  programs,  which   will  in  turn  help  the  community  secure  skilled  local  staff  and  guarantee  increased   economic  benefit  to  the  people  living  in  and  around  WH  Site  destinations.  If  local   communities  see  positive  monetary  outcomes  as  a  result  of  their  heritage  conservation   efforts,  they  are  more  likely  to  continually  engage  in  preservation  programs  (Jimura,   290-­‐1,  293;  Interviewee  D).  Though  the  Operational  Guidelines  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  do   not  allow  the  organization  to  enforce  local  hire  laws,  partnerships  that  work  towards   community  capacity  building  in  site  communities  can  circumvent  the  policy  obstacle.       On  a  very  basic  level,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  cultivate  local  media  partnerships  with   mainstream  press  and  independent  travel  writers.  These  associations  can  spread  the   “conservation  word”  locally,  and  about  the  Program  and  its  impact  on  the  community.   These  relationships  can  communicate  site-­‐specific  needs  regarding  conservation  efforts,   and  the  importance  of  heritage  maintenance  to  locals.  This  has  been  done  successfully   in  the  initiative  organized  National  Trust  Historic  Preservation  and  its  magazine   “Preservation.”  In  the  campaign,  the  publication  is  being  used  as  a  communication   platform  to  spread  the  message  about  the  conservation  needs  of  specific  sites.  An   additional  and  important  component  of  such  a  relationship  would  be  the  ability  to  

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communicate  site  needs  regarding  conservation  efforts,  and  the  importance  behind   heritage  maintenance  to  locals.       The  community  outreach  tactics  outlined  above  not  only  work  toward  increasing   education  and  awareness  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  in  site  communities,  but  also  serve  to   address  brand  awareness  deficiencies  in  the  general  public  and  create  locally  driven   conservation  campaigns.         TACTIC  2:  RE-­‐DESIGN  WEBSITE     The  Program’s  website  must  be  completely  re-­‐designed  to  better  communicate  the   necessity  and  meaning  behind  the  UNESCO  WHP  (Interviewee  B;  Interviewee  C).  A  user   and  search  friendly  website  (Interviewee  C)  is  critical  in  orienting  users  to  any  brand.   Dividing  the  website  into  two  portals,  one  for  consumers  and  one  for  local  stakeholders   will  help  achieve  an  easily  navigable  site.         FOR  LOCAL  STAKEHOLDERS     In  regards  to  local  stakeholders,  a  designated  platform  will  provide  supplementary  and   specific  information  related  to  the  management,  operation,  and  conservation  of  WH   Sites-­‐  technical  information  that  the  general  public  does  not  need  such  as  “tools  and   services”  that  “identify  the  best  practices”  (Interviewee  A).       The  platform  will  also  incorporate  an  intranet  feature,  complete  with  an  online  forum  or   message  board,  where  various  WH  Site  communities  and  stakeholders  can  connect,  ask   questions,  share  best  practices,  and  generate  new  ideas.  Additionally,  the  private   intranet  feature  allows  local  stakeholders  and  site  managers  to  share  best  conservation   communication  practices,  ask  for  help,  and  generate  ideas  aimed  at  solving   conservation  issues  resulting  from  cultural  nuance  impacts.  More  than  just  a  means  to   disseminate  information  to  site  managers  and  the  local  community,  the  official  UNESCO   WHP  website  should  serve  to  actually  engage  them  in  the  program  (Interviewee  B).   45  

FOR  TOURISTS     To  the  general  public,  the  alternative  portal  will  provide  information  about  the  history   of  specific  sites,  why  each  was  inscribed  on  the  WH  List,  and  information  on  current   conservation  efforts.  Segregating  information  on  the  site  in  this  manner  will  result  in  a   straightforward,  more  navigable  website  that  does  not  present  information  overload  to   the  viewer.  Consumers  require  different  information  than  site  managers  or  stakeholders   and  a  newly  redesigned  official  website  can  facilitate  this.  Currently,  the  website  is   overly  academic  in  language,  inconsistent  in  content,  and  not  intuitive  to  navigate   (Interviewee  B;  Interviewee  C).  Visually  boring  the  current  site  neither  beckons  visitors   to  explore  it  nor  invites  them  to  engage  with  the  program  (Interviewee  C).  The   opportunity  for  consumers  to  engage  with  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  critical.  In  the  current   marketing  landscape,  there  is  a  shift  in  the  travel  and  hospitality  industry  toward  more   user-­‐generated  content  and  two-­‐way  communication  (Interviewee  B).  Similar  to  the   recommendation  for  an  intranet  for  stakeholder  use,  the  consumer  portal  of  the  official   Program  website  must  offer  spaces  that  encourage  a  visitor-­‐brand  relationship  and   inter-­‐community  dialogue.  Many  travel  brand  sites,  like  Lonely  Planet  or  TripAdvisor,   invite  users  to  submit  questions,  comments,  and  even  content  for  review.  Additionally,   they  feature  user-­‐generated  content  and  spaces  for  visitors  to  share  their  personal   experiences  and  tips  with  others.  Each  site-­‐specific  page  on  the  UNESCO  WHS  website   should  include  a  section  for  visitor-­‐authored  experiences  and  tips  for  each  destination.       Communication  with  the  Program  on  the  whole  can  also  be  facilitated  within  this   structure  in  the  form  of  a  blog-­‐  one  of  the  most  relevant  inbound  sources  of  information   by  consumers  affecting  purchase  choice  (HubSpot  “2012”  23;  Jacobsen  and  Munar  39).   Within  the  blog  structure,  site  managers  and  visitors  can  submit  feature  stories  to  the   official  blog  roll  and  share  them  with  the  international  public.  In  the  2012  study  by   HubSpot,  57%  of  organizations  surveyed  acquired  customers  through  the  company  blog   (23).  By  2013,  that  number  had  jumped  to  82%  (HubSpot  “2013”  7),  illustrating  the   dramatic  growth  and  importance  of  such  channels  in  contemporary  communication.    

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The  process  of  collecting  online  donations  will  also  greatly  improve  with  a  website  re-­‐ design.  The  UNESCO  WHP  website  must  re-­‐design  the  donation  system  to  become  more   functional  and  user  friendly.  Additionally,  the  current  website  is  not  transparent  as  to   where  the  donated  money  will  go.  Currently,  a  potential  donor  must  first  register  and   create  an  account  through  the  donation  portal  (“Donate”  unesco.org),  but  the  donor   will  find  little  transparency  as  to  how  the  contributions  will  be,  and  are,  used.  As  noted   by  Waters,  “if  an  Internet  site  is  not  providing  the  public  with  the  information  that  it   needs,  the  non-­‐profit  could  lose  a  potential  donor  or  a  possible  client”  (63),  a  finding   that  supports  a  possible  reason  why  the  UNESCO  WHP  has  collected  so  few  funds   though  online  donations.       For  the  program’s  website  to  deliver  the  first  of  the  four  elements  outlined  in  the   Findings  section  (provide  relevant  information,  include  pre  and  post  donor   communication,  foster  long-­‐term  relationships,  and  easy  of  use)  it  must  incorporate  its   mission,  ongoing  projects,  and  information  about  the  WH  List  and  site  designation  in  an   easy  to  comprehend  and  uncomplicated  manner.  The  website  has  to  be  oriented  to   users,  where  they  can  learn  about  the  organization  in  an  interactive  way  and  feel   motivated  to  donate.  On  the  Donation  Page,  easy  to  read  and  engaging  content  must   educate  potential  donors  about  the  Program  and  informing  them  where  the  donated   funds  will  go.       More  effective  communication  channels  will  build  and  improve  long-­‐term  donor   relationships.  The  current  online  donation  process  on  the  UNESCO  WHP  site  is  only  set   up  to  allow  for  one-­‐time  donations,  which  does  not  cultivate  and  facilitate  long-­‐term   donor  relationships.  Instead,  the  donation  process  must  offer  the  possibility  of  regular   and  ongoing  donation  systems  in  addition  to  one-­‐time  contributions  (Hoefer  363).  Non-­‐ profit  organizations  such  as  Pencils  of  Promise  (“Donate”  PencilsOfPromise.org),  Doctors   Without  Borders  (“Donate”  DoctorsWithoutBorders.org),  and  the  Red  Cross  (“Donate   Funds”  RedCross.org),  exemplify  this  practice;  users  have  the  option  to  join  a   membership  program  where  a  specified  donation  is  collected  each  month  via  credit  

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card.  As  an  incentive  for  membership  in  such  an  arrangement,  the  UNESCO  WHP  can   offer  exclusive  access  to  information  and  monthly  reports  on  the  successful  ways   donations  are  being  used.  Regardless  of  the  donation  method  chosen,  the  UNESCO  WHP   must  offer  information  to  donors  who  agree  to  receive  daily,  weekly,  or  monthly  email   blasts  and  social  media  updates  outlining  new  program  projects,  conservation  goals,  and   site  happenings.  Even  if  donors  choose  to  donate  on  a  one-­‐time  basis,  they  will  be   engaged  in  an  ongoing  relationship  with  the  program.       Lastly,  for  a  donation  campaign  to  be  successful,  it  must  be  easy  for  users  to  complete.   The  required  registration  process  for  one  time  donors  must  be  eliminated  and  made   optional  for  those  donors  who  would  like  their  information  stored  on  site  for  future   donation-­‐related  use.  The  methods  of  collection  should  be  expanded,  as  currently   donations  can  only  be  made  by  credit  card.  A  toll-­‐free  number  and  automatic  system  is   one  possibility.  PayPal  is  another,  as  the  system  can  accept  donations  from  users  who   already  have  a  PayPal  account  and  prefer  to  donate  that  way.         SEARCH  ENGINE  OPTIMIZATION     The  UNESCO  WHP  must  increase  Search  Engine  Optimization  (SEO)  to  enhance  the  web   presence  of  each  WH  Site.  A  fresh  website  is  no  use  if  potential  consumers  cannot  easily   find  it  when  searching  for  related  attractions.  The  importance  of  search  engine   optimization  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  cannot  be  overlooked  (Interviewee  C).  According  to   Xiang,      

Search  engines  have  the  potential  to  influence  an  online  traveler’s   impression,  intention,  as  well  as  attitude  toward  the  website  owned  by  a   tourist  destination  and  businesses  themselves  (“Travel  Queries”  89).     Xiang  additionally  notes  14%  of  queries  on  search  engines  are  related  to  place  names,   84%  focus  on  cities  and  14%  on  countries  (“Travel  Queries”  90).  Accordingly,  the   UNESCO  WHP  must  be  attached  to  these  search  markets  through  SEO.  The  online   tourism  domain  is  extremely  complex  and  “search  engines,  to  a  great  extent,  define  the   practical  boundaries  of  the  online  tourism  domain”  (Xiang  “Role  of  Social  Media”  181).   48  

HubSpot’s  2013  study  confirmed  SEO  to  contribute  14%  of  consumer  leads.  In  relation   to  tourist  consumption,  Xiang  found  that  “two-­‐thirds  of  online  travelers  use  search   engines  for  travel  planning”  (“Role  of  Social  Media”  179).  On  the  Google  platform  alone,   over  2  million  queries  occur  every  minute  of  every  day  (Creotivo).  The  current   partnership  with  the  widely  popular  search  engine  should  be  structured  to  increase   visibility  of  the  program  with  user  query.  In  the  survey  of  270  WH  Sites  on  the  Google   search  engine,  only  139  were  found  to  have  a  website  designated  solely  for  the  purpose   of  communicating  information  to  the  public.  Of  the  139,  72  World  Heritage  Sites  relied   on  the  websites  of  other  organizations  such  as  a  National  Parks  Department  or  Tourism   Board.  The  remaining  59  sites,  predominantly  in  developing  nations  of  South  America   and  Africa,  had  no  easily  found  web  presence  at  all.         TACTIC  3:  CREATE  a  SOCIAL  MEDIA  STRATEGY     Along  with  an  improved  website,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  create  and  implement  a   comprehensive  social  media  strategy  that  applies  and  be  customized  to  individual  sites.   Pritchard  notes:     We  are  already  seeing  a  shift  from  a  mechanistic,  manufacturing,   industrial  society  to  an  organic,  service-­‐based,  information-­‐centered   society,  and  increases  in  technology  will  only  continue  this  shift  to  a   globalized,  connected  world  (350).    

As  current  generations,  referred  to  by  Interviewee  C  as  the  “touch  and  swipe   generation,”  increase  their  dependence  on  mobile  digital  platforms  (Creotivo;   Honigman),  it  is  essential  that  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  its  stakeholders  communicate   across  these  channels  (Interviewee  C).  In  the  survey  of  270  UNESCO  WH  Sites  on   Google,  only  78  sites  with  their  own  designated  web  presence  provided  links  to  a  social   media  page.  It  is  neither  feasible  nor  necessary  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  manage  social   media  platforms  for  designated  sites.  However,  what  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  and  needs   to  do  is  educate  site  communities  and  stakeholders  on  social  media  strategies  and   communication  techniques,  thus  making  them  accountable  (Interviewee  B;  Interviewee   C).     49  

STAKEHOLDER  INVOLVEMENT     To  facilitate  stakeholder  involvement  in  this  manner,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  focus  on   educating  local  communities  and  site  managers  on  various  social  media  techniques  and   strategies  across  multiple  digital  platforms.  These  include  the  creation  of  official  and   consistent  Facebook  pages  for  each  site,  and  the  use  of  username  handles  and  hashtags   that  promote  the  specific  sites  and  connect  them  to  the  UNESCO  WHP  at  large.  Social   media  platforms  provide  site  managers  and  the  community  with  a  vehicle  to  take  the   marketing  of  their  destinations  into  their  own  hands  (Interviewee  C).  One  example  for   this  type  of  locally  driven  engagement  is  a  “Week  in  the  Life”  Instagram  campaign  where   every  week,  a  different  local  stakeholder  would  be  in  charge  of  the  site’s  official   Instagram  account,  showing  the  world  the  UNESCO  WH  Site  as  viewed  through  the  eyes   of  the  local  community.  For  Facebook  and  Pinterest  similar  strategies  can  include  a   locally  generated  “Photo  of  the  Day,”  and  for  Facebook  along  with  Twitter,  a  daily  site   statistic  or  tip.         FOR  TOURISTS     Social  media  allows  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  communicate  with  consumers  via  their   preferred  methods,  but  also  importantly  encourages  consumer  interaction  with  the   Program.  Inbound  marketing  specialist  HubSpot  found  that  social  media  generates  14%   of  all  leads  and  13%  of  customers  for  all  brands  combined.  Additionally,  another  study   by  HubSpot  on  the  state  of  inbound  marketing  found  that  social  media  tactics  have  a   significantly  higher  lead-­‐to-­‐close  rate  than  traditional  outbound  marketing  channels   (“2012”  22).  As  the  current  generation  of  travelers  has  grown  to  rely  on  social  media  as   an  essential  daily  function  (Creotivo;  Interviewee  C),  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  create  and   implement  a  comprehensive  social  media  strategy.  The  strategy  must  begin  with  the   creation  of  an  official  Facebook  page  to  replace  the  current  “cut  and  paste”  Wikipedia   sourced  version  (“About  World  Heritage  Sites”  Facebook.com).  A  presence  on  Facebook   is  essential  for  brands  looking  to  attract  consumers.  The  2012  report  by  HubSpot  

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determined  that  80%  of  social  media  users  in  the  United  States  preferred  to  connect  to   brands  via  Facebook.  A  follow  up  to  the  study,  conducted  in  2013,  ascertained  that  52%   of  marketers  surveyed  have  found  customers  through  the  platform.  Additionally,  for   every  1,000  likes  a  brands  Facebook  page  generates,  an  organization’s  website  enjoys   an  additional  1,400  visits  a  day  (HubSpot  “2013”  83),  which  augments  brand  awareness   across  the  global  population.       The  UNESCO  WHP  must  also  utilize  Instagram  to  increase  global  awareness  of  the  brand.   The  social  media  platform  Instagram  similarly  provides  a  great  opportunity  for  the   UNESCO  WHP  to  increase  global  awareness  of  its  brand.  The  WH  Sites  are  invaluable   assets,  with  stunning  architecture,  scenic  views,  and  exotic  wildlife,  and  photographs   are  a  compelling  source  of  consumer  motivation,  especially  in  the  tourism  industry   (Prayag  213;  Jacobsen  and  Munar  40;  Yuksel  and  Agkul  716).  Instagram  is  a  searchable   database  of  user-­‐generated  images  from  around  the  world,  connected  through  common   hashtags  and  geo-­‐tagged  locations.  Currently,  the  Program  does  not  use  this  channel   effectively.  The  hashtag  #unescowhs  currently  yields  just  20  connected  images.   Variations  of  the  tag  have  similar  results:  #unescosite  with  80  images,   #unescoheritagesite  with  130  and  #unescoworldheritagesite  and  #unescoworldheritage   with  822  and  486  respectively.    To  put  those  numbers  into  perspective,  more  than  5   million  photographs  are  uploaded  to  the  site  daily  (Honigman)  and  the  platform  houses   over  1  billion  in  total  (Creotivo).  Conversely,  WH  Sites  whose  management  has  created   their  own  Instagram  hashtags  have  had  higher  results,  however  these  hashtags  do  not   make  connections  between  the  sites  and  the  UNESCO  WHP.  The  UNESCO  WH  Site   Angkor  Wat  in  Cambodia  has  34,443  photos  connected  to  the  hashtag  #angkorwat;  WH   Site  Stonehenge  has  31,204  photos  attached  to  its  eponymous  tag;  Machu  Picchu  in   Peru  has  30,466;  and  the  Eiffel  Tower  on  the  Banks  of  the  Seine  in  Paris  has  443,428   (Instagram).  The  gap  between  actual  presence  of  UNESCO  WHP  on  the  platform  and  the   available  opportunity  is  vast.  On  specific  WH  Site  websites,  Facebook  pages  and  onsite   as  well,  relevant  hashtags  to  connect  the  sites  with  the  program  need  to  be  featured   and  actively  promoted.     51  

Pinterest  is  an  additional  social  media  platform  the  UNESCO  WHP  should  engage  with.   Using  imagery  as  well,  Pinterest  boards  collect  various  images  around  one  theme.  The   platform  is  especially  useful  for  sites  such  as  WH  Cities,  which  are  comprised  of  more   than  just  one  building  or  attraction.  Through  Pinterest,  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  bridge   multiple  site-­‐related  components  under  one  brand  umbrella.  Pinterest  is  especially   important  in  this  regard,  as  97%  of  all  users  are  female  (Honigman),  and  as  such  have   been  shown  to  make  most  travel  related  purchasing  decisions  for  households.     Additionally,  28.1%  of  Pinterest  users  have  an  annual  household  income  of  over   $100,000  making  them  a  prime  target  audience  for  tourism  related  brands  such  as  the   UNESCO  WHP.  It  has  also  been  determined  that  15%  of  the  17  million  brand   engagements  that  have  occurred  on  the  site,  happen  on  brand  boards.       Through  these  platforms,  the  UNESCO  WHP  will  encourage  users  to  interact  with  the   Program  and  provide  social  media  content  themselves.  As  noted  by  Xiang  in  the  “Role  of   Social  Media”,  user  generated  content  is  especially  popular  in  the  online  travel  sector   (179).  The  multiple  platforms  invite  consumers  to  post  and  share  “their  travel-­‐related   comments,  opinions,  and  personal  experiences”  (Xiang  “Role  of  Social  Media”  179).   Pritchard  adds,  “user-­‐generated  content…[is]  central  to  those  holiday  decisions  that  are   based  on  recommendations  as  they  are  excellent  sources  of  word-­‐of-­‐mouth  feedback   about  destination  experiences”  (349).  There  is  a  great  opportunity  for  the  UNESCO  WHP   to  leverage  a  destination  through  social  media  user  participation  (Interviewee  D).  World   Heritage  designation  doesn’t  mean  anything  “unless  the  destination  brings  it  to  life”   (Interviewee  D).  Social  media  “can  convey  rich  imagery  […]  and  it  is  its  seamless   combination  of  information,  contact,  transaction,  entertainment,  and  relationship   services  that  distinguishes”  the  platforms  from  the  analog  world  (Pritchard  349).  The   growing  popularity  of  social  media  networks  provides  the  ideal  vehicle  for  this  to  occur.       To  generate  interest  in  newly  developed  social  media  platforms,  the  UNESCO  WHP  will   need  to  create  campaigns  for  broad  based,  user  communication  outreach  (Interviewee   D).  The  “New7Wonders”  campaign  launched  in  2007  across  various  media  

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communication  platforms  and  has  generated  more  than  $5  billion  worth  of  economic   value  to  date  (New7Wonders.com).  The  UNESCO  WHP  must  produce  and  use  campaigns   to  engage  potential  and  current  visitors  with  the  sites.  While  the  UNESCO  WHP  policy   does  not  allow  for  the  common  population  to  vote  on  which  sites  are  or  are  not   designated  as  UNESCO  WH  Sites,  users  can  vote  for  their  favorite  sites,  pictures,  or   destinations  in  various  contest  mediums.  For  example,  tourists  to  UNESCO  WH  Sites  can   submit  their  own  site  photographs  to  the  Program  using  the  website  directly  or  social   network  hashtags.  Once  submitted  the  general  public  can  vote  on  which  they  think  are   best,  the  top  100  of  which  become  part  of  a  traveling  photo  exhibition  that  will  tour   sites  across  the  globe  for  the  following  year.  The  comparable  strategy  implemented  by   the  New7Wonders  project  drew  more  than  100  million  votes  and  launched  an   “unprecedented  global  dialogue”  (New7Wonders.com)  centered  on  note  only  the   project,  but  also  the  world’s  collective  heritage.     A  comprehensive  social  media  strategy  will  enable  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  facilitate  online   donations  to  be  used  toward  the  conservation  of  sites  on  the  WH  List.  The  Internet  and   current  social  media  technologies  such  as  Facebook,  Twitter,  Instagram,  and  Pinterest   provide  the  opportunity  to  use  communication  channels  that  are  comprehensive,   connected,  and  integrative  (Hart  et  al.  182).  Through  live  social  media,  donors  will  have   the  opportunity  to  directly  communicate  with  the  program,  ask  questions  as  to  funding   needs,  and  feel  engaged  with  the  donation  process  on  the  whole.  To  improve   communication,  it  is  crucial  to  acknowledge  donors  for  furthering  the  Program’s  cause   (Hart  et  al.  189).         TACTIC  4:  IMPLEMENT  INTERACTIVE  ONSITE  INFORMATION  SYSTEMS     Along  with  a  comprehensive  social  media  strategy,  the  UNESCO  WHP  must  make   interactive  information  systems  available  to  tourists  onsite  so  that  they  can  continue   their  engagement  with  designated  properties  while  actually  there.      

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DIGITAL  APPLICATIONS     Incorporating  mobile  digital  technologies  into  a  larger  marketing  program  will  be  a  key   consideration  in  the  re-­‐branding  of  the  UNESCO  WHP.  The  UNESCO  WHP  must  develop   an  official  Program  application  for  the  various  SmartPhone  platforms.    “Seventy-­‐three   percent  of  SmartPhone  owners  access  social  media  networks  through  [applications]   each  day”  (Creotivo).  An  official  program  application  will  serve  to  make  information  on   WH  Sites  easily  accessible  and  viewable  in  real  time  and  onsite,  a  necessity  of  successful   consumer  engagement  (Interviewee  C).  The  digital  application  can  be  downloaded   before  coming  to  the  site,  or  QR  barcodes  at  each  property  will  allow  visitors  to  scan   and  download  the  application  in  the  moment.  Small,  unobtrusively  placed  QR  barcodes   are  especially  useful  at  attractions  that  do  not  allow  for  more  traditional  communication   methods  such  as  signage.       As  determined  through  the  current  research  and  interviews,  lack  of  information  is  one   of  the  main  factors  responsible  for  the  scarcity  of  UNESCO  WHP  brand  awareness  by   visitors  to  sites,  and  ultimately  brand  equity  (Hall  and  Piggin  409;  Interviewee  C;   Interviewee  D).  Noted  by  Interviewee  D:  “the  lack  of  promotion  and  information”  is  one   of  the  biggest  threats  to  the  UNESCO  WHP  as  the  value  of  the  program  “is  being  lost.”   With  the  inclusion  of  an  official  SmartPhone  application  and  push  notifications  sent  to   users  when  near  a  World  Heritage  Site,  awareness  of  the  program  and  properties  will  be   made  known  to  those  who  may  have  been  otherwise  unaware.  Once  onsite,  information   about  the  specific  property,  including  its  history  and  significance  as  a  unique  example  of   the  world’s  heritage,  can  be  easily  accessed  on-­‐the-­‐go,  so  that  users  can  engage  with   the  attraction  while  at  the  destination.         ONSITE  DONATION  SYSTEMS     Interactive  onsite  information  systems  are  particularly  useful  in  facilitating  the  donation   process.  First  and  foremost,  the  creation  of  a  donation  area  must  include  relevant   information  for  people  to  learn  about  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  mission  and  ongoing  projects   54  

where  the  donations  will  be  used.  One  method  for  this  information  to  be  presented  is   through  the  use  of  a  touchscreen  “giving  kiosk”  similar  in  size  and  usability  to  the  self-­‐ check  in  systems  in  hundreds  of  airports  worldwide.       The  location  of  the  donation  kiosks  must  be  considered  in  relation  to  the  size  of  the  site,   and  the  site's  capacity.    The  kiosk  occupies  little  space,  but  it  must  not  disturb  the  site's   terroir,  and  additionally  must  be  able  to  accommodate  visitors  quickly  and  efficiently.     At  larger  WH  Sites,  such  as  Luang  Prabang  in  Lao  People’s  Democratic  Republic,  or  the   Banks  of  the  Seine  in  Paris,  France,  kiosks  can  be  placed  in  strategic  locations  across  the   site  or  city,  such  as  in  local  hotels  or  businesses  who  are  interested  in  partnering  with   the  site  managers  to  raise  funds.    Additional  signage  must  be  placed  near  the  kiosks  to   indicate  what  the  kiosks  are  and  why  they  are  necessary.         The  use  of  touchscreen  kiosks  will  facilitate  donor  communication  with  the  UNESCO   WHP.  The  digital  technology  allows  for  the  submission  of  user  questions,  comments,   and  concerns  directly  to  the  Program  and  site  managers,  who  can  then  respond  via   email  or  social  media  networks.  For  those  who  may  not  want  to  provide  this  information   digitally,  alternative  communication  methods  to  the  kiosk  will  be  offered,  including   written  forms  and  pre-­‐paid  envelopes.       Strengthened  communication  goes  hand  in  hand  with  facilitating  long-­‐term   relationships  via  online  donations,  and  the  touchscreen  kiosk  will  have  the  option  for   visitors  to  both  give  a  one-­‐time  donation  as  well  as  sign  up  for  a  continual  donation   program.  Both  types  of  donors  will  be  asked  to  share  an  e-­‐mail  address  or  to  follow  the   UNESCO  WHP  through  different  social  media  channels.  As  long  as  donors  agree  to  share   this  minimal  personal  information,  the  Program  will  maintain  the  relationship  through   valuable  information  about  ongoing  projects.     To  make  the  kiosk  easy  to  use,  both  a  credit  card  and  cash  systems  will  be  available  so   as  not  exclude  donors  simply  due  to  the  collection  means.  Providing  both  options  will   help  avoid  currency  exchange,  worries  about  donation  security  (visitors  may  not  feel   55  

secure  leaving  cash  in  donation  boxes)  or  alternatively,  a  lack  of  credit  card.  At   properties  where  available  electricity  hinders  the  use  of  a  giving  kiosk,  alternative   means  of  donation  collection  can  be  implemented.  For  example,  sites  can  sell  postcards   to  visitors,  each  with  a  varying  monetary  value  according  to  multiple  donation   increments.  Once  the  “purchase”  has  been  made,  the  donor  will  receive  a  brochure  with   additional  information  regarding  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  an  invitation  to  visit  the  official   program  website  to  learn  more  about  the  organization,  site,  and  projects.         TACTIC  5:  DEVELOP  SPONSORSHIP  PROGRAMS     Partnership  relationships  provide  an  opportunity  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  increase   brand  awareness,  funding,  and  ultimately  program  effectiveness.  Sponsorship  programs   developed  with  partners  are  a  powerful  way  for  the  Program  to  ensure  continued   preservation  and  use  of  heritage  attractions  for  current  and  future  generations.         SITE  SPONSORSHIP     Partnerships  should  be  used  to  help  implement  onsite  donation  techniques.  The   UNESCO  WHP  must  engage  with  travel  businesses,  airlines,  Online  Travel  Agencies   (OTA’s),  and  other  corporate  sponsors  to  help  endow  a  fundraising  program.   Partnership  organizations  can  participate  in  onsite  donation  systems  and  directly  and   positively  affect  the  WH  Fund  budget.  Directly  relating  to  the  onsite  donation  campaigns   outlined  in  the  previous  section,  companies  can  sponsor  kiosk  purchases  for  single  or   multiple  sites.  Examples  of  this  sort  of  relationship  can  be  seen  in  cities  such  as  New   York  City,  where  global  finance  firm  Citibank  has  sponsored  a  share  bike  program  in   return  for  logo  placement  at  bike  stations  and  on  the  bikes  themselves.       Slightly  larger  in  scope,  companies  can  sponsor  the  actual  designated  sites  themselves  in   an  “Adopt  a  Site”  program,  agreeing  to  fund  conservation  needs  at  the  particular   location.  This  is  a  similar  approach  to  what  is  being  done  in  Rome  with  the  retail  

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company  Tod’s  funding  of  conservation  of  the  Colosseum  (“Consumer  Group”  ansa.it).   In  return,  the  company  has  been  allowed  to  place  their  logo  on  entrance  tickets  and  has   additionally  garnered  much  international  press  for  the  relationship.  The  UNESCO  WHP  is   not  unfamiliar  with  these  sorts  of  partnerships.  The  organization  has  an  arrangement  in   place  with  the  Fondation  Franz  Weber  in  Switzerland  where  the  latter  signed  a  five-­‐year   agreement  to  reinforce  support  for  the  Rapid  Response  Facility  and  to  develop  a  new   project  for  the  sustainable  preservation  of  the  Dja  Faunal  Reserve  in  Cameroon   (“Partnerships”  unesco.org).    

REWARDS  PROGRAMS     Many  airlines,  online  book  agents  and  corporations  incorporate  rewards  programs  in   their  relationship  with  consumers.  More  than  being  used  only  to  book  hotels  or  flights,   these  programs  often  let  consumers  chose  how  to  spend  their  points  on  everything   from  the  aforementioned  travel  related  purchases,  subscriptions  to  magazines,  or   donations  to  designated  charities.  Building  strategic  alliances  with  the  airlines,  OTA’s,   and  corporations  in  this  manner,  in  which  consumers  can  donate  reward  program  points   to  the  Fund  in  a  agreed  upon  point  to  dollar  ratio,  will  help  to  additionally  alleviate   current  funding  inadequacies.  Rewards  with  meaning,  or  a  Cause-­‐Related  Loyalty   Marketing  platform,  redefines  cause  marketing  with  the  sheer  number  of  possibilities   rewards  programs  provide.  According  to  research  firm  Colloquy,  at  least  $16  billion   worth  of  reward  points  and  miles  went  unredeemed  in  2011  alone.  KULA,  a  platform  for   giving,  converts  unused  rewards  into  cash  contributions  for  over  2.5  million  causes  in  39   countries  (“About”  KulaCauses.com).  Companies  such  as  KULA  provide  an  available  link   between  consumers,  partners,  and  the  UNESCO  WHP.  While  consumers  may  not  want   to  contribute  actual  money  to  the  UNESCO  WHP,  parting  with  rewards  points  is  a  much   easier  transaction.            

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TACTIC  6:    PRODUCE  DEDICATED  MEDIA     Dedicated  media  and  programming  can  be  used  to  educate  the  public  on  the  UNESCO   WHP  brand,  the  meaning  behind  designation,  tourism  impacts  and  ongoing   conservation  projects.         PARTNER  FACILITATED       The  UNESCO  WHP  must  work  towards  developing  formal  relationships  with  a  variety  of   media  outlets.  While  a  partnership  is  currently  in  place  with  the  History  Channel,  the   Program  must  engage  with  other  global  outlets  to  develop  a  global  audience  and   international  brand  awareness.  Supplementary  networks  could  include  the  British   Broadcasting  Channel  (BBC),  the  Public  Broadcasting  Service  (PBS),  Cable  News  Network   (CNN),  InterActiveCorp  (IAC),  and  the  Travel  Channel.  Barry  Diller  of  IAC  and  Ted  Turner   of  CNN  have  even  directly  expressed  interest  in  working  with  the  UNESCO  WHP   (Interviewee  B).  By  securing  these  and  similar  networks,  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  develop   dedicated  programming  that  will  both  educate  the  public  as  to  the  brand  itself  and  the   meaning  behind  designation  to  the  WH  List.  Newer  social  media  outlets,  especially   YouTube  are  also  essential  to  secure  with  partnership  opportunities.  YouTube  records   over  4  billion  video  views  each  day  (Creativo;  Oreskovic  “YouTube”  reuters.com)  and   provides  an  ideal  platform  for  internally  produced,  financially  cost  effective   programming.       Airlines  offer  a  unique  opportunity  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  develop  and  promote   dedicated  media  content.  In-­‐flight  entertainment  systems  currently  have  options  for   educational  travel  related  programming  and  additionally  play  such  content  on  shared   screens  to  a  captive  audience.  This  will  be  a  useful  way  to  raise  awareness  of  UNESCO   WH  Sites  and  the  destination  itself  by  means  of  highlights,  WHS  route  maps,  and   destination  guides.  The  Program  and  partners  can  create  and  provide  additional  in-­‐flight   print  materials  as  an  additional  medium  to  communicate  educationally  driven  content   to  travelers.  If  a  flight  is  going  to  Cusco,  Peru  for  example,  with  travelers  heading  to  visit   58  

the  WH  Site  Machu  Picchu,  the  airline  can  feature  in  flight  video  and  print  materials  that   explain  the  “do’s  and  don’ts”  of  touring  there,  such  as  not  climbing  on  or  taking  the   rocks,  and  the  negative  impact  such  actions  can  have.  In  the  already  established   relationship  with  the  Panasonic  Partnership  Report,  Panasonic  provides  an  update   highlighting  initiatives  for  the  development  of  sustainable  tourism,  preservation  of  the   sites,  and  engagement  with  the  local  community.  Panasonic  additionally  developed  “The   World  Heritage  Special,”  an  hour-­‐long  program  broadcast  across  193  countries  and   regions  on  the  Travel  Channel  while  also  leveraging  a  Facebook  platform  (Panasonic   News  Portal  TOP).       The  UNESCO  WHP  must  establish  similar  relationships  with  international  print   publications  such  as  the  Herald  Tribune,  The  New  York  Times,  The  Guardian,  The  Times   of  India,  or  Reference  News.  Through  these  associations,  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  secure   weekly  columns  and  feature  articles  highlighting  the  specific  sites,  the  program,  and  its   mission.  The  agreement  between  the  UNESCO  WHP  and  major  publications  will  address   the  scope  of  the  relationship  and  can  include  a  calendar  of  press  trips  as  well  as  an   agreement  to  number  of  deliverables  made  by  each  publication  per  designated  term.         COMMUNITY  GENERATED     The  UNESCO  WHP,  and  its  representatives  on  the  ground  must  partner  with  local   businesses,  such  as  hotels  and  restaurants,  to  reinforce  awareness  of  local  attractions  as   part  the  UNESCO  WHP.  As  illustrated  by  Hall  and  Piggin  (406),  as  well  as  Marcotte  and   Bourdeau  (5),  community  generated  promotion  of  the  UNESCO  WHP  is  lacking.  In   exchange  for  placing  the  Program’s  logo  and  other  Program  related  information  on  their   own  promotional  materials,  the  UNESCO  WHP  will  create  a  destination  site  guide  as  a   component  to  specific  site  pages,  highlighting  and  linking  to  local  business  partners.  The   simple  and  mutually  beneficial  system  will  promote  the  UNESCO  WHP  brand  locally,  as   well  as  to  visitors,  and  will  additionally  improve  local  business  community  by  promoting   the  destination  on  the  whole.  When  the  community  understands  the  positive  benefits  of  

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tourism,  and  specifically  UNESCO  WHP  related  tourism,  they  are  more  likely  to  conserve   the  heritage  of  the  WH  Site  and  associated  attractions-­‐  the  ultimate  goal  of  the  UNESCO   WHP.       In  conjunction  with  the  approach  for  community  generated  promotion  to  increase   brand  awareness,  the  same  materials  must  be  used  to  convey  cultural  beliefs  and   nuances  to  tourists.  This  can  be  achieved  by  distributing  those  materials  at  hotels,   restaurants,  and  other  local  merchants.  The  materials  will  highlight  “what  the  visitor  can   expect,”  and  outline  the  very  cultural  differentiations  that  make  each  site  and   destination  unique  in  the  first  place.         TACTIC  7:  UTILIZE  OUTBOUND  MARKETING     The  Program  must  leverage  access  to  the  global  travel  community  by  improving  existing   education  and  awareness  outreach  programs  sponsored  via  current  partners  such  as   TripAdvisor,  and  by  creating  new  corporate  opportunities.  Companies  like  Tripadvisor   and  Expedia  have  access  to  extensive  email  databases  and  consumer  purchase  patterns   and  use  software  to  effectively  select  consumers  for  specific,  targeted  promotions  and   campaigns.  The  UNESCO  WHP  must  leverage  the  partnership  with  TripAdvisor,  and   create  partnerships  with  Expedia  or  similar  companies  (Interviewee  B).  Consumers  who   purchase  and  research  heritage  tourism  products  will  be  identified  and  sent  specific   communication  and  promotions  regarding  the  program,  the  site  and  the  outstanding   universal  value  that  makes  the  site  an  important  one  to  be  visited.  Targeted  marketing   and  partnership  strategies  can  help  alleviate  the  issues  the  Program  currently  faces.     Partnerships  with  local  businesses  can  be  used  to  educate  visitors  about  conservation   efforts  and  the  needs  of  local  WH  Sites.  Site  managers  and  marketers  must  develop  and   distribute  free  postcards  or  brochures  to  the  visiting  public,  which  they  can  do  in   participating  hotels,  restaurants,  shops  and  other  tourism  related  sites.  The  content  of   these  giveaways  will  be  especially  helpful  at  sites  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  In  

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Danger,  a  designation  visitors  may  not  be  aware  of,  or  just  simply  in  locations  where   conservation  needs  are  not  being  met.     Airline  and  OTA  partnerships  can  be  used  to  disseminate  similar  information  to  tourists   on  a  broader  scale.  The  substance  of  email  blasts,  print  materials,  and  digital  content   can  be  geared  towards  conservation  education  in  WH  Site  areas  that  need  it.  OTA’s  can   provide  information  with  travel  reservations  to  WH  Site  regions  and  include  relevant   information  regarding  the  ongoing  conservation  efforts  at  the  destination.  Additionally,   OTA’s  such  as  Expedia,  Orbitz  or  Booking.com,  an  option  to  donate  to  the  Program  will   be  presented  to  consumers  when  purchasing  packages  to  UNESCO  WH  Site  locations.   This  would  be  similar  to  current  donation  campaigns  to  offset  a  consumer’s  carbon   footprint.  

As  with  any  research  study,  the  recommendation  and  findings  in  this  paper  are  not   without  limitations.  The  limitations  of  the  research  design  of  this  paper  are  noted  in  the   following  section.          

LIMITATIONS and OPPORTUNITIES     This  paper  has  illustrated  the  need  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  to  market  its  brand  in  order  to   generate  increased  awareness  levels  and  brand  equity.  However,  this  study  is  not   without  limitations.  The  confines  of  this  research  present  opportunities  for  future   research. Semi-­‐structured  and  scoping  interviews  were  conducted  with  six  individuals.    Future   research  should  seek  out  more  interview  candidates,  and  include  other  important   stakeholders  such  as  site  managers,  business  owners  in  WH  Site  areas,  and  members  of   WH  Site  communities.

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The  results  of  the  survey  of  270  WH  Sites  were  limited  by  the  small  sample  size  and  type   of  sampling  (nonprobability  and  purposive),  as  well  as  language  barriers.  If  this  study   was  to  be  expanded  upon  in  the  future,  the  entire  WH  List  should  be  examined  and  the   survey  performed  on  search  engines  in  multiple  languages.     The  comparison  of  the  UNESCO  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  to  the  2012  World   Monument  Fund  Watch  List,  and  the  Global  Heritage  Fund's  list  of  conservation  projects   is  limited.    Having  only  compared  UNESCO’s  list  of  endangered  sites  to  those  of  two   other  organizations,  the  results  do  not  account  for  other  catalogues  of  heritage  in   trouble  such  as  ICOMOS’s  “Heritage  at  Risk  Report”  report,  or  National  Geographic,   which  regularly  recognizes  heritage  destinations  under  threat.  Future  study  should   compare  the  UNESCO  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  to  those  of  additional  well-­‐ reputed  research  institutions.   Outside  of  the  research  design,  the  examination  of  current  scholarship  and  qualitative   data  demonstrates  the  potential  effectiveness  and  importance  of  integrating  a  new   marketing  based  approach  for  the  UNESCO  WHP  in  order  to  reestablish  the  Program’s   image  and  encouraging  positive  brand  awareness.  Though  studies  exist  on  the  UNESCO   WHP  brand  identity,  there  is  still  a  need  for  more  understanding  in  this  area.  The   UNESCO  WHP  is  a  global  platform,  and  research  on  the  brand  identity  of  the  Program   should  be  so  as  well.  Currently,  few  scholars  specialize  on  the  topic  in  specific   geographic  regions  (Poria  et  al.  “Tourist  Perceptions”;  Jimura;  Gillespie;  Ripp;  Dewar  et   al;  Gross;  Aplin;  Starin;  Dearborn  and  Stallmeyer;  Wang  and  Zan;  Marcotte  and   Bourdeau;  Hall  and  Piggin;  Somuncu  and  Yagit),  but  more  widespread  studies  in  this   area  would  benefit  the  knowledge  base  for  the  Program  to  work  with.  Based  on  the  best   practices  of  other  international  non-­‐profit  organizations,  it  is  assumed  that  increased   brand  knowledge  on  the  UNESCO  WHP  will  ultimately  lead  to  elevated  public  support   for  and  donations  to  the  program.  However,  studies  to  prove  this  point  should  be   conducted  and  the  lack  thereof,  is  a  limitation  to  the  analysis  of  this  study.      

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Additionally,  the  research  that  exists  today  on  giving  motivation  focuses  on  the  general   population.  Heritage  Tourists  generally  tend  to  fall  into  a  specific  socio-­‐economic   demographic.  To  more  accurately  access  the  potential  for  voluntary  tourist  contribution   to  the  UNESCO  WHP,  a  research  study  into  the  specific  donation  patterns  and  drivers   should  be  explored.       A  recent  player  in  the  marketing  world,  social  media  is  quickly  proving  to  be  the  future   of  promotion  practices.  Many  scholars  argue  the  need  for  interactive  communication   between  a  brand  and  the  customer  and  social  media  seems  to  provide  just  that.  The   field  of  marketing  in  general  will  benefit  from  future  comprehensive  studies  in  this  area,   which  explore  the  effect  of  various  forms  of  social  media  on  consumer  purchase   behavior.       Lastly,  the  authors  of  this  study  acknowledge  that  through  increased  use  of  marketing   for  meaning,  a  greater  number  of  tourists  will  become  interested  in  and  visit  WH  Sites.   Increased  visitation  can  augment  already  existing  issues  of  tourist  capacity  at  some  WH   Sites.  Amplified  Program  and  WH  Site  promotion  leading  to  an  increase  in  tourist  traffic   will  require  site  managers  to  monitor  and  adjust  WH  Site  policies  according  site  capacity   as  to  not  further  intensify  any  conservation  concerns.    

CONCLUSION   This  paper  has  argued  the  need  for  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  to  increase  the   use  of  meaningful  marketing  to  promote  the  awareness  of,  education  about,  and   funding  for  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program.  Through  multiple  forms  of  qualitative   research,  this  study  has  identified  the  areas  of  awareness,  education,  funding  and  the   lack  thereof  as  directly  and  negatively  impact  the  UNESCO  WHP’s  ability  to  achieve  its   goal  of  conservation  effectively.      

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There  has  been  much  research  on  how  to  improve  the  UNESCO  WHP  in  this  way;   however,  the  current  studies  have  focused  on  infeasible  policy  change.  This  white  paper   instead  provides  an  alternative,  fresh,  implementable  approach  that  does  not  rely  on   the  Program’s  ability  to  enforce  States  Parties.  The  recommendation  made  in  this  white   paper  is  to  divert  the  WH  Fund  towards  marketing  for  meaning.  A  unified  approach   centered  on  a  single  goal  and  communicated  through  appropriate  channels  to  all   stakeholders  in  a  variety  of  inbound  and  outbound  techniques,  marketing  for  meaning   engages  both  locals  and  the  public  with  the  Program  and  fosters  long-­‐term  relationships   aimed  at  conservation.  Marketing  for  meaning  will  directly  address  the  issues  of   awareness,  education,  and  funding  that  currently  impede  the  Program  from  achieving   its  mission  of  preserving  the  world’s  heritage  for  current  use  and  for  future  generations.       This  paper  outlines  seven  approaches  to  marketing  for  meaning  that  are  appropriate  to   the  UNESCO  WHP.  These  seven  tactics  include:  reaching  out  to  the  community;  a   complete  re-­‐design  of  the  current  website;  the  creation  of  a  social  media  strategy;  the   implementation  of  interactive  onsite  information  systems;  development  of  a   sponsorship  program;  production  of  dedicated  media;  and  the  utilization  of  outbound   marketing.  By  employing  these  seven  tactics,  the  UNESCO  WHP  will  be  able  to  improve   brand  equity  and  value  in  the  long-­‐term.       Strong  brand  equity  has  been  tied  to  improved  global  support  of  organizations  and   improved  fiscal  success,  the  platforms  on  which  conservation  efforts  rest.  Through   marketing  for  meaning  the  UNESCO  WHP  can  bypass  bureaucracy  and  work  towards   successfully  achieving  its  mission  of  conserving  and  preserving  the  world’s  heritage  that   represents  outstanding  universal  value  to  humanity.              

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WORKS CITED   “1  Billion  Tourists”  UNWTO.  8  April  2013.  .       This  page  illustrates  the  growing  tourism  industry  over  the  past  63  years.  In  that   time  international  tourist  arrivals  went  from  25  million  to  1  billion  on  13  December   2012.       The  website  employs  visually  stimulating  infographics  which  easily  engage  the   audience  in  the  simple,  but  meaningful  content.     "133  Places  Rated:  Europe  /  Italy:  Venice  and  Lagoon.”  NationalGeographic.com.    28   April  2013.  .     This  assessment  is  an  excerpt  from  a  larger  study  that  measured  the  authenticity   and  stewardship  of  European  destinations,  based  on  the  opinions  of  Delphi  panelists   who  examined  the  destinations  using  six  criteria.         The  quotations  selected  for  the  Venice  write-­‐up  were  balanced,  illustrating  not  just   the  problems,  but  the  value  the  city  still  has  for  visitors.   “2012  Watch  Map.”    WorldMonumentsFund.org.    28  April  2013.     .   This  page  on  the  World  Monuments  Fund  website  is  specifically  dedicated  to  sites   that  the  organization  considers  to  be  endangered.    The  Watch  began  in  1996  and  is   updated  every  two  years.    This  page  allows  users  to  access  detailed  information   about  the  problems  with  each  site,  and  provides  information  on  how  to  help  and   nominate  future  sites  that  are  in  danger.       The  site  is  easy  to  navigate  and  user  friendly;  it  provides  detailed  and  transparent   information  about  the  organization  and  its  activities.    The  video  and  photo  materials   are  particularly  effective.   “'Acqua  Alta,'  High  Water  Returns  To  Venice,  Italy  (PHOTOS).”    HuffingtonPost.com.     16  October  2012.    Web.    28  April  2013.     This  article  and  photoset  discussed  the  phenomenon  of  rising  floodwaters  in  Venice,   and  how  tourists  view  it  as  an  amusement  while  it  is  actually  a  serious  issue  related   to  cruise  ship  traffic  and  waterway  overcrowding.     The  photoset  is  the  real  value  of  the  article,  as  seeing  tourists  forced  into  rain  boots   and  onto  higher  ground  (of  which  there  is  little  in  Venice)  is  shocking.    The  photos  of   Saint  Mark's  Square,  where  the  waters  were  knee  high,  are  particularly  striking.  

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“Advisory  Bodies.”  whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .       This  page  describes  the  three  outside  organizations  that  assist  the  World  Heritage   Committee  in  their  decision-­‐making  and  monitoring  processes.    All  are  NGOs  or   intergovernmental.     As  vital  components  of  the  World  Heritage  Convention,  these  three  organizations   and  their  functions  within  the  World  Heritage  framework  are  crucial  to  the  overall   process  of  World  Heritage  Site  designation  and  management.   Ahmad,  Yahaya.  “The  Scope  and  Definitions  of  Heritage:  From  Tangible  to  Intangible.”   International  Journal  of  Heritage  Studies.  12  (2006):  292-­‐300.     This  article  examined  the  scope  and  definition  of  the  word  and  concept  of  heritage   as  used  by  a  number  heritage  charters  around  the  world,  until  internationally   consolidated  at  the  World  Heritage  Convention  in  1972.  After  a  time,  many   countries  broadened  the  scope  and  definition  of  heritage,  leading  to  what  is  now   known  as  “tangible”  and  “intangible”  heritage:  however,  there  remains  a  lack  of   standardization  across  international  lines.     The  article  illuminates  one  of  the  great  challenges  facing  cultural  heritage   preservationists  and  organizations  such  as  UNESCO.  How  can  one  properly  manage   and  sustain  a  World  Heritage  Site  without  understanding  the  type  of  heritage  that  it   is,  and  therefore  know  what  the  needs  of  that  particular  heritage  are?     Aplin,  Graeme.  “Kakadu  National  Park  World  Heritage  Site:  Deconstructing  the   Debate,  1997-­‐2003.”  Australian  Geographical  Studies.  42  (2004):  152-­‐174.     Aplins's  study  discussed  the  ramifications  and  outcomes  of  the  controversial   occurrences  that  plagued  the  conservation  efforts  at  the  World  Heritage  Site.  A   uranium  mine  was  to  be  placed  on  site  according  to  the  Australian  government  in  an   effort  to  create  nuclear  energy  for  Australia,  however,  local  Aboriginal  rights  were   disregarded  since  their  home  in  on  and  near  the  park  as  were  the  environmental   ramifications  of  such  a  project  due  to  the  radioactivity  of  the  mine.       This  study  demonstrated  that  World  Heritage  Site  was  willing  to  intervene  and  use   all  their  resources  to  win  the  debate  and  stop  the  production  of  the  mine  due  to  the   wide  media  coverage  and  large  amount  of  debate  and  controversy  of  the  subject.   This  protected  their  image  and  showed  that  they  have  the  power  to  protect  and   conserve  sites  if  pressed  to  do  so,  through  widespread  awareness.    

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  “Asante  Traditional  Buildings.”  WorldMonumentsFund.org.    28  April  2013.     .   This  page  on  the  World  Monuments  Fund  website  provides  information  about  the   Asante  Traditional  Buildings,  and  the  ongoing  conservation  efforts.   Overall,  this  page  is  valuable  source  of  initial  information  about  the  site.    The   accompanying  photographs  on  the  page  bring  additional  weight  to  the  information.   Also,  it  clearly  indicates  that  this  site  is  also  on  the  World  Heritage  List,  which  is   useful  information  for  cross-­‐examination  of  sources.   Aref,  Fariborz.  “Barriers  to  Community  Capacity  Building  for  Tourism  Development  in   Communities  in  Shiraz,  Iran.”  Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.  19  (2011):  347-­‐359.     Community  capacity  building  is  a  fundamental  issue  regarding  tourism  development.   In  his  examination  of  Shiraz,  Iran  Aref  conducts  a  survey  of  community  leaders  to   reveal  community  capacity  building  to  be  essential  to  tourism  development  and  lack   thereof,  a  barrier  to  successful  development.  In  many  destinations,  community   members  are  limited  as  to  their  involvement  in  development  which  subsequently   results  in  a  multitude  of  the  negative  impacts  associated  with  the  tourism  industry.       Aref  uses  the  illustrative  example  of  Shiraz,  Iran  to  make  his  case  for  the  need  of   community  capacity  building  at  tourism  destinations.  His  argument  is  both  grounded   in  research  and  easy  to  follow.  Aref  builds  upon  current  scholarship  in  an  engaging   way  and  provides  a  compelling  viewpoint  advocating  for  CCB  as  a  means  for  tourism   development.       Badman,  Tim,  and  Guy  Debonnet.    “The  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger.”     Environmental  Policy  and  Law.  39  (2009):  201-­‐204.     Badman  and  Debonnet's  brief  paper  illustrates  IUCN's  2009  report  to  the  World   Heritage  Committee  on  how  to  improve  the  application  of  the  List  of  World  Heritage   in  Danger.    This  summary  highlights  the  key  challenges  noted  in  the  paper,  and  also   details  the  recommendations  provided.         Though  short,  the  content  of  this  paper  effectively  explains  the  conclusions  IUCN   reached,  and  the  recommendations  are  indicative  of  the  ongoing  issues  with  the   World  Heritage  Program,  namely  the  complete  involvement  of  other  stakeholders.     Badman  and  Debonnet's  recommendation  for  further  analysis  on  the  use  of  the  List   of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  is  valid  but  unexplored,  as  no  methods  of  further   analysis  are  explained.    

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    Bartholet,  Jeffrey.  “How  to  Save  the  Taj  Mahal?”  SmithsonianMag.com.  September   2011.    Web.    28  April  2013.     The  article  reflects  on  the  debate  over  350-­‐year-­‐old  monument  that  now  shows   signs  of  distress  from  pollution  and  shoddy  repairs.    The  author  provides  an   overview  of  the  reports  from  the  Indian  press  that  the  latest  government  efforts  to   control  pollution  around  the  Taj  are  failing  and  that  the  gorgeous  white  marble  is   deteriorating—a  possible  casualty  of  India’s  booming  population,  rapid  economic   expansion  and  lax  environmental  regulations.     The  criticisms  are  a  measure  of  how  important  the  complex  is  to  India  and  the   world,  as  a  symbol  of  historical  and  cultural  glory, and  as  an  architectural  marvel.  If   the  symbolic  power  of  the  Taj  can  be  harnessed  to  fight  for  a  cleaner  river,  cleaner   air  and  better  living  conditions,  all  the  better.  The  Taj  Mahal  is  a  singular   masterpiece  that  will  likely  be  around  for  many  years  or  even  lifetimes  to  come,  but   which,  despite  best  efforts,  cannot  last  forever.       Becker-­‐Olsen,  Karen,  and  Paul  Ronald  Hill.  “The  Impact  of  Sponsor  Fit  on  Brand  Equity:   The  Case  of  Nonprofit  Service  Providers.”  Journal  of  Service  Research.  9  (2006):  73-­‐ 83.     As  the  non-­‐profit  sector  becomes  increasingly  competitive,  it  is  critical  for  non-­‐profit   service  organizations  to  become  more  brand  centered  and  to  differentiate   themselves  in  the  marketplace.  The  article  shows  that  high-­‐fit  sponsorship  programs   between  non-­‐profit  firms  and  business  positively  influence  brand  identity  via  broad   associations  and  brand  meaning,  brand  response,  and  brand  relationships  through   specific  associations.    However,  the  authors  state  that  low-­‐fit  sponsorship  program   are  likely  to  hinder  nonprofit  brand  management  strategies  by  negatively  affecting   brand  identity  and  brand  knowledge.     The  article  investigates  the  ability  of  corporate  sponsorships  to  influence  the  value   of  nonprofit  service  brands.  Corporate  sponsorship  was  selected  as  the  context  for   the  research  because  for-­‐profit  companies  have  successfully  leveraged  their  brands   though  sponsorships.  While  the  article  provides  an  insightful  platform  for   consideration,  it  doesn’t  address  the  diversity  aspect  of  sponsorship  relationships.   Hence  there  are  some  gaps  in  the  authors’  assessments.     Bertacchini,  Enrico,  and  Donatella  Saccone.  “Toward  a  Political  Economy  of  World   Heritage.”  Journal  of  Cultural  Economics.  36  (2012):  327-­‐352.     As  the  process  of  inscription  of  World  Heritage  Sites  is  based  on  selection  criteria   agreed  by  the    Convention  parties,  this  may  be  influenced  by  several  factors,  which   68  

affect  the  World  Heritage  composition.  This  article  analyzes  the  institutional  and   political  determinations  affecting  World  Heritage  listings.  Using  panel  data,  the   authors  provide  us  with  evidence  on  the  existence  of  some  crucial  factors  within  the   World  Heritage  system,  which  led  to  an  unbalanced  distribution  of  World  Heritage   Sites.     Previous  studies  often  focused  on  the  economic  nature  of  heritage  goods.    This   study,  however,  paid  particular  attention  to  the  role  of  the  World  Heritage  List  as  a   tourist  attraction,  and  authors  Bertacchini  and  Saccone  explore  determinations  of   potential  biases  behind  the  nomination  and  selection  process  of  World  Heritage   Sites.    This  article  is  very  useful  for  researchers  interested  in  World  Heritage  Sites.  It   extends  the  knowledge  about  the  conditions  influencing  the  process  of  sites   inscription.     Bertacchini,  Enrico,  Donatella  Saccone,  and  Walter  Santagata.    “Embracing  Diversity,   Correcting  Inequalities:  Towards  a  New  Global  Governance  for  the  UNESCO  World   Heritage.”    International  Journal  of  Cultural  Policy.  17  (2011):  278-­‐288.     This  paper  argues  that  the  World  Heritage  List  is  imbalanced  in  terms  of  site   conservation  and  resources  used  to  evaluate.    The  authors  propose  three  steps   towards  a  policy  change  that  would  change  the  governance  of  the  list,  including:  the   implementation  of  a  Preservation  Tax,  a  better  defined  set  of  values  and  needs  for   each  site  by  way  of  a  ranking  system,  and  the  adoption  of  an  economic  valuation   system  that  would  address  the  regional  imbalance  of  the  World  Heritage  List.     The  paper  adds,  in  a  well-­‐reasoned  manner,  to  the  existing  literature  on  policy   changes  that  could  enhance  and  improve  the  management  of  the  World  Heritage   List,  particularly  by  proposing  after-­‐effects  of  such  new  policies.    What  the  paper   does  not  do,  however,  is  consider  the  difficulties  in  changing  World  Heritage  List   policy;  the  omission  of  these  limitation  lessens  the  validity  of  the  argument.   Brattli,  Terje.  “Managing  the  Archaeological  World  Cultural  Heritage:  Consensus  or   Rhetoric?”  Norwegian  Archaeological  Review.  42  (2009):  24-­‐39.     Through  an  “actor-­‐network  analysis,”  this  article  concluded  that  the  management  of   the  cultural  heritage  contributes  directly  to  how  cultural  heritage  is  defined  by  the   organization  or  party  in  charge  of  said  management.  The  results  indicate  that   properly  managing  and  understanding  heritage  in  locations  outside  of  the  “Western”   world  is  primarily  a  cursory  exercise.  Without  a  global  understanding,  cultural   heritage  will  remain  a  “varnish”  on  preservation,  lacking  true  meaning  or  impact.     The  implications  of  this  article  illustrate  the  challenge  faced  by  cultural  heritage   managers  and  UNESCO  alike.  Without  a  standard  definition  of  cultural  heritage  and  

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a  standard  plan  to  manage  such  a  heritage  site,  and  without  recognition  that  the   current  standards  account  only  for  Western  sites,  all  sites  worldwide  will  suffer.       Buckley,  Ralf.    “The  Effects  of  World  Heritage  Listing  on  Tourism  to  Australian  National   Parks.”  Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.  12  (2004):  70-­‐84.     This  study  of  Australian  World  Heritage  Areas  and  the  impact  of  designation  on   tourism  numbers  is  one  of  many  studies  on  the  subject.    With  regard  to  the  World   Heritage  'brand,'  the  results  of  the  study  are  inconclusive,  as  the  Australian  sites   have  too  few  data  to  measure  sufficiently.         With  a  caveat  about  the  limitations  in  place,  the  study  indicates  that  Australian   World  Heritage  Areas  receive  more  tourist  traffic  than  so  designated  sites.    The   author's  recommendation  that  UNESCO  increase  its  data  collection  and  analysis   capacities  is  a  solid  one,  as  it  is  desperately  needed.    Where  the  author  fails,   however,  is  in  recognizing  that  the  World  Heritage  Program  has  a  reporting  program   in  place,  though  it  remains  reliant  and  is  underused  on  self-­‐reporting  by  sites.     Buil,  Isabel,  Eva  Martinez  and  Leslie  de  Chernatomy.  “The  Influence  of  Brand  Equity  on   Consumer  Responses”  Journal  of  Consumer  Marketing.  30  (2013):  62-­‐74.       Brand  awareness  and  brand  equity  are  important  components  to  consumer   purchasing  patterns.  Buil  et  al.  explore  brand  value  based  on  the  above  and  find  that   brand  awareness  is  the  first  necessary  step  in  augmenting  overall  brand  equity.   Moreover,  the  scholars  find  that  strong  brand  equity  directly  impacts  the   consumer’s  willingness  to  pay  a  price  premium  for  the  brand.       The  study  by  Buil  et  al.  helps  lay  the  groundwork  on  which  the  recommendation  in   this  paper  is  based.  By  increasing  brand  awareness,  and  thus  brand  equity,  the   UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  will  directly  tap  into  a  market  of  consumers  with  a   higher  willingness  to  pay  a  price  premium  for  an  experience  with  the  brand.  To  the   point,  clear  to  read  and  engaging,  Buil  et.  al  represent  a  straightforward  argument   on  the  importance  of  brand  equity.     Burns,  Willam  C.G.  "Belt  and  Suspenders?  The  World  Heritage  Convention’s  Role  in   Confronting  Climate  Change."    Review  of  European  Community  &  International   Environmental  Law.    18  (2009):  148-­‐163.     Burns'  study  of  how  the  World  Heritage  Program  is  currently  addressing  the  issue  of   climate  change,  particularly  as  the  issue  relates  to  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in   Danger,  and  found  that  the  issue  is  largely  ignored.    He  suggests  changes  in  the   Operational  Guidelines,  policy,  to  remedy  this.    

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This  article  was  insightful  in  its  call  for  acknowledgment  of  climate  change  as  a   crucial  issue  that  impacts  both  natural  and  cultural  heritage  sites,  but  loses  impact   when  it  calls  for  policy  change.    Burns  provides  enough  background  into  the   bureaucracy  of  the  WHP  that  he  should  have  recognized  this  as  a  limitation.  

  Chhabra,  Deepak.  “Proposing  a  Sustainable  Marketing  Framework  for  Heritage   Tourism.”    Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.    17  (2009):  303-­‐320.     Chhabra  tested  a  new  sustainable  marketing  protocol  on  24  U.S.  museums  to   determine  if  such  a  marketing  model  would  be  successful.    Results  showed  that  the   majority  of  museums  do  not  have  marketing  plans  in  the  first  place,  and  that  they   are  hesitant  to  implement  any  sort  of  marketing  strategy.     Though  limited  by  sample  size,  Chhabra's  recommendation  that  museum  staff  be   educated  on  the  usefulness  of  marketing,  for  the  long-­‐term  viability  of  the  museum   itself,  is  sound  enough  to  call  for  further  exploration.       Chhabra,  Deepak.  Routledge  Critical  Studies  in  Tourism,  Business  and  Management:   Sustainable  Marketing  of  Cultural  and  Heritage  Tourism.  Florence,  KY:  Routledge,   2010.     Chhabra’s  book  is  a  comprehensive  discussion  on  a  niche  topic.  The  book  outlines   the  marketing  of  heritage  tourism,  how  to  implement  sustainability  within  heritage   tourism,  case  studies,  and  goes  into  the  future  of  the  topic.  A  key  part  of  the  text  is  a   section  on  creating  a  “Strategic  Sustainable  Heritage  Tourism  Marketing  Model.”     The  section  discussing  the  marketing  model  is  of  the  utmost  importance,  as  it  delves   into  critical  success  factors  such  as  partnerships,  local  involvement,  authenticity,  and   conservation.  Chhabra  explains  how  crucial  it  is  to  have  all  these  aspects  be  a  part  of   the  marketing  mix  for  cultural  and  heritage  tourism,  so  that  these  sites  can  be   properly  marketed  to  visitors  and  stakeholders,  and  in  a  sustainable  way.   Chung,  Jin  Young,  Gerard  T.  Kyle,  James  F.  Petrick,  and  James  D.  Absher.  “Fairness  of   Prices,  User  Fee  Policy  and  Willingness  to  Pay  among  Visitors  to  a  National  Forest.”   Tourism  Management.  32  (2011):  1038-­‐1046.       This  article  examines  the  relationship  between  fairness  of  prices,  user  fees,  and   Willingness  to  Pay  amongst  tourists  to  the  Chattahoochee  National  Park  in  the  US.   The  researchers  found  that  the  tourists  are  more  willing  to  support  the  fees  if  the   money  goes  towards  improving  or  maintaining  the  site  and  not  necessarily   developing  new  attractions.  They  also  found  that  there  was  a  low  financial  support   amongst  tourists  for  education  compared  to  that  of  environmental  protection  and   upkeep  of  facilities.  They  found  that  if  place  identity,  or  emotional  attachment  to  the   site,  is  strong  then  there  will  be  a  higher  support  for  fee  pricing  even  if  they  don’t   71  

think  the  price  is  fair.  they  found  that  the  higher  the  price  fairness  is,  the  more   support  the  park  has  for  fee  spending  which  leads  to  a  higher  Willingness  to  Pay,  if   the  public  are  informed  on  what  their  money  is  being  spent  on.  This  strong   emotional  attachment  can  be  likened  to  the  feeling  of  pride  in  World  Heritage  Sites   on  part  of  the  locals  and  how  tourists  can  too  become  emotionally  tied  to  a  site  and   therefore,  wish  to  conserve  it  more  and  will  pay  more  money  to  do  so.     The  large  sample  size  led  to  a  low  difference  in  the  mean  values  of  the  results.  The   researchers  could  use  a  smaller  sample  size  in  the  future  to  get  more  accurate   results.  They  do  suggest  some  interesting  topics  for  future  research,  such  as  studying   AP  (appropriate  pricing)  versus  Willingness  to  Pay  in  that  it  could  provide  further   practical  implications  in  the  research  and  the  industry.  This  could  be  applied  to   World  Heritage  Sites  and  how  they  can  implement  Willingness  to  Pay  strategies  as   well  as  AP  strategies  for  World  Heritage  Sites  in  terms  of  conservation  efforts.     Connolly,  Kate,  and  et  al.  "Bridge  Takes  Dresden  Off  UNESCO  World  Heritage  List."  The   Guardian,  Online  ed.  25  June  2009.  Web.   .       This  newspaper  report  on  the  de-­‐listing  of  the  Dresden  Elbe  valley  summarizes  the   back  and  forth  that  occurred  between  the  World  Heritage  Committee  and  the  local   government  which,  for  reasons  of  infrastructure,  needed  to  build  a  bridge  to  ease   traffic  issues.         The  highlight  of  the  article  is  the  result  of  a  poll  that  showed  that  a  majority  of   Dresden  city  residents  did  not  care  if  the  city  was  de-­‐listed,  despite  the  alleged  cost.     It  emphasizes  the  World  Heritage  Committee's  lack  of  relevance  when  juxtaposed   with  the  everyday  needs  of  a  local  government.   “Consumer  Group  Wants  Private  Colosseum  Restoration  Halted”.  www.ansa.it.  29   April  2013.   .     This  newspaper  reports  on  the  legal  complain  of  a  consumer  group  against  the  25   million  euro  renovation  plan  for  the  Colosseum  that  the  shoe  company  Tod’s  is   sponsoring.  The  group  claims  lack  of  transparency  on  the  bidding  process  and   demand  a  new  bidding  process  than  it  believes  it  can  bring  up  to  ten  times  more   resources.     This  article  shows  how  a  good  initiative  of  partnership  for  conservation  can  bring   problems  with  the  community  if  the  process  lacks  transparency.  Even  though  the  

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final  result  for  this  case  is  open,  this  could  bring  serious  image  problems  to  the   brand.   "Coro  and  Its  Port.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    28  April  2013.     .     This  page  is  the  World  Heritage  Program's  full  and  thorough  physical  description  of   this  site,  the  historical  description,  and  other  facts.     The  presentation  is  academic,  the  text  not  easily  digestible,  the  layout  (a  giant  wall   of  text)  visually  unstimulating.       Creotivo.  27  April  2013.  http://www.creotivo.com/blog/infographic-­‐100-­‐social-­‐ networking-­‐statistics-­‐facts-­‐for-­‐2012/   This  blog  post  by  brand  developer  Creotivo  presents  a  compilation  of  social   networking  statistics  for  2012  in  the  form  of  an  infographic.  The  statistics  were   compiled  via  data  from  18  reputed  social  media  research  webpages.     The  infographic  presents  compelling  data  in  a  visually  appealing  form.  Without   getting  caught  in  blocks  of  text,  the  data  is  easy  to  decipher  comprehend  and  link   together.  The  infographic  makes  a  strong  impact  on  the  reader.     “Current  Projects.”    Globalheritagefund.org.    28  April  2013.     .   This  page  on  the  Global  Heritage  Fund  website  provides  an  entry  point  into   exploration  of  the  organization's  current  conservation  and  preservation  projects.     The  sidebars  allow  for  easy  navigation  to  other  parts  of  the  website,  including   information  about  other  conservation  projects.   This  page  in  particular  is  visually  stimulating  and  easy  to  navigate.    The  quality  of  the   photography  is  beautiful,  there  is  social  media  interfacing,  and  user-­‐friendly  menus   to  direct  web  surfers  where  to  look  next.   “Customize  Donation  Page.”    JustGive.org.    28  April  2013.     .     This  part  of  JustGive.org's  website  provides  detailed  information  on  how  a  non-­‐ profit  organization  can  use  JustGive.org's  services  to  improve  their  donation  process   and  motivate  donors  and  potential  donors  to  give.     This  site  is  simple  and  easy  to  read,  with  clear  and  concise  bullet  points  to  illustrate   all  of  the  advantages  that  a  partnership  with  JustGive.org  can  provide.    

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Dearborn,  Lynne  Marie,  and  John  Charles  Stallmeyer.  “Re-­‐Visiting  Luang  Prabang:   Transformations  Under  the  Influence  of  World  Heritage  Designation.”  Journal  of   Tourism  and  Cultural  Change.  7  (2009):  247-­‐269.     This  article  evaluated  the  impact  of  a  World  Heritage  Designation  on  the  city  of   Luang  Prabang,  Laos,  from  the  influx  of  tourists  to  the  changes  in  the  constructed   (i.e.  non-­‐nature-­‐based)  environment.    Through  observation  of  tourists  and  residents,   and  examination  of  photographs  and  other  documents,  the  authors  concluded  that   despite  the  regulations  in  place,  Luang  Prabang  has  an  imbalanced  heritage   narrative.  Certain  aspects  of  the  site's  history  are  more  valued  than  others,  and  the   cultural  landscape  of  the  city  is  now  one  that  exists  solely  for  tourists.     Luang  Prabang  serves  as  a  prime  example  of  how  poor  management  can  result  in  a   degradation  of  a  site  or  city's  quality  from  not  just  an  environmental  perspective,   but  from  a  socio-­‐economic  and  sociocultural  perspective.  UNESCO  sites  must  have   sustainable  management  plans,  or  else  the  value  of  the  site  will  continue  to   deteriorate.  The  Luang  Prabang  case  study  stands  as  an  example  of  what  not  to  do.     De  Cesari,  C.  “World  Heritage  and  Mosaic  Universalism:  A  View  from  Palestine.”   Journal  of  Social  Archeology.  10  (2010):  299-­‐324.     In  this  article  author  De  Cesari  studies  UNESCO’s  worldwide  cultural  heritage   preservation  program  through  ethnographic  and  textual  examination.  The  Author   argues  that  World  Heritage  has  been  shaped  by  contemporary  political  discourses   centered  on  the  negotiation  and  management  of  cultural  diversity,  from  assimilation   to  multiculturalism.  After  thorough  analysis,  the    article  concludes  that  some   reforms  in  world  heritage  have    inspired  mosaic  or  liberal  multiculturalism;  however   this  way  of  seeing  and  managing  cultural  differences  tends  to  effect  a  reification  of   dynamic  cultural  process.  Moreover,  it  fails  not  only  to  affirm  and  solidify   differences,  but  asymmetries  between  world  heritage  sites  as  well.     This  article  clearly  adds  new  layers  in  the  knowledge  of  world  heritage  subject,   especially  by  investigating  globalization  of  heritage  in  the  form  of  World  Heritage.  It   provides  very  interesting  insights  about  established  multifaceted  relationship   between  heritage  and  the  nation  state.     Dewar,  Keith,  Hilary  du  Cros,  and  Wenmei  Li.  “The  Search  for  World  Heritage  Brand   Awareness  Beyond  the  Iconic  Heritage:  A  Case  Study  of  the  Historic  Centre  of   Macao.”  Journal  of  Heritage  Tourism.  7  (2012):  323-­‐339.       Dewar  et  al.  study  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  brand  awareness  at  the  Historic   Centre  of  Macao.  It  is  generally  assumed  by  many  that  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage   Program  represents  a  robust  global  brand.  In  their  study,  Dewar  et  al.  challenge  this   claim.  Their  results  reveal  low  levels  of  awareness  and  understanding  of  the   74  

significance  of  designation,  demonstrating  the  weakness  of  the  Program  and  a   strong  and  recognizable  global  brand.       The  findings  of  Dewar  et  al.  strengthen  the  argument  that  the  UNESCO  World   Heritage  Program  is  in  fact,  a  weak  and  not  widely  recognizable  brand.  Though  the   article  wavered  towards  technical  side,  and  the  language  used  was  at  times   cumbersome,  the  findings  and  argument  of  the  study  were  easy  to  comprehend.       Dickinson,  Sonia  and  Alison  Barker.  “Evaluation  of  Branding  Alliances  Between  Non-­‐ profit  and  Commercial  Brand  Partners:  The  Transfer  of  Affect.”  International   Journal  of  Nonprofit  and  Voluntary  Sector  Marketing.  12  (2007):  75-­‐89.     Dickinson  and  Barker’s  article  examines  growing  interest  in  the  trend  towards  co   branding  alliances  between  non-­‐profit  and  commercial  entities,  which  aim  to   transfer  associations  and  affect  between  each  brand  partners.  The  authors  support   the  notion  that  both  commercial  entities  and  non-­‐profit  organizations  can  benefit   from  branding  alliances,  however  the  criteria  of  a  successful  partnerships  still  needs   to  be  defined.  The  article  provides  evidence  that  while  collaboration  is  important   and  has  potential  benefit  for  each  partner  –  there  is  a  reliance  on  partner  selection   and  fit  between  alliance  partners.     While  the  corporate  entities  can  transfer  original  brand  attitude  from  a  partner  to   their  own  brand  which  is  a  more  economical  way  of  managing  brand  knowledge,  at   the  same  time  the  non-­‐profit  brand  knowledge  structures  usually  have  higher  levels   of  trust  and  confidence  that  can  be  transferred  to  the  commercial  entity.  From  the   non-­‐profit  entity’s  perspective,  branding  alliances  are  also  beneficial  as  they  are   cost-­‐effective  particularly  with  marketing  expenditures  and  revenue  enhancement.     The  authors  suggest  that  the  measure  of  an  impact  the  brand  alliance  can  produce  is   ultimately  the  spillover  effect.    While  the  article  brings  some  valid  points,  there  is   definitely  a  need  for  further  research  as  the  knowledge  related  to  branding  alliances   between  non-­‐profit  and  commercial  entities  is  quite  limited.     Dixon,  M.    “  Small  and  Medium-­‐Sized  Charities  Need  a  Strong  Brand  Too:  Crisis   Experience.”    Journal  of  Nonprofit  and  Volunteer  Sector  Marketing.    2.1  (1997):  52-­‐ 57.     This  paper  examined  the  benefits  and  constraints  in  developing  process  of  a  strong   brand  image  and  identity  for  smaller  charities.  Research  focused  on  a  medium  sized   charity  “Crisis”  for  18  months  between  1996-­‐1997.    The  author  concluded  that  clear   organizational  values  and  messages  were  first  priority  in  the  process  of  building   brand  identity.    The  involvement  of  all  stakeholders,  from  junior  staff  member  to   senior  management  team,  is  vital  in  this  process.  Market  research  and  consistent   exploration  of  new  opportunities  for  branding  also  play  very  important  role.  

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  The  merit  of  this  paper  is  that  it  provided  very  specific  recommendations  on  building   brand  and  identity  for  non-­‐profits  when  these  organizations  were  still  an  emerging   sector  of  modern  society.       “Donate.”  DoctorsWithoutBorders.org.    28  April  2013.   .     The  Doctors  Without  Borders  donation  website  allows  donors  to  clearly  see:  why  the   money  is  important,  where  the  money  goes,  what  each  donation  amount  can  pay   for,  and  ways  donations  can  be  made.     The  donation  process  is  completely  transparent.    The  site  is  simple  and  yet  detailed   enough  to  provide  everything  that  a  non-­‐profit  organization  should  provide  in  order   to  entice  donors  to  give.     “Donate.”  PencilsofPromise.org.    28  April  2013.     .     This  organization's  donation  website  makes  donation  simple,  in  three  easy  steps.     First,  a  donor  declares  how  much  he  or  she  would  like  to  give.    Second,  the  donor   chooses  between  “one  time  only,”  “monthly,”  or  “annually.”    Third,  the  donor   chooses  a  payment  method  from  either  PayPal  or  a  major  credit  card.    The  site  also   notes  how  the  money  will  be  used.     The  site  is  almost  too  simple  in  how  little  information  it  provides.    It  seems  to  make   an  assumption  that  any  person  who  is  viewing  the  page  already  knows  about  the   organization  and  its  mission,  all  of  which  is  elsewhere  on  the  website.    That  said,  the   donation  process  could  not  be  simpler,  which  is  an  effective  strategy.     “Donate  Funds.”  RedCross.org.    28  April  2013.    .       This  area  of  the  Red  Cross  website  acts  as  a  gateway  to  the  donation  portal,  where   donors  can  indicate  the  amount  they  wish  to  give,  where  they  have  the  option  to   make  a  monthly  donation  or  a  memorial  donation,  and  where  they  can  elect  to  have   their  billing  information  saved  for  future  giving  purposes.    The  gateway  page  also   provides  links  to  other  means  of  donation  or  fundraising,  including  by  the  U.S.  Postal   Service.     This  webpage  provides  few  details  about  the  organization,  which  could  mean  that   the  organization  is  assuming  that  any  visitor  to  the  page  already  knows  about  its   work  and  mission.    That  said,  the  process  is  straightforward  and  easy  to  navigate,   and  would  not  likely  detract  any  potential  donor  from  giving.   76  

Donohoe,  Holly  M.    "Sustainable  Heritage  Tourism  Marketing  and  Canada's  Rideau   Canal  World  Heritage  Site."    Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.    20  (2012):  121-­‐142.     Donohoe's  case  study  of  a  Canadian  World  Heritage  Site  found  that  a  sustainable   marketing  plan  can  succeed  if  it  contains  including  community  involvement  and   partnerships.    She  found  that  a  sustainable  marketing  plan  improves  awareness  of   the  World  Heritage  Program,  a  sense  of  community  pride,  improved  fundraising  for   preservation  activities,  and  increased  awareness  of  the  environmental  issues   surrounding  the  site.     This  study  adds  to  current  marketing  literature  by  focusing  on  the  new  concept  of   sustainable  marketing.    Using  one  World  Heritage  Site  as  a  case  study  gave  the   research  a  focus  and  clarity,  and  replicating  the  research  in  future  studies  would   assess  the  validity  of  the  results.     Faircloth,  J.B.  “Factors  Influencing  Nonprofit  Resource  Provider  Support  Decisions:   Applying  the  Brand  Equity  Concept  to  Nonprofits.”  Journal  of  Marketing  Theory   and  Practice.  13  (2005):  1-­‐15.     The  purpose  of  the  research  was  to  extend  brand  equity  concepts  developed  in  the   for-­‐profit  sector  to  a  nonprofit  setting;  to  demonstrate  the  importance  of  measuring   and  distinguishing  the  antecedent  factors  of  brand  equity  which  influence  biased   resource  provider  support  for  the  nonprofit;  and  to  suggest  preliminary  application   of  findings  to  nonprofit  marketing  practices.    This  study  was  the  first  reported   research  to  empirically  apply  the  brand  equity  construct  to  the  nonprofit  sector  and   examined  antecedent  factors  which  influenced  increasingly  constrained  resource   providers  to  behave  in  a  biased  manner  to  nonprofits  when  controlling  for  an   individual's  internal  altruistic  tendency  to  volunteer.       This  research  provided  two  contributions  to  the  extant  branding  and  brand  equity   literature.  First  it  demonstrated  antecedents  and  their  dimensions  that  influence   resource  providers  based  on  brand  equity.  Secondly,  it  empirically  applied  brand   equity  and  its  antecedents  in  the  nonprofit  literature.    Despite  the  limitation  that   this  study  looked  at  only  specific  nonprofit  organizations,  which  was  not  necessarily   representative  of  all  non-­‐profits,  it  had  practical  managerial  implications  back  in   2005  and  opened  the  avenues  for  future  research.     Facebook.  Instagram  (Version  3.5.1):  2012.  Mobile  Application  Software  28  April  2013.       The  Instagram  platform  is  an  image  sharing  network  comprised  of  over  1  billion   photographs.  Users  can  follow  other  users  or  search  for  specific  images  via  hashtag.   However,  as  the  digital  image  library  is  constantly  expanding,  generating  data  that  is   consistent  one  day  to  the  next  is  difficult.       77  

The  digital  application  is  easy  to  navigate  and  perform  search  queries  on.       Fang  Han,  Zhaoping  Yang,  Hui  Wang,  and  Xiaoliang  Xu.  "Estimating  WTP  for   Environmental  Conservation:  A  Contingent  Valuation  Study  of  Kanas  Nature   Reserve,  Xinjiang,  China.”  Environmental  Monit  Assess.  180  (2011):  451-­‐459.     This  article  examines  the  Willingness  to  Pay  of  the  public  when  visiting  the  Kanas   Nature  Reserve  in  China.  The  study  showed  tourists  tended  to  demonstrate  more   Willingness  to  Pay  for  environmental  conservation  of  the  biodiversity,  ecosystems   and  cultures  in  this  reserve  once  they  know  that  that  is  what  their  donations  are   going  towards.  It  also  suggested  that  there  should  be  conservation  fund  that  is   supervised  by  the  public  for  environmental  conservation  and  ensures  that  the   money  goes  towards  conservation  and  nothing  else.  They  also  suggest  the   implementation  of  interpretation  programs  to  enhance  the  importance  of  the   resources,  and  the  awareness  and  education  of  the  tourists  by  the  locals,  which   cause  the  public  to  be  more  invested  in  giving  money  towards  conservation.       This  article  claims  that  it  produces  results  that  can  and  should  be  used  by  policy   makers  since  they  collected  their  data  and  analyzed  their  results  with  the  widely   accepted  CVM  model.  The  idea  that  tourists  will  be  more  willing  to  pay  for   conservation  efforts  once  they  know  exactly  what  their  money  is  going  towards,   adds  to  the  idea  that  more  awareness  and  education  will  lead  to  more  money  for   conservation  at  World  Heritage  Sites.     “Five  World  Heritage  Sites  in  Danger,  Plus  Two  Successes”  NationalGeographic.com  28   April  2013.   .     National  Geographic’s  website  featured  a  short  article  discussing  some  of  the  sites   on  the  List  in  Danger.  The  five  sites  at  risk  discussed  consist  of:  Timbuktu,  Mali;   Church  of  the  Nativity,  West  Bank;  Liverpool  Maritime  Mercantile,  U.K.;  Portobelo,   Panama;  and  the  Tomb  of  Askia,  Mali.  The  two  sites  that  have  been  removed  from   the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,  which  is  very  rare,  are  the  Shalimar  Gardens  in   Pakistan  and  the  Rice  Terraces  in  the  Philippines.     This  article  is  very  short  and  simple,  but  very  helpful  for  presenting  a  visual  for  sites   that  are  at  great  risk.  It  breaks  it  down  to  easy  to  understand  concepts,  such  as  how   urban  redevelopment,  specifically  a  site  that  was  just  approved,  are  threatening   Liverpool’s  historic  docklands.  It  is  limited  in  that  it  is  just  a  surface  level   representation,  and  it  only  discusses  five  sites  that  are  in  danger,  and  two  “success”   stories.       78  

Francioni,  F.,  and  F.  Lenzerini.    “The  1972  World  Heritage  Convention:  A  Commentary.”   Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press,  2008.     The  topic  of  the  conservation  of  the  world  cultural  and  natural  heritage  has  been   important  to  academia  and  industry  practitioners  since  its  approval  in  1972.  The   1972  World  Heritage  Convention:  A  Commentary,  book  edited  by  Francesco   Francioni  (European  University  Institute),  with  Federico  Lenzerini  (University  of   Siena),  is  the  first  commentary  book  to  this  instrument  ever  published.    The  book  is   divided  into  four  parts:  It  opens  with  an  introduction  to  significance  and  impact  of   the  World  Heritage  Convention,  by  the  book’s  lead  editor,  Francesco  Francioni.   Second  part  is  the  actual  commentary  to  the  Convention;  the  third  is  the   relationship  of  the  Convention  with  other  systems  of  heritage  protection;  and  the   fourth  is  the  conclusions.  Appendixes  containing  key  documents  for  a  better  reading   of  the  book  follow.  In  this  book  authors  are  analysing  world  heritage  convention   within  the  context  of  heritage  preservation  law.  They  also  argue  that  international   instruments  while  they  must  be  understood  in  the  light  of  certain  concepts,  must  be   also  be  applied  in  depth,  but  without  losing  touch  with  general  structure  of   international  law.       This  book  is  a  very  good  examination  of  such  a  multi-­‐dimensional  and  complex   international  system  as  World  Heritage  Convention.  It  offers  valuable  insights  into   the  World  Heritage  Convention  and  its  operation,  bringing  together  contributors   from  several  areas  of  the  world,  both  academics  and  practitioners.       Frey,  Bruno  S.  and  Paolo  Pamini.  “Making  World  Heritage  Truly  Global:  The  Culture   Certificate  Scheme.”  Oxonomics.  4  (2009):  1-­‐9.     Frey  and  Pamini’s  study  discuss  the  interactions  between  stakeholders  in  tourism   and  the  environment  and  how  low  preservation  is  at  sites.  They  find  that   management  is  low  and  bad  because  funds  are  low.  They  discuss  the  poor   distribution  of  funds  through  the  WHF  and  the  WHC  to  sites  and  how  “Eurocentric”   the  process  is.  They  suggest  having  the  richer  countries  pay  to  support  the  poorer   countries  who  wish  to  be  on  the  list  and  need  to  be  in  order  to  save  their  cultural   and  natural  heritage.  They  suggest  that  there  needs  to  be  a  global  agreement  on   what  should  be  conserved  and  how  a  WHU  (unit)  system  and  well  as  certification   can  increase  funds  and  therefore  conservation  at  World  Heritage  Sites.     Frey  and  Pamini’s  study  demonstrated  great  suggestions  for  improving  funding  and   increasing  awareness  in  conservation  at  World  Heritage  Sites  and  potential  World   Heritage  Sites.  They  analyzed  and  criticized  the  political  feasibility  of  implementing   such  strategies,  which  demonstrated  the  large  amount  of  bureaucracy  that  takes   place  at  the  sites  and  how  unfeasible  it  is  to  try  and  change  that.  Instead   implementing  marketing  and  funding  strategies  like  these  to  increase  brand   awareness  for  WH  Sites  would  increase  funds  and  therefore  conservation  efforts.     79  

Frey,  Bruno  S.,  and  Lasse  Steiner.  “World  Heritage  List:  Does  It  Make  Sense?”   International  Journal  of  Cultural  Policy.  17  (2011):  555-­‐573.     Through  a  literary  analysis  of  the  UNESCO  charter,  and  other  scholarly  work  on  the   UNESCO  regulations,  this  article  presents  positive  and  negative  effects  of  World   Heritage  designations,  and  argues  that  a  definitive  conclusion  of  UNESCO's   effectiveness  on  a  site  is  unnecessary.  Instead  the  authors  argue  that  the  World   Heritage  List  is  more  beneficial  to  sites  that  do  not  have  the  resources  to  conserve,   whereas  regional  and  national  heritage  lists  are  more  likely  to  benefit  sites  that  are   already  well-­‐visited  and  marketable,  and  also  where  a  UNESCO  designation  would   not  invoke  mass,  destructive  tourism.     Their  study  showed  that  there  is  a  need  and  want  for  education  and  awareness  that   can  be  achieved  through  marketing  initiatives  and  funding  programs  such  as   certification  for  sites.  This  should  increase  awareness  and  therefore  knowledge  of   conservation  management  at  the  sites.    While  the  article  makes  a  clear  and  concise   presentation  of  the  positive  and  negative  effects  of  UNESCO  designation  on  a  site,   the  argument  that  such  a  designation  is  more  beneficial  to  a  site  without  resources   raises  a  few  eyebrows.  Still,  it  reflects  a  contrary  view,  and  should  be  considered  in  a   complete  analysis  of  the  issue  of  UNESCO  designation  and  its  impact  on  the  site  and   surrounding  community.   “Funding.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .             Without  funding,  the  process  of  World  Heritage  preservation  and  protection  could   not  be  achieved.  This  page  discloses  the  ways  in  which  UNESCO  makes  and   distributes  money  for  specific  projects.     While  not  the  most  thorough  explanation  of  the  funding  process,  this  page  does   provide  insight  into  where  funding  comes  and  goes,  and  how  it  is  allocated.   Fyall,  Alan,  Brian  Garrod,  and  Anna  Leask.    Managing  Visitor  Attractions:  New   Directions.    Oxford:  Elsevier,  2003.     In  contrast  to  some  of  their  other  publications,  this  book  by  Fyall  and  Leask  (along   with  Garrod)  tackles  visitor  attractions  as  a  whole,  and  not  just  heritage  or  sensitive   attractions.    However,  there  is  a  section  devoted  to  World  Heritage  Sites  here.    The   authors  cover  the  nature  of  attractions,  development  of  attractions,  management,   marketing,  and  future  trends.       When  it  comes  to  attractions  and  marketing,  Fyall  and  Leask  seem  to  be  the   experts.    One  drawback  of  this  text  is  its  publication  date,  but  it  still  contains  relative   information  on  the  subject  matter  for  this  white  paper.    This  text  is  especially  useful   80  

in  discussing  world  heritage  attractions  in  the  context  of  brand  management  and   marketing.   Galis,  Allan.    “UNESCO  Documents  and  Procedure:  The  Need  to  Account  for  Political   Conflict  When  Designating  World  Heritage  Sites.”  Georgia  Journal  of  International   and  Comparative  Law.    38  (2009):  205-­‐235.     Through  an  explanation  of  the  World  Heritage  List  nomination  and  designation   process,  and  several  compelling  examples  of  sites  in  conflict  (in  Cambodia/Thailand,   Japan,  Israel/Palestine,  and  Democratic  Republic  of  the  Congo),  the  author  depicts   sites  in  danger  not  from  poor  management  or  lack  of  conservation,  but  from  strife   within  the  country  nominating  said  sites.     The  author's  intent  was  to  call  for  an  increased  consideration  of  political   circumstances  when  selecting  World  Heritage  Sites,  and  his  understanding  of  the   development  and  evolution  of  the  policies  and  procedures  surrounding  the  World   Heritage  List  add  strong  support  to  his  argument.    His  suggestions  for  procedural   improvement  are  well  argued  and  reasonable,  yet  his  calls  for  change  and   transparency  do  not  account  for  the  inherent  political  wrangling  it  would  take  to  do   so.     Gillespie,  Josephine.  “World  Heritage  Management:  Boundary  -­‐  Making  at  Angkor   Archaeological  Park,  Cambodia.”  Journal  of  Environmental  Planning  and   Management.  56  (2012):  286-­‐304.     Gillespie  explored  the  gaps  in  education  on  conservation  and  site  management  on   the  local  level  as  well  as  the  World  Heritage  Committee's  poor  communication  and   designation  skills  in  making  boundaries  for  the  archaeological  site  clear  for  the   professionals  and  locals  who  work  and  live  there.  Her  study  showed  that  those  who   worked  closely  on  the  designation  and  site-­‐management  team  had  a  greater   understanding  of  where  the  boundaries  were  as  well  as  what  to  conserve  and   protect  at  the  site.     The  study  proved  effective  in  demonstrating  the  educational  and  awareness  gaps   between  the  political  and  local  entities  at  Angkor  and  how  it  can  affect  conservation   efforts  at  the  site  and  the  livelihoods  of  the  people  who  live  and  work  there.  There   needs  to  be  an  all-­‐round  knowledge  of  where  the  site’s  jurisdiction  is  so  that  people   living  on  or  near  the  site  know  the  rules  for  living  and  working  there  as  well  as  the   tourists  so  that  they  don’t  invade  the  privacy  of  the  local  communities  when  visiting   the  site.           81  

Gilmore,  Audrey,  David  Carson,  and  Mário  Ascenção.    “Sustainable  Tourism  Marketing   at  a  World  Heritage  Site.”    Journal  of  Strategic  Marketing.    15  (2007):  253-­‐264.         This  study  of  marketing  at  the  Giant's  Causeway  World  Heritage  Site  in  Northern   Ireland  revealed  that  site  managers  and  other  stakeholders  demonstrated  a  lack  of   understanding  how  to  use  marketing,  and  particularly,  sustainable  tourism   marketing,  effectively.         The  study  adds  to  the  body  of  research  on  sustainable  tourism,  sustainable  tourism   marketing,  and  how  both  could  be  used  at  a  World  Heritage  Site.    Using  one  World   Heritage  Site  as  a  case  study  gave  the  research  a  focus  and  clarity,  and  replicating   the  research  in  future  studies  would  assess  the  validity  of  the  results.     “Global  Strategy.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .         The  Global  Strategy  was  launched  in  1994  to  balance  out  the  spread  of  World   Heritage  Sites  across  the  globe.  This  site  describes  in  detail  the  process  by  which  this   strategy  was  conceived  and  adopted,  its  on-­‐going  exercises  to  maintain  the  integrity   of  the  strategy,  and  provides  links  to  other  study  results,  meetings,  and  internal   progress  reports.     The  information  on  this  page  is  clear  and  insightful,  providing  a  base  with  which  one   can  begin  to  explore  the  criteria  for  designation  and  the  nomination  process.     Goodwin,  Dr.  Edward  J.    "The  World  Heritage  Convention,  the  Environment,  and   Compliance."    Colorado  Journal  of  International  Environmental  Law  and  Policy.    20   (2009):  157-­‐198.     Dr.  Goodwin's  comparative  analysis  revealed  that  the  World  Heritage  Committee   does  not  employ  non-­‐compliance  techniques  when  States  Party  members  fail  to   adhere  to  the  guidelines  and  mission  of  the  World  Heritage  Program.         Dr.  Goodwin's  primary  suggestion  seems  to  be  for  the  World  Heritage  Committee  to   act.    Simply  that.    He  makes  little  concession  for  the  fact  that  the  World  Heritage   Program,  while  governed  by  the  Committee  of  only  21  individuals,  every  member  of   the  General  Assembly  has  a  voice.    Recommending  that  the  World  Heritage   Committee  take  action  without  input  or  consultation  with  the  sovereign  voices  of   the  States  Parties  only  borrows  trouble  for  the  future.          

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Gross,  Michael.  “Fears  Over  New  Galapagos  Status.”  Current  Biology.  20  (2010):  R656-­‐ R657.     Gross'  short  article  on  the  loss  of  Galapagos'  place  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in   Danger  brings  to  light  the  educational  gaps  between  the  World  Heritage  Committee   and  the  industry  as  well  as  governments  on  what  being  added  and  removed  from   the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger  really  means.     Educational  gaps  in  labeling,  designation  and  branding  presents  significant   challenges  for  the  World  Heritage  Committee  and  the  World  Heritage  Program  in   managing  sites  and  thoroughly  protecting  and  preserving  the  sites.  If  there  is  a  lack   of  awareness  and  education  in  branding,  it  can  lead  to  the  lack  of  conservation   efforts  and  eventual  de-­‐valuation  of  World  Heritage  Sites.     Gunn,  Clare  A.,  and  Turgut  Var.  Tourism  Planning.  New  York  City:  Routledge  Taylor   and  Francis  Group,  2002.     This  book  was  used  in  the  Tourism  Planning  course  as  a  textbook  and  provides  a  lot   of  information  on  quality  tourism  planning  and  practices  that  benefit  all   stakeholders  on  the  economic,  environmental  and  cultural  level  through  the   minimizing  of  negative  impacts  in  these  areas  as  well  as  maximizing  the  benefits  for   these  areas  in  the  region  through  long-­‐term,  cooperative  tourism  development   planning.     This  book  proves  to  have  helpful  general  information,  statistics,  practices,  principles   and  theories  that  are  brought  about  through  case  studies  as  well  as  general   literature.       Hall,  Michael  C.  and  Rachel  Piggin.  “Tourism  Business  Knowledge  of  World  Heritage   Sites:  A  New  Zealand  Case  Study.”  International  Journal  of  Tourism  Research.  4   (2002):  401-­‐411.       The  seminal  study  by  Hall  and  Piggin  points  out  that  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Site   is  in  fact,  not  as  strong  a  brand  as  it  was  assumed  to  be.  In  the  communities   surrounding  two  World  Heritage  Sites  in  New  Zealand,  few  businesses  and  locals   knew  that  the  areas  were  designated  as  World  Heritage  Sites,  what  World  Heritage   Site  status  meant,  and  how  to  use  World  Heritage  Site  status  as  a  means  of   promotion.  The  study  demonstrates  significant  gaps  in  the  ability  of  the  organization   to  convey  its  message  at  the  simplest  level-­‐  to  the  stakeholders  directly  involved  in   the  sites.  The  study  exemplifies  the  need  of  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Program  to   strengthen  the  brand  and  market,  not  only  to  potential  tourists,  but  inwardly  to   stakeholders  as  well.      

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Hall  and  Piggin  present  an  eye-­‐opening  argument  and  a  new  view  onto  a  notion   most  assumed  to  be  true.  The  resulting  study  is  engaging,  well  written  and  well   argued.     Handwerk,  Brian.    “Injections  Could  Lift  Venice  12  Inches,  Study  Suggests.”     NationalGeographic.com,  12  January  2012.    Web.    28  April  2013.     This  article  discusses  the  problem  of  rising  waters  in  Venice,  and  the  proposal  to   inject  seawater  underneath  the  natural  foundation  of  the  city  and  raise  it  up.     Handwerk  goes  on  to  discuss  other  locations  where  this  practice  has  been  done;  he   also  presents  the  local  stakeholder  viewpoint  that  the  flooding  is  part  of  the   attraction  to  Venice,  and  that  to  locals,  the  flooding  is  not  a  problem.     The  article  presents  a  full  picture  of  the  situation  in  Venice  and  what  solutions  are   being  proposed  to  reverse  the  damage.     Hankinson,  Graham.    “Managing  Destination  Brands:  Establishing  a  Theoretical   Foundation.”    Journal  of  Marketing  Management.    25  (2009):  97-­‐115.     This  study  proposed  the  development  of  a  destination  branding  theory,  to   complement  the  theory  and  practice  of  destination  marketing.    Hankinson   conducted  both  a  literature  review  and  a  series  of  interviews  with  Senior  Managers   from  Destination  Marketing  Organizations,  and  found  five  tactics  that  cause   successful  destination  branding:  stakeholder  partnerships,  brand  leadership,   departmental  coordination,  brand  communications.     The  study  was  limited  due  to  sample  size,  but  it  added  to  the  existing  literature  on   the  topic,  of  which  there  was  currently  little.    Nevertheless,  the  findings  were  clear   and  well  presented,  and  are  worth  further  study.     Hankinson  P.  and  W.  Lomax.    “The  Effects  of  Re-­‐branding  Large  UK  charities  on  Staff   Knowledge,  Attitudes  and  Behavior.”  International  Journal  of  Nonprofits  and   Voluntary  Sector  Marketing.  11  (2006):  193-­‐207.     This  study  conducted  survey  of  465  charity  staff  in  10  large  UK  charities  in  2006  for   the  purpose  of  addressing  a  knowledge  gap  by  evaluating  the  effects  of  re-­‐branding   large  UK  charities  on  staff  knowledge,  attitudes  and  behavior.    The  study  found  that   the  impact  of  re-­‐branding  had  a  positive  effect  on  staff  knowledge  and  attitudes  all   levels,  making  them  feeling  more  motivated,  involved  and  valued  as  a  consequence.     However,  the  study  also  demonstrated  that  not  all  staff  feels  engaged  with  the  re-­‐ branding  process  for  the  organization  to  capitalize  fully  on  enhanced  staff   performance.    

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Despite  the  fact  that  results  of  this  study  based  on  10  UK  charities,  this  study   provided  very  a  detailed  examination  of  whether  and  how  rebranding  affects  charity   staff  in  terms  of  knowledge,  attitudes  and  behavior.  The  study  was  important,  first,   because  staff  play  a  pivotal  role  in  the  successful  delivery  of  its  services.    Second,   staffs  perform  a  vital  part  in  creating  and  managing  the  external  image.    Third,   because  rebranding  provides  staff  with  an  opportunity  to  re-­‐evaluate  the   organizational  focus  and  scope  against  a  background  of  change.  

  Hart,  Ted,  James  M.  Greenfield,  Steve  MacLaughlin,  and  Philip  H.  Geier,  Jr.  Internet  for   Nonprofits  Management  -­‐  Strategies,  Tools  and  Trade  Secrets.  Hoboken,  NJ:  Wiley,   2010.       This  book  is  a  comprehensive  discussion  on  how  new  technologies  can  be  used   effectively  by  nonprofit  organizations.    The  book  presents,  through  several  case   studies  and  chapter  written  by  leading  internet  professionals,  strategies  and  tools   for  nonprofit  to  manage  their  social  media  and  web  sites  to  better  their  internal   operations  as  well  as  the  communications  with  their  members  and  the  community.   Volunteer  recruitment,  donor  modeling,  website  design,  and  mobile  technology  are   some  of  the  areas  discussed  in  this  book.       This  text  is  an  important  contribution  on  social  media  and  Internet,  in  a  field  with   limited  scholar  research.  The  concepts  discussed  in  this  book  represent  an  important   contribution  to  how  Internet  can  generate  an  impact  on  nonprofit  organizations.     Harvey,  J.    “Benefit  Segmentation  for  Fund  Raisers.”  Journal  of  the  Academy  of   Marketing  Science.  18  (1990):  77-­‐86.     The  author  examined  the  applicability  of  benefit  segmentation  to  gift  giving  behavior   in  American  philanthropy.    Particular  attention  was  paid  to  the  Third  Independent   sector,  which  had  become  very  important  part  of  American  society  in  80’s  and  90’s.     The  results  of  this  study  had  practical  implications  for  managers  in  third  sector,   suggesting  that  the  essential  element  to  improving  the  fundraising  effectiveness  of   nonprofits  is  to  tailor  strategies  to  different  markets.    The  author  also  concluded   that  both  donor  and  community  based  socio-­‐economic  characteristics  were   important  descriptors  of  these  strategies.       The  study  provided  good  insights  in  understanding  the  charitable  exchange  by   examining  the  benefits  underling  such  transactions,  and  about  the  development  of   the  non-­‐profit  sector  and  its  fundraising  strategies  in  the  1980’s  and  1990’s  in   America.        

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“Historical  Monuments  of  Mtskheta.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    28  April  2013.     .   This  page  is  the  World  Heritage  Program's  full  and  thorough  physical  description  of   this  site,  the  historical  description,  and  other  facts.   The  presentation  is  academic,  the  text  not  easily  digestible,  the  layout  (a  giant  wall  of   text)  visually  unstimulating.    There  are  no  links  to  other  external  sources  about  the   monument,  and  the  links  to  information  about  the  ancient  monuments  of  Georgia,   and  the  Parliament  of  Georgia  are  missing.   Honigman,  Brian.  "100  Fascinating  Social  Media  Statistics  and  Figures  From  2012."  The   Huffington  Post.  TheHuffingtonPost.com,  29  Nov.  2012.  Web.  28  Apr.  2013.   .     Honigman’s  article  compiles  100  statistics  for  social  media  networks  including   Facebook,  Twitter,  Instagram,  Pinterest  and  Google+.  The  statistics  highlight  the   growing  public  reliance  on  the  social  media  networks  and  suggests  this  trend  is  one   that  will  continue.       The  compilation  by  Honigman  is  divided  by  social  media  platform  and  accordingly   very  easy  to  decipher  and  read.  The  statistics  presented  are  interesting,  thought   provoking,  and  relevant  to  the  current  consumer  landscape.       Hou,  J.,  L.  Du,  and  Z.  Tian.    “The  Effects  of  Nonprofit  Brand  Equity  on  Individual  Giving   Intention:  Mediating  by  the  Self-­‐Concept  of  Individual  Donor.”  International   Journal  of  Non-­‐Profit  Sector  Marketing.  14  (2009):  215-­‐229.     Non-­‐profit  organization  usually  rely  more  on  individual  donors  and  less  on  the   government  for  funding.  This  articles  studies  effects  of  nonprofit  organizational   brand  equity  and  individual  self-­‐concept  on  individual  giving  intention.  Authors   collected  393  valid  samples  in  China.  This  article  is  useful  for  practitioners  and   researchers  by  extending  our  knowledge  of  individual  giving  intention  and  self-­‐ concept  of  individual  donor.  Findings  of  this  research  has  reveled  influences  of  brand   personality,  brand  image,  and  brand  awareness  of  the  nonprofit  organization  has   positive  direct  impact  on  individual  giving  intention.    Practical  implicating  of  this   research  is  that  it  suggests  the  relevance  of  the  brand  equity  construct  as  a  tool  for   managers  in  nonprofit  organizations  coping  with  scarce  resources.  Despite  that  this   research  provided  useful  insights  in  the  examined  subject,  it  still  has  some   limitations.       The  research  was  conducted  in  China;  therefore,  it  is  difficult  to  generalize  the   results  because  traditional  culture,  utilitarianism  and  other  factors  tend  to  influence   individuals  giving  behavior.  Additionally,  there  are  many  different  kinds  of  nonprofits   86  

and  their  mission  and  values  are  also  different,  this  difference  can  also  influence   donor  preferences.     HubSpot.  “The  2012  State  of  Inbound  Marketing:  2012  Report  on  Inbound  Marketing   Practices  and  Trends.”  4  (2012):  1-­‐42.       This  survey  conducted  by  inbound  marketing  specialists  HubSpot  analyzed  the   responses  of  972  business  professionals  to  determine  the  current  state  of  marketing   practices.  The  study  found  that  the  trend  in  marketing  is  going  towards  the  use  of   inbound  strategies,  which  are  both  more  effective  in  reach  and  cost.  Additionally,   the  study  determined  that  social  media  has  become  the  most  important  in  bound   marketing  technique  for  businesses,  as  the  various  networks  generate  the  most  new   customer  leads.       The  data  presented  in  the  report  was  straightforward,  fascinating  and  engaging.  The   use  of  simple  text  combined  with  visually  compelling  infographics  communicated   hundreds  of  statistics  in  an  easy  to  comprehend  manner.       HubSpot.  “The  2013  State  of  Inbound  Marketing:  HubSpot’s  Fifth  Annual  Review  of   Inbound  Marketing  Trends  and  Tactics.”  5  (2013):  1-­‐175.         The  fifth  Annual  Report  by  HubSpot  on  the  state  of  inbound  marketing  revealed  the   trends  towards  inbound  techniques  are  continually  growing  at  a  rapid  rate.  Not  only   are  more  businesses  using  inbound  marketing  strategies  for  promotion,  the  reliance   on  these  techniques  within  businesses  is  expanding  as  well.  The  high  return  on   investment  from  these  strategies  is  the  reason  behind  the  fast  growth  of    inbound   marketing  programs.  The  study  includes  data  received  from  over  3,300  international   “executives,  business  owners,  and  marketers”.         As  with  the  2012  report,  this  review  of  inbound  marketing  was  presented  clearly   through  interesting  facts  and  statistics,  laid  out  clearly  through  simple  text  and   engaging  graphics.       Ingenhoff,  Diana,  and  A.  Martina  Koelling.  “The  Potential  of  Web  Sites  as  a   Relationship  Building  Tool  for  Charitable  Fundraising  NPOs.”  Public  Relations   Review.  35  (2009):  66-­‐73.       This  paper  examines  the  potential  of  Websites  and  online  communication  tools  to   help  nonprofit  organizations  to  achieve  a  two-­‐way  communication  with  their   contributors.  The  research  method  investigated,  via  content  analysis,  134  Swiss   nonprofit  organizations.  Findings  showed  that  the  potential  of  the  internet  to   generate  dialogic  communications  was  not  used  properly.  Organizations  are  not   using  chat  room,  forums,  surveys  or  other  tools  to  generate  communication.  

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However,  organizations  were  aware  of  the  need  to  better  communicate  as  they   were  replying  requests  from  potential  donors  or  media.     This  study  is  an  important  contribution  for  the  topic  of  two-­‐way  communication  with   potential  donors.  The  main  concept  of  generating  dialogic  communication  is  very   important  for  all  type  of  organizations.  Although  the  author  does  not  mention  social   media  as  one  of  the  communication  tools,  this  can  be  explained  by  smaller  use  of   these  tools  in  2007  (when  the  research  was  implemented).  However  social  media   clearly  appears  as  one  of  the  answers  for  the  communication  problem  stated  in  this   study.       Ingenhoff,  Diana,  and  A.  Martina  Koelling.  “Web  Sites  as  a  Dialogic  Tool  for  Charitable   Fundraising  NPOs:  A  Comparative  Study.”  International  Journal  of  Strategic   Communication.    4  (2010):  171-­‐188.       This  paper  studies  how  nonprofit  organizations  (often  with  a  limited  budget)  can  use   their  websites  strategically  to  communicate  with  their  stakeholders.  The  authors   analyzed  how  charitable  fundraising  in  Germany  and  Switzerland  used  their  websites   for  dialogic  communications  with  donors  and  media.  Findings  showed  that  while   nonprofit  organizations  provided  well-­‐designed  websites,  they  were  failing  to   engage  the  public  in  dialogue.  New  trends  such  as  blogs  or  podcast  were  not  being   implemented.  Additionally  the  study  shows  that  donors  were  being  addressed  with   the  information  in  the  websites  but  not  the  media.       This  paper  presents  a  broad  study  in  Switzerland  and  Germany  about  nonprofit   organizations’  websites.  Lack  of  dialogic  communication  is  founded  in  both   countries.  Additionally,  little  information  to  media  is  presented  as  one  of  the  aspect   to  improve.  Podcasts  and  blogs  are  presented  as  alternative  for  improving   communication.  It  is  possible  to  conclude  that  social  media  would  have  been  the   next  most  likely  recommendation.       “International  Assistance.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .     As  a  crucial  part  of  the  funding  process,  UNESCO  makes  available  emergency   assistance  to  those  sites  and  State  Parties  who  request  it.    This  page  provides  a  brief   explanation  of  the  process,  and  provides  links  to  additional  information  and  the   application  process.     The  entry  page  merely  provides  an  overview  on  the  application  process,  but  it  is   transparent  in  the  fact  that  it  is  only  a  portal,  and  the  links  to  the  additional   information  are  clear  and  visible.     Interviewee  A.    Personal  Interview  (Semi-­‐Structured).    19  March  2013.     88  

  Interviewee  A  is  a  high-­‐level  staff  member  at  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Center.     He  provided  detailed  background  information  about  the  nomination  and  designation   process,  and  indicated  that  designation  process  was  not  only  about  identifying  the   “Outstanding  Universal  Value”  of  a  potential  site,  but  about  developing  a   comprehensive  management  plan.    Interviewee  A  stated  that  while  the  World   Heritage  Convention  is  best  global  strategy  for  sustainable  development  at  heritage   sites,  balancing  conservation  efforts  among  all  962  sites  on  the  World  Heritage  List  is   a  challenge.    Cultural  differences  and  the  infeasibility  of  a  one-­‐size-­‐fits-­‐all  approach   are  key  setbacks.    He  also  acknowledged  that  changing  policy  is  a  long  and   cumbersome  process  due  to  having  the  sovereign  parties  ratify  any  changes.     Interviewee  A  also  emphasized  that  one  of  the  biggest  challenges  facing  the  World   Heritage  Program  is  a  lack  of  financial  resources,  particularly  as  the  World  Heritage   List  grows  so  rapidly.     Interviewee  A  demonstrated  reserve  at  the  beginning  of  the  interview,  but  over  the   course  of  the  45  minutes,  he  became  more  relaxed  with  the  research  team  and   opened  up  to  answer  the  questions  actively  and  in  an  engaged  manner.     Interviewee  B.  Personal  Interview  (Scoping).  10  April  2013.     This  interview  was  with  an  expert  in  hospitality  and  destination  branding  and   marketing.  As  a  scoping  interview,  Interviewee  B  provided  background  on  this  area   of  expertise.  A  key  part  of  the  interview  was  the  discussion  of  the  struggle  of  World   Heritage  Sites  and  other  cultural  destinations,  between  tourism  and  conservation,   and  balancing  on  that  fine  line.       The  interviewee  is  an  expert  in  their  field,  but  is  less  familiar  with  UNESCO  and   World  Heritage  Sites.  They  provided  some  insight  into  how  to  approach  the   complicated  issue  of  advising  the  body  of  UNESCO’s  World  Heritage  Convention,  but   since  they  have  not  worked  with  an  “intra-­‐national”  body  such  as  this,  they  admitted   that  their  knowledge  was  somewhat  limited.     Interviewee  C.    Personal  Interview  (Scoping).    5  April  2013.     Interviewee  C  is  a  hospitality  and  tourism  marketing  expert  who  discussed  at  length   her  experience  in  the  industry,  and  shared  her  expertise  in  branding  both   destinations  and  specific  tourism  entities.    She  offered  suggestions  about  how  the   World  Heritage  Program  can  engage  in  marketing,  and  specifically  modern   marketing  techniques  such  as  social  media  interaction,  to  promote  the  Program  and   educate  the  public  at  large  about  the  meaning  of  World  Heritage  Site  designation.    

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Interviewee  C  was  candid  about  her  lack  of  understanding  of  the  World  Heritage   Program,  and  was  emphatic  that  “it  has  to  mean  something.”    Her  candor  was   tremendously  valuable,  and  her  suggested  tactics  and  courses  of  action  were  sound.     Interviewee  D.    Personal  Interview  (Semi-­‐Structured).    21  March  2013.       Interviewee  D  is  a  respected  expert  in  Tourism  Development,  who  agreed  to  an   interview  where  she  discussed  the  importance  of  awareness  of  the  World  Heritage   Program  and  how  many  global  citizens  do  not  know  anything  about  the  Program,   the  mission  of  the  Program,  and  what  they  –  the  citizens  –  themselves  can  do  to  aid   in  conservation  efforts.    She  discussed  the  importance  of  social  media  strategies  and   how  creating  one  could  help  the  World  Heritage  Program  to  increase  awareness  of   the  Program  and  educate  stakeholders  about  the  mission  and  why  that  mission  is   important.   The  subject  articulated  her  opinions  and  recommendations  in  a  manner  that  was  as   candid  as  it  was  engaging,  and  based  on  her  experiences  with  her  clients  from   around  the  world.   Interviewee  E.    Personal  Interview  (Semi-­‐Structured).    11  March  2013.       Interviewee  E  is  an  academic  professional  with  real-­‐world  experience  as  a  tourism   development  consultant  who  spoke  about  the  implementation  of  education  and   capacity-­‐building  programs.    Education  and  capacity-­‐building  programs  allow  local   communities  and  citizens  to  be  more  involved  and  educated  in  tourism  management   and  conservation  at  the  sites.    The  subject  also  discussed  how  there  is  a  lack  of   awareness  and  understanding  of  the  purpose  of  the  World  Heritage  Program  on  a   global  level.   The  subject  was  passionate  and  comfortable  with  the  interview  team.  She  was   engaging  and  candid  and  provided  many  insights  and  well-­‐articulated  suggestions   that  allowed  the  research  team  to  shift  its  focus  towards  marketing  in  order  to   increase  awareness  of  the  World  Heritage  Program,  which  would  in  turn  enable   more  community  engagement  and  involvement  with  local  heritage.     Interviewee  F.    Personal  Interview  (Semi-­‐Structured).    12  March  2013.     Interviewee  F  is  an  expert  in  the  field  of  heritage  conservation  and  preservation.     Despite  over  three  decades  of  experience,  he  admitted  to  a  lack  of  understanding  of   the  World  Heritage  Program.    He  discussed  openly  his  opinion  on  the  Program  from   his  pseudo-­‐outsider's  perspective  which,  despite  what  he  indicated  he  believed,  was   reflective  of  many  findings  related  to  lack  of  awareness  of  and  education  about  the   World  Heritage  Program.      

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Interviewee  F  was  guarded  and  lacked  confidence  in  his  ability  to  discuss  the  World   Heritage  Program.    While  he  was  vocally  forceful  and  candid  in  his  call  for  more   transparency  as  to  what  the  Program  means,  how  it  operates,  and  why  the  Program   matters,  his  body  language  reflected  an  apologetic  state,  as  if  he  were  fearful  of   being  quoted  publicly,  despite  being  aware  that  he  could  remain  anonymous.    Once   off  the  record  at  the  end  of  the  scripted  interview,  he  became  even  more  candid.       “Introducing  UNESCO:  What  We  Are.”    UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.                                                                 .       This  page  summarizes  UNESCO's  mission  and  goals  for  global  dialogue  and  peace  for   all.    Links  are  provided  to  specific  information  about  UNESCO's  broader  program   (outside  of  World  Heritage  Sites).     Because  UNESCO  is  not  solely  World  Heritage  preservation,  it  is  important  to   understand  the  greater  breadth  of  their  policies,  and  the  layout  of  the  links  are  clear   and  easily  navigable.    However,  the  contrast  between  the  UNESCO  website  and  that   of  the  World  Heritage  Program  is  striking  in  terms  of  navigability,  layout,  and  overall   clarity.     Jacobsen,  Jens  Kr.  Steen  and  Ana  Maria  Munar.  “Tourist  Information  Search  and   Destination  Choice  in  a  Digital  Age”  Tourism  Management  Perspectives.  1  (2012):   39-­‐47.       Jacobsen  and  Munar  study  the  impacts  of  digital  information  on  destination  choice   specifically  to  Majorca.  Through  self-­‐reported  data  collected  via  questionnaire,  the   researchers  found  there  to  be  a  high  reliance  on  the  Internet  as  a  source  of   destination  information  as  well  as  a  critical  importance  on  word-­‐of-­‐mouth   knowledge.     Though  the  study  was  boring  to  read,  the  information  the  article  contains  is   important  for  studies  in  the  contemporary,  digital  age.       Jimura,  Takamitsu.  “The  Impact  of  World  Heritage  Site  Designation  on  Local   Communities  -­‐  A  Case  Study  of  Ogimachi,  Shirakawa-­‐mura,  Japan.”  Tourism   Management.  32  (2011):  288-­‐296.     Jimura’s  study  focused  on  the  good  and  bad  conservation  efforts  taking  place  at  this   particular  World  Heritage  Site  in  Japan.  He  found  that  the  people  wanted  to  target   to  a  specific  group  of  tourist,  namely  domestic,  to  decrease  traffic  to  the  site  since  it   had  grown  after  being  designated  a  World  Heritage  Site.  They  did  not  know  how  to   engage  in  target  marketing,  however,  and  the  political  bodies  demonstrated  poor   communication  with  the  locals  in  what  to  conserve  and  in  establishing  boundaries   91  

for  the  site.  Many  locals  complained  about  invasion  of  privacy  from  the  tourists  and   the  WHC  complained  about  a  decrease  in  conservation  efforts  because  the  site  itself   was  not  being  maintained,  however,  Japanese  culture  seeks  to  conserve  the  “spirit”   of  the  site  more  so  that  the  actual  site  itself.       Jimura’s  fascinating  study  showed  that  there  are  gaps  in  communication,  awareness   and  education  on  the  local  level,  but  that  they  wish  to  learn  more  about  World   Heritage  Site  status  and  designation  and,  especially,  how  to  manage  and  protect  the   site  through  tourism  marketing  strategies.    The  study  demonstrated  a  need  and   want  for  locals  and  other  stakeholders  to  communicate  and  work  together  and   educate  each  other  in  cultural  sensitivities  as  well  as  tourism  implementation  efforts   and  designation  of  World  Heritage  Site  status  at  the  site.  

  Kaltenborn,  Bjorn  P.,  Jorn  Thomassen,  Line  C.  Wold,  John  D.C.  Linnell  and  Birgitte  Skar.   “World  Heritage  Status  as  a  Foundation  for  Building  Local  Futures?  A  Case  Study   from  Vega  in  Central  Norway.”  Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.  21  (2013):  99-­‐116.     Kaltenborn  et  al.  examine  the  conflict  between  heritage  conservation  and   community  needs.  As  rural  communities  look  to  use  their  heritage  as  a  means  for   economic  development,  there  comes  a  tradeoff  between  industry  demands,  World   Heritage  Site  designation,  and  local  desire.  While  tourists  want  to  experience  these   areas  in  their  “authentic”  state,  many  community  members  often  feel  designation   and  tourism  should  not  limit  other  arenas  of  development.       This  conflict  between  tourism  development  and  the  local  community  is  important   for  UNESCO  to  understand  when  cultivating  sustainable  management  strategies  at   World  Heritage  Sites  that  benefit  both  tourists  and  prioritize  the  needs  of  the  local   community.  Although  insightful  and  useful  to  the  field  of  research  on  World  Heritage   Site  designation  and  the  local  community,  the  article  by  Kaltenborn  et  al.  was  dry   and  difficult  to  read.     Kanani,  Rahim.    “Branding  for  Nonprofits:  New  Research,  New  Insights.”  Forbes.com,   01  March  2012.  Web.  28  April  2013.     Mr.  Kanani's  interview  with  Nathalie  Kylander,  a  noted  scholar  in  the  field  of  non-­‐ profit  branding,  discussed  how  non-­‐profits  can  use  strategic  brand  management  to   help  achieve  long  term  goals,  and  create  cohesive  internal  identity.         The  interview  was  insightful,  well  presented,  and  easy  to  digest.    By  choosing  to   present  the  interview  on  Forbes.com,  the  writing  was  clear  and  accessible,  decidedly   not  academic.    

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Keitumetse,  Susan  O.  “Sustainable  Development  and  Cultural  Heritage  Management   in  Botswana:  Towards  Sustainable  Communities.”  Sustainable  Development.  19   (2011):  49-­‐59.     Using  the  principles  of  sustainability  outlined  in  the  1992  Rio  Declaration,   Keitumetse  suggests  community  participation  is  especially  relevant  to  the   management  of  cultural  heritage  tourism  destinations.  Keitumetse  argues   communities  are  critical  to  development  as  they  are  the  custodians  of  culture  and   the  people  who  interact  with  tourists  on  a  daily  and  intimate  basis.  By  focusing  on   cultural  heritage  tourism  development  in  Botswana,  Keitumetse  is  able  to  illustrate   the  needs  of  host  communities  in  the  developing  world  and  in  a  region  primed  to   become  an  increasingly  important  player  in  the  tourism  field.       As  UNESCO’s  World  Heritage  Program  looks  to  more  evenly  distribute  inscripted   sites  across  countries  and  continents,  knowledge  of  Africa  and  African  community   needs  will  be  increasingly  important  to  the  program  guidelines.  Keitumetse’s   argument  is  brief  but  clear,  and  effectively  argues  the  connection  of  communities  to   sustainable  tourism  development.           Keough,  Elizabeth.  “Heritage  in  Peril:  A  Critique  of  UNESCO’s  World  Heritage   Program.”  Washington  University  Global  Studies  Law  Review.  10  (2011):  593-­‐615.                                 In  this  article,  the  author  investigates  UNESCO’s  World  Heritage  Program,  which  has   created  a  culture  of  economic  and  political  quagmires  rather  than  cooperation  and   preservation.  The  author  addresses  the  problematic  effects  of  the  program  and   identifies  ways  in  which  some  of  those  effects  can  be  mitigated.  She  suggests  that   this  will  result  in  restoring  some  of  the  noble  ideas  upon  which  the  World  Heritage   Program  was  founded.  The  article  focuses  on  the  legal  and  procedural  problems  of   the  World  Heritage  Convention’s  Operational  Guidelines  that  cause  ineffective   implementation  of  policy  and  derail  the  World  Heritage  Program  from  its  goal.    The   author  posited  that  necessary  organizational  and  structural  reforms,  of  an  out-­‐of-­‐ control  bureaucracy  such  as  UNESCO  and  the  World  Heritage  Convention,  will   strengthen  the  World  Heritage  Program’s  commitment  to  conservation  and  send  the   message  that  the  World  Heritage  Convention  is  the  premier  global  organization   dedicated  to  protect  the  best  of  nature  and  of  man.                                                         This  article  provides  clear  and  well-­‐argued  insights  into  understanding  the   organizational  structure  and  operation  of  UNESCO,  and  its  relationship  to  the  World   Heritage  Convention.          

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Kylander,  N.,  J.  Quelch,  and  B.  Simonin.    “Building  and  Valuing  Global  Brands  in  the   Nonprofit  Sector.”  Nonprofit  Management  and  Leadership.  17  (2007):  253-­‐277.     The  growing  interest  in  branding  has  captured  the  attention  of  nonprofit  leaders.   The  multiple  roles  and  stakeholders  that  international  nonprofit  brands  must   address  make  nonprofit  brand  building  complex  and  challenging.  In  their  research   authors  investigated  topic  how  and  if  nonprofit  brand  building  differs  from  for-­‐profit   brand  building.  Unlike  other  studies,  which  stresses  importance  of  branding  for   nonprofits,  authors  examined  value  and  role  of  brand  for  nonprofit  organizations.       The  merit  of  this  study  is  that  it  draws  some  strategic  lessons  on  brand  building  and   brand  valuation  activities  of  international  nonprofits.  It  adds  more  knowledge  on  the   strategic  role  and  relevance  of  brands  for  international  nonprofit  organizations.  Also,   this  study  provides  nonprofit  leaders  and  managers  with  some  practical  insights  in   their  understanding  of  brand  building  activities  from  best  practices  in  the  field.     Landorf,  Christine.  “Managing  for  Sustainable  Tourism:  A  Review  of  Six  Cultural  World   Heritage  Sites.”  Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.  17  (2009):  53-­‐70.     In  her  article,  Landorf  examines  tourism  development  at  cultural  World  Heritage   Sites.  She  highlights  the  importance  of  cogent  management  plans  to  the  ultimate   viability  of  cultural  World  Heritage  Sites  through  the  exploration  of  six   geographically  diverse  designations.  As  tourism  and  interest  in  World  Heritage  Sites   continues  to  grow,  Landorf  notes  the  importance  of  community  education  and   involvement  in  development  activities  in  World  Heritage  Site  locations  as  being   integral  to  their  ultimate  success.  A  major  deficiency  noted  in  the  plans  examined   was  the  lack  of  detail  and  definition  of  the  relationship  community  stakeholders   should  have  with  the  sites.       This  clearly  written  article  provides  valuable  information  on  the  topic  of  World   Heritage  Site  tourism  development  and  the  impacts  development  has  on  host   communities.       Larkins,  Karen.    “Endangered  Site:  Port  City  of  Coro,  Venezuela.”   SmithsonianMag.com,  March  2009.    Web.    28  April  2009.     This  Smithsonian  article  from  March  2009  declares  that  Coro  is  fading  and  failing.     Though  allocated  $32  million  to  put  towards  restoration  and  preservation  purposes,   the  Venezuelan  government  has  seemingly  done  nothing  to  help.    This  inaction   ultimately  led  to  Coro  being  placed  on  the  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger,  where  it   has  remained  since  2005.     Though  slightly  dated,  this  article  provides  a  deeper  level  of  detail  to  supplement   other  information  on  the  city  of  Coro.  The  layout  is  simple;  the  photographs  are   94  

lovely.    The  point  of  view  is  unbiased,  and  effectively  discusses  the  problems  that  a   particular  World  Heritage  Site  is  facing.       Lau,  Geok  Theng  and  Sook  Han  Lee.  “Consumer’s  Trust  in  a  Brand  and  the  Link  to   Brand  Loyalty”  Journal  of  Market-­‐Focused  Management.  4  (1999):  341-­‐370.       The  study  by  Lau  and  Lee  examines  the  effect  of  consumer  trust  in  a  brand  on  brand   loyalty.    They  found  that  brand  characteristics  were  essential  in  building  a  strong   brand  company,  that  is  all  programs  tied  under  one  brand  umbrella  effect  company   image  on  the  whole.  Lau  and  Lee  also  discovered  that  if  consumers  had  trust  in  the   brand,  they  were  likely  to  be  loyal  long-­‐term  customers.       The  findings  in  this  study  were  presented  in  a  straightforward,  easy  to  follow   manner.  At  times,  however,  the  article  was  boring  due  to  the  high  usage  of  technical   verbiage.       Lauer,  L.  “  How  to  Use  a  Total  Marketing  Approach  to  Renew  Your  Organization  and   Make  an  Impact.”    Nonprofit  World.  13  (1995):  51-­‐55.     Despite  the  fact  that  public  relations,  marketing,  and  advertising  had  become   professional  specialization  areas  in  1995,  the  author  argued  that  non-­‐profits  needed   to  plan  strategically  and  view  these  functions  as  parts  of  an  integrated  whole.    To   meet  the  challenges  of  time  and  revitalize  organization,  the  paper  suggested  ten   specific  elements  that  needed  to  be  included  in  the  total  marketing  plan  of  non-­‐ profits:  an  identity  positioning  theme,  a  visibility  program,  interaction  with  target   audiences,  a  set  of  bold  initiatives,  employee  orientation  programs,  creative  task   force,  a  volunteer  steering  committee,  a  fundraising  campaign,  and  the  synergy  of  all   elements  working  together.       Though  paper  was  written  in  1995,  it  provides  useful  recommendations  that  still   resonate  for  contemporary  nonprofit  organizations.     Leask,  Anna  and  Alan  Fyall  (eds.).  Managing  World  Heritage  Sites.  Oxford:  Elsevier,   2006.       Managing  World  Heritage  Sites  breaks  down  a  complicated  subject  into  three  major   parts:  the  management  of  sites,  revenue,  and  strategy.    The  authors  first  give  a  brief   introduction  to  the  subject  of  World  Heritage  Sites  before  delving  into  those  three   topics,  and  then  afterward  there  are  nine      separate  case  studies  to  highlight  the   authors’  points.       Though  a  bit  dated,  the  book  contains  solid,  foundational  information  for  academic   research  on  World  Heritage  Sites.    The  authors  make  the  material  manageable  by   dividing  it  into  smaller,  comprehensible  pieces,  making  it  easier  to  digest  all  of  this   95  

information.    The  case  studies  at  the  end  are  very  helpful,  and  cover  most  of  the   continents;,  however,  a  case  study  on  Africa  is  nowhere  to  be  found.  The  authors   missed  an  opportunity  here  to  make  the  book  more  representative  of  the  World   Heritage  List,  but  part  of  this  absence  may  be  due  to  the  date  of  publication.     Lee,  Ean.    “World  Heritage  Site  Status:  Boon  or  Bane?”  The  Newsletter,  Summer  2010.   54:6-­‐9.  Web.  9  April  2013.     This  article  discusses  the  processes  by  which  Dresden  and  the  Oman  Oryx  Sanctuary   came  to  be  de-­‐listed  by  the  World  Heritage  Committee.    The  Oman  scenario  is   particularly  vile,  having  intentionally  destroyed  the  animal  sanctuary  in  order  to  drill   for  oil.         The  limitations  of  the  World  Heritage  Committee  are  never  more  evident  than  here.     Both  the  Dresden  and  Oman  situations  illuminate  the  powerlessness  the  World   Heritage  Committee  has  against  governmental  wants  and  needs.         Licciardi,  Guido  and  Rana  Amirtahmasebi  (eds.),  “The  Economics  of  Uniqueness:   Investing  in  Historic  City  Cores  and  Cultural  Heritage  Assets  for  Sustainable   Development.”  Urban  Development  Series:  The  World  Bank.  Washington  D.C.:  The   World  Bank,  2012.                                                                                                                                         The  World  Bank  document  covers  an  array  of  economic  implications  in  World   Heritage  Sites  for  UNESCO  and  measures  and  well  as  analyzes  that  the  economic   metrics  are  for  the  Heritage  Sites  in  case  studies  from  around  the  globe  as  well  as   basic  concepts  of  sustainable  tourism  management  at  these  sites.       This  document  is  very  useful  in  its  economic  statistical  information  and  provides   important  and  relevant  case  studies  on  historic  cities  and  World  Heritage  Sites  for   UNESCO  to  improve  upon  in    order    for  them    to  be  and    remain  sustainable  for   tourism  ventures  to  come.                                                                                                                         Liechti,  Karina,  Astrid  Wallner,  and  Urs  Wiesmann.  “Linking  a  World  Heritage  Site  to   Sustainable  Regional  Development-­‐  Contested  Natures  in  a  Local  Negotiation   Process.”  Society  and  Natural  Resources.  23  (2010):  726-­‐741.     Liechti  et  al.  explore  the  various  views  of  nature  at  World  Heritage  Sites.  Through   their  examination,  the  authors  highlight  the  various  and  sometimes  conflicting  roles   and  views  of  stakeholders  throughout  the  development  process.  Additionally,  they   illustrate  the  varying  ideologies  and  perceptions  of  nature  stakeholders  may  have   according  to  cultural  background  and  geography.  Their  study  was  able  to  conclude   that  the  majority  of  tourism  communities,  specifically  those  at  World  Heritage  Sites,   value  authority  and  control  over  their  region,  expressed  through  their  involvement   in  community  development  plans.     96  

  The  article,  though  somewhat  verbose,  relatively  dry  and  occasionally  hard  to   follow,  was  however,  filled  with  useful  information  regarding  community   development  in  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Site  tourism  development.       Long,  Mary  M.,  and  Larry  Chiagouris.  “The  Role  of  Credibility  in  Shaping  Attitudes   Toward  Nonprofit  Websites.”  International  Journal  of  Nonprofit  and  Voluntary   Sector  Marketing.  11  (2006):  239-­‐249.     Long  and  Chiagouris’s  papers  examines  whether  online  communications  concepts  in   the  for-­‐profit  sector  are  applicable  to  the  non-­‐profit  sector.  262  adults  in  a  major   metropolitan  area  of  the  Northeast  United  States  were  surveyed  to  measure  their   reaction  after  visiting  two  major  nonprofit  websites:  American  Cancer  Society  and   American  Red  Cross.  Findings  showed  that  even  though  both  organizations  were   considered  in  a  same  level  of  “well  respected,”  American  Red  Cross  has  better   ratings  on  credibility  variables  because  of  a  better  design  in  its  website.    Elements   like  “looks  professionally  design,”  “easy  to  browse,”  and  “user  friendly”  were  some   of  the  elements  were  American  Red  Cross  obtained  higher  ratings.  The  paper  found   a  high  correlation  between  these  variables  and  credibility.       This  paper  represents  a  good  discussion  on  the  relevance  of  for-­‐profit  concepts  into   the  non-­‐profit  sector.  Despite  the  reputation  gained  by  non-­‐profit  organizations  over   the  years,  their  website  needs  to  convince  their  audience  again  to  maintain  or   improve  its  credibility.       Madden,  Michelle  and  Robert  Shipley.  “An  Analysis  of  the  Literature  at  the  Nexus  of   Heritage,  Tourism,  and  Local  Economic  Development.”  Journal  of  Heritage   Tourism.  7  (2012):  103-­‐112.     Madden  and  Shipley  take  a  critical  eye  to  the  current  scholarship  on  heritage   tourism  and  the  impacts  on  the  development  of  host  communities.  By  looking  at   contemporary  research,  they  are  able  to  identify  themes  of  study  that  link  the   above.  They  conclude  that  rural  and  developing  communities  have  a  harder  time   preparing  for  and  adjusting  to  tourism  development  but  proper  research  can  help   prevent  communities  to  succumbing  to  the  pitfalls  of  development.       The  article  by  Madden  and  Shipley  was  both  enriching  and  brief.  By  exploring  the   current  literature  on  the  fields  of  heritage,  tourism,  and  development  they  are  able   to  highlight  important  development  themes  that  are  useful  to  the  study  of  tourism   at  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites.          

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Martin,  Steven  R.,  “Donations  as  an  Alternative  to  Wilderness  User  Fees—The  Case  of   the  Desolation  Wilderness.”  United  Sates  Department  of  Agriculture.  Forest   Service  Proceedings.  Rocky  Mountain  Research  Station.  15  (2000):  142-­‐147.     This  research  studied  how  voluntary  donations  behavior  are  affected  for  two  main   factors:  characteristics,  attitudes,  and  perceptions  of  the  donors  (with  respect  to  the   soliciting  organization),  and  effectiveness  of  the  solicitations  techniques.  1264   questionnaires  were  made  to  day-­‐user  visitors  of  the  Desolation  Wilderness.  Main   findings  showed  that  potential  contributors’  perceptions  of  the  role  and  image  of   the  soliciting  organization  are  critical.  Additionally,  organizations  need  to  convince   potential  donors  of  the  need  of  their  donations,  and  that  the  money  contributed  will   be  used  correctly.  Additionally,  Martin  founds  that  in  terms  of  solicitation   techniques,  promising  matching  funds  will  increase  the  individual  donations.     This  paper  represents  an  important  source  in  the  voluntary  donation  field.  The  study   provides  remarkable  insights  about  donors’  behavior  that  need  to  be  considered  by   organizations  if  they  expect  to  increase  donations.         “Member  States.”  UNESCO.org.  24  February  2013.   .     This  page  explores  the  varying  levels  of  UNESCO's  membership,  the  highest  level   being  a  Member  State.     Understanding  UNESCO's  complex  membership  structure  can  be  overwhelming,  and   this  clutter  of  links  to  sub-­‐division  after  sub-­‐division  does  little  to  clarify.         Meskell,  Lynn.  “The  Rush  to  Inscribe  Reflections  on  the  35th  Session  of  the  World   Heritage  Committee,  UNESCO  Paris,  2011.”  Journal  of  Field  Archeology.  37  (2012):   145-­‐151.     As  an  anthropology  professor  at  Stanford  University,  Lynn  Meskell  wished  delved   deeper  into  the  inner-­‐workings  of  the  WHC  and  how  it  operates,  especially  in   designating  World  Heritage  Site  status  to  different  sites  and  countries  around  the   world.  She  complained  of  how  she  and  others  in  her  profession  were  not  aware  of   the  proceedings  and  what  it  really  meant  to  be  a  World  Heritage  Site.  She  found  that   countries  may  have  management  and  conservation  plans  in  place  as  well  as  capacity   building  programs  but  there  are  discrepancies  between  the  advisory  bodies  and  the   member  states,  as  well  as  within  the  advisory  bodies.  There  were  complaints  of   “Eurocentrism”  and  this  caused  many  of  the  under-­‐developed  regions  to  side  with   one  another  and  the  developed  regions  to  side  accordingly  in  debates.  This  caused  

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extreme  bias  and  created  a  very  long  and  complicated  process  for  the  state  bodies   to  petition  for  World  Heritage  Site  status.       Meskell’s  study  demonstrated  the  complicated  and  bureaucratic  nature  of  the  policy   system  and  how  unfeasible  it  is  to  try  to  change  it.  These  proceedings  take  place   behind  closed  doors  where  members  of  the  public,  local  communities  of  the  sites,   and  other  stakeholders  in  tourism  for  World  Heritage  Site  cannot  know  what  the   political  processes  are.  The  exclusivity  of  the  procedure  as  well  as  the  poor   communication  and  lack  of  education  across  the  different  entities  that  make  up  the   World  Heritage  Site,  as  well  as  the  poor  distribution  of  funds  makes  conservation   efforts  in  potential  World  Heritage  Site  impossible  to  achieve.         Mihaita,  Gigi  and  Sebe,  Mihai.    “How  to  Brand  an  International  Organization.  NATO   Case  Study”.    6th  Edition  of  the  International  Conference  European  Integration,   Realities  and  Perspectives.    563-­‐567.     In  the  last  decade,  NATO  has  developed  their  own  public  relations  department  in  an   attempt  to  communicate  promptly  and  transmit  the  general  audience  their  version   of  reality.    In  this  article,  the  authors  presented  that  the  main  reasons  why  they   believe  that  the  international  organizations,  NATO  in  particular,  have  started  to  see   themselves  as  brand  and  to  create  a  so  called  “commercial  identity”  by  becoming  a   brand.    By  applying  the  conceptual  and  analytical  framework  used  in  analyzing  the   marketing  strategies  of  the  private  companies  authors  examine  that  NATO  is  about   to  become  a  brand.  As  starting  point  for  their  study,  authors  use  2008  statement  of   deputy  secretary  general  of  NATO:  “We  have  a  green  light  to  think  about  branding   policy  of  NATO.”     This  is  an  exploratory  study,  however  it  provided  very  useful  insights  about   international  organizations  new  approach  on  branding  their  identity.  This  is  one  of   the  few  studies  available  on  this  topic  and  opened  opportunities  for  future  research   on  this  yet  unexplored  topic.     “Milestones.”    UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       A  chronology  of  UNESCO's  most  important  moments,  from  its  founding  in  1945  to   2011.    Particular  mention  is  the  first  major  “heritage”  preservation  campaign  –  the   Nubia  Campaign  –  in  1960.         This  page  provides  useful  background  knowledge  on  the  overall  organization   through  the  years,  including  basic  facts  on  its  World  Heritage  policies  that  are   necessary  for  any  examination.  

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Miller,  Joseph  C.,  and  Patricia  Pitaluga.    “Cultural  Marketing  and  Archeology:  The  Case   of  Brazil.”    Journal  of  Nonprofit  and  Sector  Marketing.    8  (2001):  63-­‐74.     This  case  study  of  an  archaeological  site  in  Brazil  demonstrated  that  marketing  is  an   effective  technique  for  local  businesses  and  non-­‐profit  organizations  to  become   involved  with  the  site,  and  also  as  a  means  of  creating  economic  growth.    Among  the   argument  was  the  idea  that  as  more  archaeologists  and  site  managers  come  to   realize  the  benefit  of  marketing  a  site,  the  more  that  marketing  can  be  used  to   create  economic  and  social  development.    Over  time,  that  development  can  turn   into  improved  social  benefits,  community  relationships,  education,  and   environmental  and  cultural  heritage.     Though  limited  by  scope  (the  researchers  only  provided  one  case  study),  this  study   presented  its  results  clearly.    Miller  and  Pitaluga's  findings  are  a  bit  dated,  but  no   less  current.    In  fact,  back  in  2008,  these  findings  were  likely  seen  as  innovative.    The   idea  that  integrated  marketing  can  benefit  the  private  and  non-­‐profit  sectors  near  a   heritage  destination  is  crucial  to  arguing  for  more  community  involvement.   Olins,  Wally.    On  Brand.    New  York:  Thames  and  Hudson  Inc.,  2004.     Wally  Olins  On  Brand  is  as  the  title  suggests:  about  brands  history,  brand   development,  nation  branding  and  guidelines  for  branding  and  an  outlook  into  the   future  of  brands.    The  author  argues  that  brands  are  no  longer  just  about   corporations,  products,  and  services.    All  the  significant  institutions  in  our  lives  the   towns,  cities,  regions,  or  countries  in  which  we  live,  our  sports  teams  and  museums,   our  consumer  groups  and  charities  are  given  strength,  identity,  a  defining  role,  and  a   satisfying  cohesion  via  branding,  one  of  the  most  significant  social  as  well  as   business  developments  of  modern  times.  He  sets  out  the  ground  rules  for  branding   success  in  the  21st  century,  explaining  why  understanding  the  links  between   business,  brand  and  consumer  has  never  been  more  vital  for  commercial  success,   and  reflecting  the  recent  enormous  changes  in  the  branding  world.       The  book  is  very  well  and  comprehensibly  written,  it  explains  various  concepts  of   different  brands  without  using  cryptic,  scientific  language  and  illustrates  these   concepts  with  real  life  examples  and  interesting  little  stories.    It  is  very  useful  for   everyone  in  marketing,  advertising,  design,  and  business,  and  for  anyone  who  wants   to  understand  how  the  branding  world  works  in  the  twenty-­‐first  century.   Opschoor,  Hans,  and  Lina  Tang.  “Growth,  World  Heritage  and  Sustainable   Development:  the  Case  of  Lijiang  City,  China.”  International  Journal  of  Sustainable   Development  &  World  Ecology.  18  (2011):  469-­‐473.     In  their  article,  Opschoor  and  Tang  discuss  the  sustainability  of  World  Heritage  Sites   through  an  examination  of  Lijiang  City,  China.  A  main  concern  of  the  authors  focuses   100  

on  how  urbanization  as  a  result  of  World  Heritage  Site  designation  and  subsequent   tourism  development  has  led  to  an  alteration  in  the  integrity  of  Lijiang  City’s   heritage.  In  the  development  stages  of  Lijiang  City,  Opschoor  and  Tang  highlight  how   the  community  has  been  marginalized  and  how  this  management  of  method  is   dangerous  to  World  Heritage  Site  management.  The  authors  also  make  clear  that   sustainable  management  must  extend  into  the  hinterland-­‐  where  a  majority  of   community  residents  must  often  reside  post  designation  or  tourism  development.     Through  looking  at  Lijiang  City,  Opschoor  and  Tang  illustrate  the  difficulties  of  World   Heritage  Site  management  in  relation  to  cities  and  specifically  in  countries  that   adopt  a  fully  top  down  approach.    As  China  quickly  attempts  to  capitalize  the  World   Heritage  list,  this  information  will  become  critically  relevant  to  the  sustainability  of   new  designations  there  and  across  the  globe.  The  article  is  short  but  to  the  point,   Lijiang  City  serves  as  an  appropriate  canvas  to  highlight  the  benefits  of  tourism  to  a   heritage  city  and  its  surroundings  while  also  making  clear  the  pitfalls.     Peake,  Sheila,  Peter  Innes,  and  Pam  Dyer.    “Ecotourism  and  Conservation:  Factors   Influencing  Effective  Conservation  Messages.”    Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism.    17   (2009):  107-­‐127.     This  study  examined  the  role  of  on-­‐site  tour  guides  and  how  they  are  able  to   effectively  communicate  to  tourists  important  messages  about  conservation.    Based   on  the  survey  of  1500  travelers  to  Hervey  Bay  in  Queensland,  Australia,  Peake  et  al.   found  that  by  using  a  tour  guide,  visitors  were  able  to  process  and  become   empowered  by  the  need  for  conservation.    A  tour  guide  provides  a  positive   experience  that  is  as  educational  as  it  is  fun.    If  visitors  are  satisfied,  they  will  have  a   greater  personal  investment  in  what  they  just  visited.     Despite  a  small  sample  size  and  a  low  response  rate,  the  results  of  this  survey  add  to   the  existing  literature  of  how  conservation  messages  are  communicated  and   understood.    The  data  analysis  was  dry  and  difficult  to  follow,  but  the  discussion  of   the  results  compensated  for  the  lack  of  readability.   “Periodic  Reporting.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .     This  page  describes  the  regular  reporting  process  required  for  all  World  Heritage   Sites,  from  the  whys,  to  the  hows,  to  the  whos,  to  the  whats.    Also  included  is  a   chart,  of  a  sort,  that  shows  the  stages  of  the  reporting  process  from  the  schedule  on   down  to  the  final  report  to  the  General  Conference  of  UNESCO.     This  particularly  page  is  both  simple  and  thorough,  providing  just  the  right  amount   information  for  those  seeking  a  cursory  explanation,  and  also  enough  supplemental   material  for  those  who  wish  to  dig  a  little  deeper.   101  

Pike,  Steven.  “Tourism  Destination  Branding  Complexity.”  Journal  of  Product  &  Brand   Management.  14  (2005):  258-­‐259.       Pike’s  article  highlights  the  importance  of  marketing  to  the  future  of  the  tourism   industry.  As  access  to  destinations  world  wide  become  easier  each  day,  destinations   will  have  to  compete  with  each  other  on  a  global  level.  Effective  marketing  will  thus   become  critical  for  destinations  in  the  quest  to  attract  tourists  and  will  need  to  focus   on  brand  positioning  to  secure  success  in  the  area  over  the  long-­‐term.       Pike’s  article  conveys  valuable  information  upon  which  future  studies,  including  this   one,  can  build.  Though  succinct,  Pike  manages  to  relay  a  surprising  amount  of  useful   information.     Poria,  Yaniv,  Arie  Reichel  and  Raviv  Cohen.  “Tourists  Perceptions  of  World  Heritage   Site  and  Its  Designation.”  Tourism  Management.  35  (2013):  272-­‐274.     Poria  et  al.'s  study  looked  at  World  Heritage  Site  designation  from  the  point  of   tourists  in  Israel.  The  study  regarded  sites  from  all  around  the  world.  The  main   findings  suggest  that  on-­‐site  employees  have  great  pride  in  gaining  World  Heritage   Site  designation,  but  that  many  tourists  do  not  recognize  the  logo  for  WHS  status   and  that  the  public’s  perceptions  should  be  taken  into  consideration  during  the   designation  process  in  order  for  the  World  Heritage  Site  brand  to  have  more   credibility.     Examining  World  Heritage  Site  designation  from  the  tourists  point  of  view  was   helpful  in  rounding  out  research  in  where  there  are  gaps  in  awareness  and   education  for  World  Heritage  Sites  towards  the  public  as  well  as  how  people,  mainly   locals  and  tourists,  have  an  increased  pride  and  interest  in  a  site  once  it  has  the   status,  but  that  they  wish  to  be  more  educated  and  involved  in  the  World  Heritage   Site  designation  and  its  processes.   Poria,  Yaniv,  Arie  Reichel  and  Raviv  Cohen.  “World  Heritage  Site:  An  Effective  Brand   for  an  Archeological  Site?”  Journal  of  Heritage  Tourism.  6  (2011):  197-­‐208.       In  this  study,  Poria  et  al.  examine  tourist  awareness  of  the  WHS  brand,  logo  and   meaning  in  Caesarea,  and  archeological  site  in  Israel.  Their  survey  revealed  low   levels  of  awareness  on  all  three  of  the  metrics.  These  findings  again  disprove  the   assumed  notion  that  the  UNESCO  WHS  is  a  strong  one.  Rather,  as  illustrated  through   the  study  at  Caesarea,  the  WHS  is  in  need  of  increased  brand  awareness.       A  little  technical  in  verbiage  however,  the  article  can  sometimes  be  dry  and   uninteresting  to  read,  though  the  subject  is  actually  stimulating  in  content.        

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Poria,  Yaniv,  Arie  Reichel  and  Raviv  Cohen.  “World  Heritage  Site  -­‐  Is  it  an  Effective   Brand  Name?:  A  Case  Study  of  a  Religious  Heritage  Site.”  Journal  of  Travel   Research.  50  (2011):  482-­‐495.       Using  the  Basilica  of  the  Annunciation  in  Nazareth,  Israel  as  their  base,  Poria  et  al.   examine  the  awareness  of  the  brand,  recognition,  meaning  of  and  effects  on  travel   of  the  World  Heritage  Site  brand.  The  findings  of  their  study  indicate,  the  as  the   organizations’  brand  exists  today,  there  is  little  public  awareness  on  the  whole,  yet   when  aware  the  brand  positively  effects  the  willingness  of  visitors  to  revisit  the   particular  destination  and  other  World  Heritage  Sites.       The  findings  of  the  study  at  the  Basilica  support  the  argument  for  the  need  for   increased  brand  awareness  of  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Site.  However,  the  authors   sometimes  get  caught  up  in  the  technicalities  of  the  methodology,  making  the  article   on  the  whole  sometimes  difficult  to  read.   Power,  Colin.  “East-­‐West  Partnerships:  Lessons  from  UNESCO  and  Eidos.”  Educational   Research  for  Policy  and  Practice.  5  (2006):  255-­‐264.     The  article  draws  lessons  from  experience  at  UNESCO  and  Eidos  in  regards  to  the   issues  of  developing  East-­‐West  Partnership  in  education.  The  author  emphasizes  the   fact  that  to  be  successful,  partnerships  must  focus  on  shared  goals  and  mutual   advantages  and  there  is  a  need  in  effective  monitoring  of  performance.    According   to  the  author,  the  Eidos  experience  confirms  that  maintaining  partnerships  is  not   easy  in  a  highly  competitive  environment  and  it’s  imperative  to  harness  the   collective  expertise  of  all  parties  in  developing  innovative  solutions  to  the  complex   problems.     The  article  provides  a  good  benchmark  and  an  overview  of  the  best  practices  that   can  be  considered  for  alliances  of  World  Heritage  Partnerships  for  Conservation   Initiative  with  similar  organizations.      However,  at  the  same  time  since  the  focus   here  is  on  the  educational  organizations  there  are  limitations  in  recommendations   due  to  the  nature  of  these  partnerships.   Prayag,  Girish.  “Images  as  Pull  Factors  of  a  Tourist  Destination:  A  Factor  Cluster   Segmentation  Analysis”  Tourism  Analysis.  15  (2010):  213-­‐226.       In  his  study,  Prayag  examines  the  effect  images  have  on  tourist  consumption  as   destination  pull  factors.  He  found  that  destination  image  should  be  targeted  to   specific  demographic  segments  as  each  user  group  reacts  different  to  image  based   pull  factors.  Additionally,  Prayag  noted  that  projected  images  should  reflect  the   desires  of  the  preferred  tourist  group.      

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Overly  wordy,  this  study  was  a  difficult  read.  The  data  presented  was  informative   but  hard  to  decipher  among  the  heavy  verbiage.       Prideaux,  Bruce  and  Chris  Cooper.  “Marketing  and  Destination  Growth:  A  Symbiotic   Relationship  or  Simple  Coincidence?”  Journal  of  Vacation  Marketing.  9  (2003):  35-­‐ 51.       Prideaux  and  Cooper  examine  the  connections  between  destination  marketing  and   growth.  Using  Queensland,  Australia  as  the  basis  for  their  case,  the  two  find  that  the   involvement  and  education  of  local  stakeholders  in  the  marketing  process  is  an   important  factor  effecting  overall  destination  success.       The  findings  of  this  study  highlight  the  need  for  local  stakeholder  awareness  and   engagement,  an  area  currently  lacking.  The  article  got  into  the  core  of  marketing,   including  effective  forms  and  channels  of  communication  local  stakeholders  should   take  when  marketing  destinations.  It  is  a  useful  read  for  further  implementation  of   the  recommendation  made  in  this  paper.     Pritchard,  Anne;  Morgan,  Nigel  and  Roger  Pride.  “Chapter  25  –  Epilogue:  Tourism  and   Place  Reputation  in  an  Uncertain  World.”  Destination  Brands.  2011.  23  April  2013.     .     Pritchard  et  al.’s  Chapter  25  from  their  book  Destination  Brands,  discusses  the  future   of  destination  branding  and  how  to  manage  place  reputation  and  how  site  managers   can  approach  this  in  a  holistic  way.  The  authors  offer  ways  in  which  destinations  can   pursue  activities,  which  can  in  turn  boost  the  reputations  and  brands  of  their  specific   destinations.  The  authors  explain  that  going  forward,  there  needs  to  be  less  of  a   disconnect  between  scholars  and  practitioners  in  tourism  in  general,  and  specifically   when  it  comes  to  marketing.     While  only  this  one  chapter  of  this  book  was  used,  it  is  a  very  helpful  chapter.  It  is   rare  that  scholars  actually  come  out  and  say  that  they  need  to  work  hand  in  hand   with  people  working  in  the  tourism  industry.  While  this  statement  may  seems   obvious,  it  should  not  be  taken  for  granted.  The  article  has  many  strong  points;  the   weak  area  is  that  it  was  written  in  2011.  Despite  the  fact  that  this  is  fairly  recent,   because  it  discusses  Internet  marketing,  it  is  already  a  bit  dated.   Rakic,  Tijana.  “World  Heritage:  Issues  and  Debates.”  Tourism  Planning  &   Development.  55  (2007):  209-­‐219.     This  study  of  180  heritage  professionals  and  their  perspectives  on  World  Heritage   designations  revealed  that  said  professionals  were  most  concerned  with  the  balance   between  conservation  and  tourism  at  existing  sites,  a  problem  that  rests  at  the   management  level.  This  paper  filled  a  deficit  in  the  existing  research  that,  at  the   104  

time,  had  little  knowledge  of  professional  preservationists'  opinions.  The  author   suggests  that  a  balance  between  conservation  and  development  could  be  achieved   through  greater  cooperation  among  academics,  the  tourism  industry,  and   professionals  in  the  heritage  field.     While  the  results  of  the  study  coincide  with  existing  research  on  the  issues   surrounding  World  Heritage  designations,  the  addition  of  field  professionals'   opinions  is  a  valuable  one.  Without  the  cooperation  and  knowledge  of  those  on  the   ground  from  day  to  day,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  policymakers  and  other  industry   professionals  can  succeed.  All  stakeholders  must  be  involved  in  management  and   development  if  a  site  is  to  be  sustainable  and  successful.     Ramsar  Secretariat.  "Wetland  Tourism:  USA  –  The  Everglades  National  Park."   Ramsar.org.  July  2012.  Web.  28  April  2013.    <   http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/case_studies_tourism/USA/USA_EN-­‐.pdf>.   This  article  provided  information  on  how  tourism  has  impacted  the  Everglades  in   Florida  both  in  positive  and  negative  ways,  especially  concerning  the  environment   and  conservation.   This  article  provided  an  illustrative  example  of  how  tourism  impacts  conservational   efforts  at  a  World  Heritage  Site  in  the  USA  and  what  education  programs  are  in   place,  or  have  been  implemented  in  order  to  increase  conservation  efforts  through   tourism.   Rao,  Kishore.  “A  New  Paradigm  for  the  Identification,  Nomination  and  Inscription  of   Properties  on  the  World  Heritage  List.”  International  Journal  of  Heritage  Studies.   16  (2010):  161-­‐172.     This  paper  examines  UNESCO’s  1972  World  Heritage  Convention  and  its  policy  in   regards  identifying  and  listing  cultural  and  natural  heritage  properties.  Article  gives   us  good  background  about  UNESCO’s  1972  World  Heritage  Convention  and  critically   reviews  its  current  policy.  Especially,  the  author  focuses  on  policy  shortcomings  and   concludes  that  current  policy  is  long  departed  from  the  original  foundations  of   Convention  of  international  cooperation  and  assistance  for  preserving  heritage  of   outstanding  universal  value.       This  article  demonstrates  solid  research  into  a  multidimensional  and  complex  policy   of  an  international  organization,  such  as  UNESCO.    The  merit  of  this  paper  rests  on   the  author  developing  a  new  approach  to  overcoming  current  policy  shortcomings   by  suggesting  enhanced  international  cooperation  and  assistance  at  the  beginning   stage  of  identification  and  nomination  process.  He  concludes  that  a  proactive  role  of   World  Heritage  Committee,  at  an  early  stage  of  the  process,  will  result  in  a   representative,  balanced  and  credible  World  Heritage  List.    This  article  is  a  useful   source  for  analyzing  the  World  Heritage  Convention  policy  and  provides  an  insider's   105  

view  consider  the  author  served  as  deputy  director  of  the  UNESCO  World  Heritage   Center.   “Rapid  Response  Facility.”  whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .       This  page  describes  the  organizational  infrastructure  that  provides  assistance  when   natural  disasters  occur  at  Natural  World  Heritage  Sites.         The  strength  of  the  information  on  this  page  comes  not  just  from  the  very  basic   description  of  a  Rapid  Response  Facility's  deeds  and  intentions;  it  also  provides   actual  examples  –  by  way  of  news  articles  –  to  demonstrate  its  effectiveness.     Reeves,  Keir  and  Colin  Long.  “Unbearable  Pressures  on  Paradise?”  Critical  Asian   Studies.  43  (2011):  3-­‐22.     This  article  evaluated  the  strategies  and  management  of  Luang  Prabang  since  its   World  Heritage  designation  in  1995.  Due  to  the  volume  of  tourists  since  that  time,   the  city  has  been  forced  to  grow  and  change  to  such  an  extent  that  some  critics  feel   the  site  is  inauthentic  and  therefore  invalid  as  a  heritage  site.  The  conclusions  drawn   from  the  study  reveal  that  external  political  and  economic  pressures  in  the  region   are  the  root  causes  of  the  drastic  changes,  and  are  not  completely  related  to  the   world  heritage  designation.  They  argue,  therefore,  that  management  policies  should   be  region  or  site-­‐specific,  and  catered  to  the  needs  of  the  area  instead  of  a  mass-­‐ produced  set  of  guidelines.     The  case  for  site-­‐specific  management  plans  is  a  strong  one,  and  is  well  presented   here.  The  challenges  facing  Luang  Prabang  are  indeed  unique  to  the  region,  as  is  the   kind  of  tourism  with  which  they  are  currently  dealing.  But  are  the  challenges  unique   to  the  region  because  of  the  region  itself,  or  because  it  is  a  region  that  is   developing?  Could  other  developing  regions  utilize  a  similar  management  strategy  or   should  each  site  have  to  adhere  to  a  different  set  of  guidelines?  If  the  guidelines   should  be  region  or  site-­‐specific,  as  the  authors  recommend,  that  poses  an   interesting  challenge  for  UNESCO.  If  UNESCO  cannot  continue  to  possess  a  uniform   set  of  guidelines,  it  may  need  to  reevaluate  its  relevance.   “Reporting  and  Monitoring.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .     A  lead-­‐in  to  the  aforementioned  “Periodic  Reporting”  page,  this  page  emphasizes   the  importance  of  the  self-­‐regulation  of  World  Heritage  Sites  by  on-­‐site  monitors   and  managers  from  the  States  Parties  themselves.        

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As  monitoring  is  an  important  component  of  the  implementation  of  the  World   Heritage  Convention,  it  would  seem  appropriate  to  carefully  detail  it  here,  which  the   site  does  not.    Are  the  periodic  reports  –  sent  by  the  States  Parties  to  the  World   Heritage  Committee  –  considered  monitoring,  or  are  they  a  separate  component?   Ripp,  Matthias,  Uli  Eidenschink  and  Christina  Milz.  “Strategies,  Policies  and  Tools  for   an  Integrated  World  Heritage  Management  Approach:  Experiences  from  the  City  of   Regensburg.”  Facilities.  29  (2011):  286-­‐302.     Ripp,  Eidenschink  and  Milz’s  article  outlines  the  strategies  and  policies  used  in  a   World  Heritage  City-­‐  Regensburg,  Germany.    Along  with  being  part  of  the  World   Heritage  List  comes  inherent  challenges.  The  study  addresses  how  the  inhabitants  of   this  city  addressed  these  challenges;  one  of  the  key  elements  of  which  was  the   establishment  of  a  special  administrative  unit  that  coordinates  all  of  the  World   Heritage  related  issues  for  the  town.               Despite  the  narrow  scope,  this  article  provides  a  real  life  example  of  the  challenges   of  coordinating  management  efforts  in  a  mixed  urban  World  Heritage   Site.    Regensburg  is  a  good  example  of  how,  even  in  a  small  city,  the  organizational   structure,  from  the  inhabitants  all  the  way  up  to  UNESCO,  is  extremely  long  and   complicated.    In  Regensburg,  the  citizens  are  stakeholders  in  tourism;  they  know   how  important  tourism  is  for  their  city,  and  they  embrace  it.  Tourism  has  become  a   source  of  pride  for  the  city,  and  as  such,  it  is  continually  expanding  and  improving.     Roach,  John.    “Machu  Picchu  Under  Threat  From  Pressures  of  Tourism.”     NationalGeographic.com,  15  April  2002.    Web.    28  April  2013.     This  article  discusses  the  capacity  problem  that  Machu  Picchu  was  facing  back  in   2002.    It  also  discusses  some  of  the  solutions,  based  on  government  ideas,  UNESCO   ideas,  and  local  ideas.         Though  over  10  years  old,  this  article  articulates  the  constant  threat  World  Heritage   Sites  face  at  the  whims  of  the  local  governments  with  little  input  from  others.    The   specific  mentions  of  cases  where  landslides  occurred  were  particularly  effective.   “Robben  Island.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    28  April  2013.     .   This  page  is  the  World  Heritage  Program's  full  and  thorough  physical  description  of   this  site,  the  historical  description,  and  other  facts.   The  presentation  is  academic,  the  text  not  easily  digestible,  the  layout  (a  giant  wall  of   text)  visually  unstimulating.  It  does,  however,  feature  external  links  to  information   about  the  site,  as  well  as  photo  and  video  media  links.  

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Roders,  Ana  Pereira  and  Ron  van  Oers.  “Guidance  on  Heritage  Impact  Assessments:   Learning  from  its  Application  on  World  Heritage  Site  Management.”    Journal  of   Cultural  Heritage  Management  and  Sustainable  Development.    2  (2012):  104-­‐114.     The  article  presents  a  review  of  the  literature  on  the  nature  of  heritage  impact   assessments,  and  also  a  recent  report  on  new  ICOMOS  recommendations  how  said   assessments  can  be  applied  to  the  management  processes  of  World  Heritage  Sites.     The  authors  posit  that  these  assessments  will  improve  management  of  heritage  sites   and  allow  them  to  develop  more  sustainably.         The  case  studies  presented  in  this  article  illuminate  the  need  for  accurate  and   effective  assessment  of  the  needs  of  heritage  sites,  and  support  the  case  for  the   ICOMOS  recommendations.    The  one  significant  limitation  to  this  article  is  the  lack  of   data  on  the  effectiveness  of  the  ICOMOS  recommendations,  which  the  authors   present  as  an  opportunity  for  further  research.       Roders,  Ana  Pereira  and  Ron  van  Oers.  “World  Heritage  Cities  Management.”   Facilities.  29  (2011):  276-­‐285.     This  article  serves  as  an  introduction  to  the  various  issues  connected  to  World   Heritage  cities  management.  The  paper  discusses  the  areas  of  management   responsibility,  inclusion  of  various  stakeholders  with  a  stress  on  the  community  and   culture  heritage  as  a  driver  for  development  as  these  issues  specifically  pertain  to   cities  designated  by  UNESCO  and  in  areas  where  a  cluster  of  sites  are  closely   entwined  in  a  location.  The  authors  continue  to  discuss  the  following  journal  issue,   which  would  bring  to  light  the  problems  associated  with  World  Heritage  city   management  through  case  study.     This  introductory  piece  was  a  focused  and  easy  to  understand  introduction  to  the   issues  surrounding  the  management  of  World  Heritage  cities  pre-­‐  and  post-­‐ designation.  Meant  to  lay  the  groundwork  for  the  remainder  of  the  special  journal   issue,  the  article  by  Roders  and  van  Oers  provides  a  basic  overview  of  what  will  be   explored  and  the  importance  of  the  field  in  the  study  of  World  Heritage   sustainability.   Rossler  Chief,  M.  “World  Heritage  Cultural  Landscapes:  A  UNESCO  Flagship  Programme   1992-­‐2006.”  Landscape  Research.  31  (2006):  333-­‐353.   This  paper  reviews  one  of  the  most  important  evolutions  in  the  history  of  UNESCO   after  adaption  of  1972  world  Heritage  Convention.  Namely,  it  focuses  on  the   interaction  between  culture  and  nature  and  the  development  of  the  cultural   landscape  categories.  Based  on  some  case  studies  from  different  regions  of  the   world  the  author  highlights  the  innovations  in  the  Convention’s  Cultural  landscape   program,  particularly  focusing  on  the  management  of  complex  properties  involving  

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local  communities  and  indigenous  people.  The  author  also  argues  that  inclusion  of   cultural  landscapes  and,  particularly  those  associated  with  natural  elements  rather   than  material  cultural  monuments,  serves  as  an  evidence  of  broadening   interpretation  of  heritage  and  leads  to  change  a  perception  about  World  Heritage   Convention.     The  author’s  highly  positive  attitude  toward  World  Heritage  Convention  is   understandable  considering  her  position  in  the  World  Heritage  Center.  However,  this   article  would  gain  more  value  if  the  author  explored  whether  inclusion  of  cultural   landscapes  helped  making  world  heritage  list  representative  credible  and  balanced.     Overall,  this  article  provides  useful  information  about  the  development  of  cultural   landscape  program.  The  author  successfully  concludes  that  an  inclusive  approach  is   crucial  for  the  designation  and  management  of  sites  of  outstanding  universal  value,   especially  for  the  benefit  of  local  people  living  in  and  around  cultural  landscape  sites.   Ryan,  Jason  and  Sari  Silvanto.  “A  Brand  for  all  the  Nations:  The  Development  of  the   World  Heritage  Brand  in  Emerging  Markets”  Marketing  Intelligence  &  Planning.  29   (2011):  305-­‐318.       In  A  Brand  for  all  the  Nations,  Ryan  and  Silvanto  discuss  the  branding  framework  and   its  applicability  to  and  important  for  the  WHS  brand.  Specifically,  the  two  look  at   how  established  brands  such  as  WHS  can  help  encourage  economic  development  in   emerging  countries,  a  popular  goal  of  tourism  development  to  begin  with.  Their   findings  reiterate  the  important  of  branding  for  destinations  and  how  already   established  brands  can  be  used  to  strengthen  destination  image.       The  article  by  Ryan  and  Silvanto  highlighting  the  role  the  WHS  brand  can  play  in   development.  An  intriguing  concept,  the  article  was  engaging  and  easy  to   comprehend.       Ryan,  Jason  and  Sari  Silvanto.  “The  World  Heritage  List:  The  Making  and  Management   of  a  Brand.”  Place  Branding  and  Public  Diplomacy.  5  (2009):  290-­‐300.       Ryan  and  Silvanto’s  article  looks  at  brand  creation  and  management  within  the   context  of  the  World  Heritage  List.    By  looking  at  management  at  the  international,   national,  and  site  levels,  the  authors  argue  that  a  well-­‐known  brand  has  been   created  and  one  that  drives  tourism.    The  article  explains  that  while  these  sites  are   not  being  branded  in  a  traditional  sense,  their  value  is  still  being  conveyed,  and  that   in  a  sense  is  what  branding  is  all  about.     The  authors  offer  a  fairly  balanced  view  by  offering  up  the  challenges  of  managing   such  a  widespread  brand.  It  is  also  interesting  to  trace  the  history  of  designation,   from  preservation  to  tourism  purposes,  at  least  according  to  the  authors.    However,   while  their  argument  that  this  shift  in  focus  has  occurred,  they  are  not  as  convincing   109  

when  it  comes  to  showing  that  the  World  Heritage  List  is  well-­‐known  enough   outside  the  industry  to  be  considered  a  well  established  brand.   Ryan,  Jason  and  Sari  Silvanto.  “World  Heritage  Sites:  The  Purposes  and  Politics  of   Destination  Branding.”  Journal  of  Travel  &  Tourism  Marketing.  27  (2010):  533-­‐545.     In  their  article,  Ryan  and  Silvanto  discuss  the  importance  of  branding  specifically  in   relation  to  UNESCO  and  World  Heritage  Sites.  As  illustrated  by  the  authors,  branding   is  critical  to  effective  tourism  strategy  but  the  field  is  continually  challenged  by   “paucity  and  politics”.  By  focusing  on  the  variables  of  democracy  and  political   instability  and  the  effect  on  the  World  Heritage  brand  in  global  locales,  the  authors   discover  that  democracy  is  critical  to  successful  World  Heritage  Site  branding  and   subsequent  tourism  to  these  areas.     The  importance  of  branding  is  often  disregarded  when  discussing  sustainability,  but   this  article  makes  the  connection  between  a  strong  brand  image  and  the  ability  of  a   site  to  manage  and  develop  effectively.  While  tourists  can  often  generate  the   negative  impacts  on  World  Heritage  Sites,  they  are  also  needed  to  fund  the   management  and  drive  local  economies  and  without  branding  this  would  be  nearly   impossible.  By  examining  the  issue  of  democracy  and  its  effect  on  successful  World   Heritage  branding,  Ryan  and  Silvanto  point  to  an  interesting  area  in  need  of   attention  when  discussing  sustainability.   “Santuario  Histórico  Machu  Picchu.”    WorldMonumentsFund.org.    28  April  2013.     .       This  page  on  the  World  Monuments  Fund  website  provides  a  brief  overview  of   Machu  Picchu,  the  site,  and  Machu  Picchu,  the  problem.         This  page  is  a  strong  example  of  how  to  convey  clear  and  simple  information  about   both  the  site's  history  and  its  problems.    The  content  is  clear,  the  photographs  are   engaging,  and  the  remainder  of  the  page  provides  easily  navigable  ways  to  explore   the  program.     Sargeant,  A.,  J.  Ford  and  J.  Hudson.    “Charity  Brand  Personality:  The  Relationship  With   Giving  Behavior.”    Nonprofit  and  Voluntary  Sector  Quarterly.    37  (2008):  468-­‐491.     The  goal  of  this  article  is  to  present  a  set  of  personality  traits  associated  with   nonprofit  brands  and  explores  the  relationship,  if  any,  with  facets  of  giving  behavior.   Study  found  that  Charity  brands  have  been  enhancing  donor  understanding  of  an   organization  and  what  it  stands  for  to  assist  income  generation.  Despite  an   increasing  interest  in  this  topic  in  academia  this  research  was  one  of  the  few  studies   to  address  the  dimensions  of  brands  and  sought  to  explore  the  link  (if  any)  with   donor  behavior.  Merit  of  this  study  is  that  it  successfully  identified  that  traits   110  

associated  with  emotional  engagement,  service,  voice,  and  tradition  are  capable  of   serving  as  the  basis  for  differentiation  and  are  also  linked  to  facets  of  individual   giving  behavior.  Findings  of  this  study  also  have  important  implications  for  brand   managers  who  wish  to  differentiate  their  brand  from  those  of  their  competitors.     Notwithstanding  that  study  provides  useful  insights  this  work  was  an  exploratory   therefore  limitations  are  present.  The  results  are  persuasive,  they  may  not   generalize  to  the  sector  as  a  whole  and  further  quantitative  research  would  be   necessary  to  confirm  the  conclusions  drawn  in  this  study.   Secondi,  Lucs;  Maria  Leticia  Meseguer-­‐  Santamari;  Jose  Mondejar-­‐Jimenezc  and   Manuel  Vargas-­‐Vargas.  “Influence  of  Tourist  Sector  Structure  on  Motivations  of   Heritage  Tourists.”  The  Service  Industries  Journal.  31  (2011):  1659-­‐1668.     This  article  is  centered  around  research  conducted  in  the  town  of  Cuenca,  Spain  on   visitor  motivation.  This  research  differs  from  some  of  the  others  in  academia   because  it  focuses  more  on  the  practical  reasons  for  visiting  sites  and  perceived   positive  associations.  Some  of  these  motivators  include:  value  for  money,  mobility,   and  infrastructure.     Secondi  et  al.’s  research  is  does  have  some  weaknesses,  especially  fact  that  the   study  was  conducted  in  1996,  over  fifteen  years  ago,  and  the  article  was  not  written   until  2010  (published  2011),  over  ten  years  after  the  data  was  collected.  The  authors   bring  up  some  interesting  into  the  reasons  why  visitors  are  more  likely  to  choose   one.   Shackley,  Myra.    Visitor  Management:  Case  Studies  from  World  Heritage   Sites.    Oxford:  Elsevier,  2003.     Shackley’s  book  is  solely  based  on  case  studies,  many  of  which  focus  on  cultural   World  Heritage  Sites.  The  case  studies  cover  a  range  of  topics  and  places,  including   traffic  and  visitor  flow,  how  to  best  manage  and  improve  the  visitor  experience,  and   incorporating  technology  into  World  Heritage  Sites.         This  book  is  very  helpful  for  bringing  academia  to  life  by  providing  case  studies.    As  a   supplement,  it  is  very  beneficial.    It  covers  most,  but  not  all  continents;  however,  it   does  not  cover  Asia,  and  that  is  an  area  that  is  covered  in  many  other  texts.    The   case  studies  cover  some  best  practices  and  suggestions  for  how  to  improve  the   visitor  experience.    What  is  especially  helpful  is  the  fact  that  most  of  the  suggestions   are  part  of  a  holistic  view  and  strategy  and  involve  looking  at  the  community  around   these  heritage  sites.      

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Shepard,  Robert,  Larry  Yu  and  Huimin  Gu.  “Tourism,  Heritage  and  Sacred  Space:  Wutai   Shan,  China,”  Journal  of  Heritage  Tourism.  7  (2012):  145-­‐161.                                                                                                                                                       Shepard,  Yu,  and  Gu  used  a  case  study  in  China  to  demonstrate  the  importance  of   heritage  tourism  as  well  as  the  conflicts  and  tensions  that  tend  to  arise  between   locals  and  tourists  in  terms  of  benefits,  accessibility  and  misinterpretation  of   heritage.  The  locals  were  not  behind  heritage  tourism  to  the  site  as  a  whole,  but   once  the  study  was  conducted  with  interviews  and  survey  questionnaires,  they   realized  that  if  the  heritage  is  correctly  portrayed  in  the  heritage  sites  and  the  locals   voices  are  heard  in  what  they  wish  to  gain  from  the  tourism  ventures  in  this  region,   then  they  would  be  alright  with  it.    They  also  had  concerns  on  what  tourism  traffic   would  do  to  negatively  impact  their  way  of  life  in  the  region.     Their  case  study  on  this  region  is  useful  because  it  was  a  UNESCO  Heritage  Site  that   was  being  studied  and  the  implications  of  the  tourism  management  at  this  site  on   the  locals’  livelihoods  is  of  great  concern  to  our  current  paper  in  accurately   representing  cultures  of  peoples  and  in  making  sure  they  get  as  many  benefits  and   as  few  negative  impacts  on  their  lives  when  tourism  is  implemented  at  these  sites.     Somuncu,  Mehmet  and  Turgut  Yigit.  “World  Heritage  Sites  in  Turkey:  Current  Status   and  Problems  of  Conservation  Management”  Cografi  Bilimler  Dergisi.  8  (2010):  1-­‐ 26.       In  their  research,  Somuncu  and  Yigit  look  at  the  nine  WH  Sites  in  Turkey  and   examine  the  difficulties  each  is  facing.  The  authors  found  that  many  of  the  problems   WH  Sites  in  Turkey  experienced  were  due  to  poor  management  and  policies   regarding  the  local  communities.  Often,  these  issues  were  site  specific  though  a  few   were  constant  throughout  all  nine  WH  Sites.       Though  dry  and  overly  lengthy,  the  article  by  Somuncu  and  Yigit  provided  a  clear  and   comprehensive  analysis  of  the  issues  at  WH  Sites  in  Turkey.       Standish,  Dominic.    “Mayor  of  Venice  Reveals  Possible  New  Solution  to  Cruise  Ship   ‘Problem'.”  Dstandish.com    4  October  201.    Web.    28  April  2013.     In  this  blog  entry,  Dr.  Standish  discusses  the  Mayor  of  Venice's  latest  proposal  to   build  a  cruise  ship  terminal  on  the  mainland  in  order  to  prevent  further  damage  to   the  lagoon  and  canals  from  ships  passing  through  the  waters  near  the  local  islands.     The  entry  further  writes  about  the  opposition  to  cruise  traffic  in  general,  and  how   those  protests  relate  to  the  Mayor's  current  plan.     Dr.  Standish  is  an  academic  who  has  written  extensively  about  Venice's   environmental  and  conservation  issues,  and  this  opinion  paper  about  the  new   initiative  to  “solve”  the  cruise  ship  issue  in  the  city  is  well-­‐argued  and  well-­‐sourced.       112  

Starin,  Dawn.  “World  Heritage  Designation:  Blessing  or  Threat?”  Critical  Asian  Studies.   40  (2008):  639-­‐652.     Through  a  series  of  critical  observations,  and  evidenced  by  photographs,  the  author   reveals  the  seedier  side  of  Luang  Prabang's  World  Heritage  Designation:  a  city   fraught  with  infrastructure  problems,  acculturation  issues,  and  illegal  activity.  The   intent  was  not  to  draw  any  definitive  conclusions,  rather  let  her  observations  and   photos  speak  for  themselves,  but  she  does  raise  the  question  of  whether  the   tourism  boom  in  Luang  Prabang  is  as  serious  a  threat  to  the  Laotian  way  of  life  as   French  colonization  or  United  States  bombing  raids.     While  the  author  set  out  to  merely  question,  her  opinion  is  evident  by  the   information  she  presents.    Besides  a  few  cursory  remarks  from  shop-­‐owners   regarding  how  much  money  they  have  made  from  the  influx  of  tourists,  the   remainder  of  the  observations  are  critical.  Despite  her  apparent  bias,  her   observations  should  not  be  discounted.  Luang  Prabang  is  deeply  troubled,  and  this   firsthand  account  of  the  environment  is  a  useful  addition  to  the  collective   understanding  of  those  troubles.   “State  of  Conservation.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       This  page  serves  as  an  access  point  for  an  extensive  online  database  of  conservation   status  and  monitoring  reports  prepared  by  both  UNESCO  and  its  Advisory  Bodies.     Reports  are  searchable  by  year,  region,  or  State  Party.         The  page  is  particularly  useful  in  terms  of  data  for  specific  World  Heritage  Sites.    The   database  is  cleanly  presented  and  simple  to  use,  and  the  explanation  provided  for   why  the  State  of  Conservation  reports  are  necessary.   “State  of  Conservation  (SOC)  Chan  Chan  Archaeological  Zone   (2012).”    whc.UNESCO.org.  1  May  2013.  .     This  page  on  the  World  Heritage  Program  website  presents  the  report,  made  on   2012  by  the  WHP,  regarding  the  conservation  issues  affecting  Chan  Chan   Archeological  Zone  in  Peru.     The  page  is  a  critical  source  to  review  technical  specification  of  conservation  issues   on  the  site  and  it  also  included  a  conclusion  on  why  this  site  may  be  part  of  the  List   in  Danger.   “State  of  Conservation  (SOC)  Coro  and  its  Port  (2012).”    whc.UNESCO.org.  1  May   2013.    .     113  

This  page  on  the  World  Heritage  Program  website  presents  the  report,  made  on   2012  by  the  WHP,  regarding  the  conservation  issues  affecting  Coro  and  its  Pot  in   Venezuela.       The  page  is  a  critical  source  to  review  technical  specification  of  conservation  issues   on  the  site  and  it  also  included  a  conclusion  on  why  this  site  may  be  part  of  the  List   in  Danger.   “State  of  Conservation  (SOC)  Humberstone  and  Santa  Laura  Saltpeter  Works  (2012).”   whc.UNESCO.org.  1  May  2013.    <  http://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/15>.       This  page  on  the  World  Heritage  Program    presents  the  report,  made  on  2012  by  the   WHP,  regarding  the  conservation  issues  affecting  Humberstone  and  Santa  Laura   Saltpeter  Works  in  Chile.     The  page  is  a  critical  source  to  review  technical  specification  of  conservation  issues   on  the  site  and  it  also  included  a  conclusion  on  why  this  site  may  be  part  of  the  List   in  Danger.   Stegemann,  N.  and  B.  Thompson.  “Visual  Arts  Marketing:  The  Brand  Equity  Challenge   Facing  Galleries.”  International  Business  and  Economics  Research  Journal.  4  (2005):   1-­‐12.     This  article  addressed  the  challenges  that  art  galleries  in  Sydney  metropolitan  area   were  facing  with  regards  to  maximizing  their  brand  equity.  Authors  took  case  study   approach  and  investigated  art  galleries'  sources  of  brand  equity  and  the  implications   for  their  marketing  communications  strategies.  The  research  demonstrated  that  art   galleries  had  a  good  understanding  of  their  brand  equity  entities,  however,  there   was  of  lack  of  knowledge  on  how  to  coordinate  them  successfully.    Furthermore   most  of  the  galleries  believe  in  a  different  mix  of  marketing  communications  efforts   reflecting  their  objectives  and  resources.  However,  their  strategies  were  not  always   customer  oriented  and  lacked  supporting  research.       As  the  arts  industry  was  becoming  more  competitive  in  the  beginning  of  the  21st   century,  the  merit  of  this  study  was  that  it  provided  practical  implications  for  art   galleries  to  fully  understand  how  the  different  brand  equity  entities  contribute  to   their  overall  brand  equity.        

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Steiner,  Lasse  and  Bruno  Frey.  “Correcting  the  Imbalance  of  the  World  Heritage  List:   Did  the  UNESCO  Strategy  Work?”  Journal  of  International  Organizations  Studies.  3   (2012):  25–40.       In  the  wake  of  the  1994  Global  Strategy  to  increase  the  balance  of  distribution  of   World  Heritage  Sites  across  both  continents  and  countries,  Steiner  and  Frey  found   that  no  data  had  been  collected  to  prove  or  disprove  the  impact  of  the  policy.    Their   examination,  however,  indicated  that  the  strategy  had  had  the  opposite  effect;  that,   instead  of  decreasing  the  imbalance,  the  disparity  actually  worsened,  proving  the   strategy  useless.     The  conclusions  drawn  by  this  study  are  compelling,  yet  the  only  recommendations   Steiner  and  Frey  are  able  to  propose  are  more  policy  changes,  with  little  means  of   implementation.    If  discussing  policy  changes,  there  should  be  a  discussion  of  how   the  organization,  in  this  case  the  World  Heritage  Program,  can  make  those  changes   rather  than  simply  saying  that  it  should.   Tapp,  A.  “Charity  Brands:  A  Qualitative  Study  of  Current  Practice.”  Journal  of   Nonprofit  and  Voluntary  Sector  Marketing.  1  (1996):  327-­‐336.     The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  understand  to  what  extent  branding  was  used  in   the  sector  of  fundraising  and  charity.  Particularly  author  examined,  development   possibilities  for  using  commercial  techniques  in  charities,  and  the  constraints  on   such  practices.  The  study  found  that  many  charities  indeed  use  day-­‐to-­‐day  brand   techniques,  without  describing  them  as  ‘branding’,  however  brand  development   work  was  scarce.  The  author  suggests  that  one  commercial  practice  that  could  be   employed  by  charity  organizations  is  the  idea  of  using  the  personality  of  the  charity   itself  as  something  with  which  donors  could  associate  positively.       This  study  was  one  of  the  earliest  efforts  to  develop  theory  of  nonprofit  branding   and  link  individual’s  self-­‐concept  with  symbolic  value  of  nonprofit  organization.   Practical  implication  of  this  study  was  to  help  leaders  and  managers  of  charity   organizations  how  to  consider  brand  content  while  competing  for  fundraising.     “Tentative  Lists.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       As  the  first  stage  of  the  designation  process,  the  Tentative  List  is  a  vital  part  of  the   World  Heritage  Convention.    This  page  explains  the  “whats,”  “whos,”  “hows,”  and   “whys”  of  creating  a  Tentative  List,  and  provides  links  to  both  application  documents   and  current  Tentative  Lists  by  country.     Being  able  to  look  at  the  current  Tentative  Lists  and  see  what  is  currently  up  for   designation  is  extremely  helpful  in  terms  of  examining  for  patterns  both  in  terms  of   115  

region  and  site  types.    Listing  the  tentative  sites  by  country  is  effective  and  simple  to   search.   “The  Constitution.”  UNESCO.org.  24  February  2013.   .     This  section  of  UNESCO's  website  establishes  the  goals  and  mission  of  the  broader   organization,  of  which  the  World  Heritage  Program  is  a  part.         This  page  is  simple  and  its  text  is  short,  but  the  language  is  as  clear  as  a  policy  can   be.   “The  Criteria  for  Selection.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       This  page  outlines  the  ten  criteria  used  to  designate  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites.     A  brief  explanation  of  the  breakdown  between  cultural  and  natural  sites,  as  well  as   the  progression  of  the  criteria  from  a  set  for  each  category  to  one  master  list.     The  contents  of  this  page  are  arguably  the  most  important  aspects  of  UNESCO's   World  Heritage  policy.    This  information  is  critical  for  any  examination  of  the  World   Heritage  Program.   The  Galapagos  Conservation  Trust.  "GCT:  UNESCO's  Decision  to  Remove  Galapagos   from  World  Heritage  In  Danger  List  is  'Premature'."  SavetheGalapagos.org,  2010.     Web.    28  April  2013.       This  website's  article  on  the  de-­‐listing  of  the  Galapagos  discusses  the  effect  the  de-­‐ listing  had  on  the  natural  environment  and  how,  even  though  the  Ecuadorian   government's  intentions  were  pure,  the  funds  and  practices  put  in  place  may  have   happened  too  quickly  and  that  the  development  that  is  occurring  there  now  that  it   has  been  de-­‐listed  is  destroying  the  environment  even  more,  which;  even  though  it   has  come  a  long  way  since  it  was  put  on  the  list  in  1978,  it  still  had  a  long  way  to  go   before  it  could  be  de-­‐listed  and  now  the  islands  conservation  efforts  are  seeming   futile  in  the  continued  disintegration  of  the  habitat.       The  article  helped  articulate  and  provide  examples  of  how  de-­‐listing  and   misunderstanding  the  designation  of  being  listed  and  de-­‐listed  affects  conservation   efforts  at  this  World  Heritage  Site.        

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“The  List  of  World  Heritage  in  Danger.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       This  page  is  a  master  list  of  the  World  Heritage  Sites  considered  “in  danger.”    Each   site  is  specifically  named  on  the  page,  and  is  linked  to  a  full  report  on  the  listing,  its   issues,  and  its  state  of  conservation/restoration.     As  the  list  is  so  small  –  only  38  sites  –  there  is  no  need  to  create  a  searchable   database,  and  each  site  is  listed  by  country  in  an  accessible  fashion.   “The  Organization's  History.”  UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .     This  page  provides  a  rather  in-­‐depth  chronology  of  UNESCO's  history,  from  its   predecessor  organizations  to  the  present,  including  details  of  political  maneuverings   and  machinations  of  membership.         In  addition  to  being  brief  but  thorough,  the  page  presents  two  short  but  informative   videos  on  both  the  history  and  priorities  of  UNESCO.    Each  clip  was  insightful,  if  a  bit   propagandist.     “The  World  Heritage  Committee.”whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .     This  page  provides  an  explanation  into  the  role  of  the  World  Heritage  Committee,  its   structure,  and  its  purpose.         True  to  its  bureaucratic  nature,  the  explanation  of  the  Committee  is  somewhat   difficult  to  follow,  particularly  where  describing  the  term  limits  and  which  States   Parties  can  be  members.    “UNESCO  for  dummies”  this  is  not.   “The  World  Heritage  Convention.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .       The  World  Heritage  Convention  is  fully  summarized  here  and  the  page  explains  its   role  in  the  preservation  of  heritage  over  time.         While  the  history,  the  benefits,  and  a  summary  of  contents  is  useful,  having  the  link   to  the  full  text  of  the  document  tucked  away  in  a  menu  on  the  left  hand  side  of  the   page  does  not  lend  itself  to  being  easily  spotted.    The  reader  has  to  actively  search   for  the  link  rather  than  having  it  within  the  main  text.    

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“Tbilisi  Historic  District.”    WorldMonumentsFund.org.    28  April  2013.   .   This  page  on  the  World  Monuments  Fund  website  provides  information  about  the   Tbilisi  Historic  District,  including  an  overview  of  the  city's  history  and  importance  of   its  cultural  and  architectural  heritage.    It  also  describes  what  the  current   conservation  issues  of  the  site  are,  how  the  World  Monuments  Fund  helped  through   their  restoration  and  conservation  efforts,  and  why  those  efforts  matter.       This  page  is  an  exceptional  example  of  how  to  present  information  about   conservation  efforts  and  how  to  educate  the  public  on  why  preservation  is   important.       Tucker,  Abigail.    “Endangered  Site:  Church  of  the  Nativity”  SmithsonianMag.com.   March  2009.    Web.    28  April  2013.     This  Smithsonian  article  from  March  2009  discusses  the  issues  that  the  Church  of  the   Nativity  in  Bethlehem  is  facing.  These  issues  range  from  environmental  damage  such   as  water  leakage  that  rots  the  roof  and  destroys  the  frescoes,  to  the  feuding  among   the  monks  from  three  Christian  denominations  that  share  the  space.  This  is  a  good   example  of  some  of  the  political  and  natural  issues  that  many  of  the  sites  on  the  In   Danger  list  face.     Though  a  few  years  old,  this  brief  article  provides  a  deeper  level  of  detail  to   supplement  other  information  on  Church  of  the  Nativity.  This  article  presents  a   relatively  unbiased  view  of  the  problems  that  a  particular  World  Heritage  Site  is   facing.  One  problem  with  the  article  is  simply  that  is  a  few  years  old.     “Venice  and  Its  Lagoon.”    UNESCO.org.    28  April  2013.     .     This  page  on  the  UNESCO  website  is  a  report  of  the  project  the  organization  has   undertaken  to  help  Venice  and  its  Lagoon  from  environmental  change.         It  is  important  to  note  that  this  project,  and  report,  is  overseen,  and  written,  by   UNESCO  and  not  the  World  Heritage  Program.    The  presentation  is  academic,  the   text  not  easily  digestible,  the  layout  (a  giant  wall  of  text)  visually  unstimulating.       "Visiting  Taos  Pueblo.”    TaosPueblo.com.  28  April  2013.   .   The  Taos  Pueblo  website  provides  the  public  with  information  on  how  to  act  and   behave  when  at  the  WHS  in  order  to  keep  the  relationships  between  the  local  native   peoples  and  tourists  positive  and  promote  healthy  conservation  and  maintenance  of   culture  at  the  site.  

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The  outline  of  protocol  for  tourists  demonstrates  how  awareness  and  education   though  media  outlets  like  a  website  can  increase  and  promote  tourism  in  a  healthy   and  conservational  way  that  will  help  the  locals  and  other  stakeholders   communicate  with  one  another  better  as  well  as  interact  in  a  more  positive  way  to   preserve  the  site  and  its  culture  as  well  as  the  livelihoods  of  the  people  living  there.   Wang,  Shu-­‐Yi.  “From  a  Living  City  to  a  World  Heritage  City:  Authorized  Heritage   Conservation  and  Development  and  its  Impact  on  the  Local  Community”   International  Development  Planning  Review.  34  (2012):  1-­‐17.     In  this  article,  Wang  discusses  the  difficulties  and  conflicts  that  occur  when  cities   transform  from  living  spaces  to  World  Heritage  sites.  As  Wang  notes  throughout  the   piece,  World  Heritage  designation  has  great  impact  on  the  local  community-­‐   resulting  in  both  benefits  and  negative  repercussions.  In  terms  of  the  socio-­‐cultural   scope,  the  negative  implications  of  tourism  development  and  World  Heritage  site   designation  may  also  be  detrimental  and  non-­‐reversible.  To  make  her  argument,   Wang  looks  closely  at  China,  where  the  desire  for  modernity  and  recognition  has   resulted  in  the  rise  of  rapid  economic  and  tourism  development.  Along  with   documenting  the  pitfalls  associated  with  the  top-­‐down  approach  implemented  in   Chinese  World  Heritage  site  management,  Wang  provides  the  direction  as  to  how   community  involved  management  practices  could  begin  to  take  place.     Wang’s  article  effectively  and  closely  dissects  the  Ancient  City  of  Pingyao  and   illustrates  the  multifarious  impacts  of  rapid  tourism  development  led  by  centralized   government  and  lacking  community  involvement.  This  area  of  study  is  relevant  as   China  and  other  emerging  destinations  are  beginning  to  receive  greater  attention  by   UNESCO  and  the  global  tourism  community  at  large.     Wang,  Tao  and  Luca  Zan.    “Management  and  Presentation  of  Chinese  Sites  for   UNESCO  World  Heritage  List  (UWHL)”  Facilities.  29  (2011):  313-­‐325.     Through  case  studies  of  Chinese  World  Heritage  Sites,  Wang  and  Zan  present  the   issues  China  is  facing  in  terms  of  site  management  and  presentation,  many  of  which   center  around  the  cultural  differences  between  East  and  West  and  the  lack  of   understanding  on  the  part  of  the  Chinese  about  sustainable  management  and   development.    Wang  and  Zan  discuss  the  costs  and  benefits  of  World  Heritage  listing   in  terms  of  financing  and  human  toll.     The  compelling  and  well-­‐presented  study,  which  the  authors  acknowledge  is  not  yet   complete  due  to  a  need  for  more  data  and  analysis,  demonstrates  why  World   Heritage  Site  managers  have  different  educational  needs  depending  on  the  location   and  the  understanding  of  the  stakeholders.    The  Chinese  show  a  lack  of   understanding  of  carrying  capacity  and  other  sustainability  related  issues,  and  

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therefore  do  not  describe  how  they  will  be  managed;  Wang  and  Zan  argue  that  as  a   result,  the  sites  could  come  under  threat.   Waters,  Richard  D.  “Nonprofit  Organizations’  Use  of  the  Internet.  A  Content  Analysis   of  Communication  Trends  on  the  Internet  Sites  of  the  Philanthropy  400.”  Nonprofit   Management  and  Leadership.    18  (2007):  59-­‐76.       This  paper  studied  the  current  situation  of  communication  and  fundraising  strategies   on  the  Internet.  The  research  method  used  was  a  stratified  random  sample  of  the   Chronicle  of  Philanthropy’s  Philanthropy  400  (the  top  four  hundred  charitable   fundraising  organizations  in  the  United  States).  Main  findings  showed  that  most   organizations  were  using  internet  as  a  way  to  provide  information.  However,  the   current  websites  are  only  one-­‐way  communication,  giving  little  options  to  receive   feedback  from  users.  Not  online  chats  were  founded  and  only  3%  used  discussion   forums.  Waters  stressed  the  fact  that  non-­‐profit  organizations  needs  to  work  in   relationships  with  past  and  current  donors  and  that  Internet  could  become  an   important  tool  if  it  was  used  properly.     This  paper  represents  a  comprehensive  study  of  the  status  of  non-­‐profit   organizations  in  the  U.S.    Even  though  the  research  method  was  implemented  in   2005,  the  main  concepts  of  relationship  between  donors  and  organizations  are   always  going  to  be  a  critical  factor  for  non-­‐profit  organizations.     Weaver,  David.  Sustainable  Tourism.  Kidlington,  Oxford.  Elsevier:  Butterworth-­‐ Heinemann,  2006.       David  Weaver’s  book  on  sustainable  tourism  was  used  as  a  textbook  in  the   Sustainable  Tourism  course  and  covered  a  lot  of  material  on  case  studies,  principles,   practices,  theories  and  platforms  for  sustainable  tourism  management.  This  also   covered  issues  in  certification  and  defining  sustainable  tourism  as  well  as  issues  in   being  completely  sustainable  in  the  tourism  industry.  Weaver’s  book  is  very  useful  in   providing  information  on  tourism  practices  and  principals  that  seek  to  maximize   benefits  and  minimize  negative  impact  on  the  economy,  environment,  societies,  and   cultures  of  regions  where  tourism  is  being  implemented.  This  is  what  the  UNESCO   paper  if  seeking  to  provide  information  on  as  well  as  World  Heritage  Sites.     Wehrli,  Roger,  Jürg  Schwarz,  and  Jürg  Stettler.  “Are  Tourists  Willing  to  Pay  More  for   Sustainable  Tourism?  A  Choice  Experiment  in  Switzerland.”  Hochschule  Luzern.  3   (2011):  1-­‐17.     This  article  used  a  choice  experiment  to  find  out  if  tourists  are  willing  to  pay  more   for  a  sustainable  tourism  product.  The  researchers  found  that  there  is  a  gap   between  thinking  and  acting  in  tourists.  They  found  that  the  tourists  are  willing  to   120  

pay  a  premium  on  a  product  that  is  completely  sustainable.  They  also  found  that  the   tourists  are  more  likely  to  pay  for  sustainable  tourism  products  if  they  are  more   educated  and  affluent.       The  researchers’  findings  suggest  that  more  education  will  lead  to  more  Willingness   to  Pay  and  that  there  is  a  gap  in  the  implementation  and  knowledge  of  sustainable   products,  which  can  be  interpreted  as  conservation  implementation  at  WHS  in  the   support  of  this  white  paper.  The  researchers  suggest  that  companies  can  and  should   offer  sustainable  products  as  a  differentiation  strategy  that  can  put  them  ahead  of   their  competitors  as  long  as  their  prices  for  the  products  don’t  exceed  those  of  the   unsustainable  ones  their  competitors  are  marketing.   “What  Makes  Just  Give  Different?”  JustGive.org.    28  April  2013.     .     This  page  on  JustGive.org's  website  provides  information  to  potential  donors  on   their  mission  –  to  make  simple,  educated,  and  private  giving  decisions.     The  information  provided  is  almost  “too  good  to  be  true.”    Never  has  charitable   giving  been  so  user-­‐friendly,  and  this  page  clearly  demonstrates  the  innovation  of   the  service.   “World  Heritage.”  whc.UNESCO.org.  24  February  2013.   .     This  page  serves  as  an  introduction  to  all  of  the  background  information  on  how   UNESCO  works,  at  least  from  UNESCO's  perspective.    The  page  also  includes  the  full   text  of  the  World  Heritage  mission  statement.     The  single  most  important  component  of  this  page  is  the  mission  statement.    By   providing  the  mission  statement  on  this  introductory  page,  UNESCO  makes  clear   from  the  outset  that  it  is  something  the  reader  should  know  and  understand  as  they   make  their  way  through  the  rest  of  the  site.     “World  Heritage  Fund.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.   .     This  page  describes,  in  all  of  three  sentences,  the  amount  the  World  Heritage  Fund   distributes  annually,  how  the  fund  is  comprised,  and  how  the  funds  are  disbursed.   Links  to  past  contribution  statements  are  provided.     While  the  –  very  –  basic  summary  of  the  World  Heritage  Fund  efficiently  gets  the   information  across,  it  also  demonstrates  just  how  controlling  UNESCO  is  of  said   information.    Aside  from  the  reports  of  compulsory  and  voluntary  contributions,   121  

which  are  exceptionally  simple  in  their  own  right,  the  page  does  not  offer  any   additional  insight  to  indicate  how  much  the  fund  has  in  total  and  how  the  $4million   per  year  average  is  calculated.   “World  Heritage  List.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .     The  page,  and  accompanying  map,  list  the  World  Heritage  Sites  by  country.    The  map   is  color-­‐coded  to  indicate  if  the  site  is  cultural,  natural,  or  of  mixed  heritage.         The  map  is  by  far  the  most  effective  tool  on  the  page,  with  interactive  functions  that   take  a  visitor  directly  to  a  particular  site's  write-­‐up.    The  use  of  the  color-­‐coding   system  is  an  effective  way  to  graphically  view  the  distribution  of  sites  across  the   globe.   “World  Heritage  List  Nominations.”    whc.UNESCO.org.    24  February  2013.     .         This  page  establishes  the  nomination  process  for  any  States  Party  that  wishes  to   have  a  site  designated  on  the  World  Heritage  List.    Each  of  the  five  steps  are   summarized  and  show  the  flow  of  one  step  to  the  next.     While  summaries  can  be  effective,  here  they  should  be  providing  greater  detail.     Rather  than  relying  on  separate  documents  such  as  the  Operational  Guidelines  (the   link  for  which  is  outdated  by  six  years),  each  step  could  be  outlined  more   thoroughly.      

World  Tourism  Organization.  “Sustainable  Tourism  Management  at  World  Heritage   Sites:  Enhancing  Inter-­‐agency  and  Stakeholder  Coordination  for  Joint  Action,”  e-­‐ unwto.org.  (2009):  1-­‐327.                                                                       The  WTO  document  covers  the  conference  that  occurred  in  China  in  2008  whereby   industry  professionals  as  well  as  other  stakeholders  made  cases  and  presented  data   on  sustainable  tourism  practices  for  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites.                                                                                                                                         This  document  proves  very  useful  not  just  for  the  scope  and  mission  of  our  paper,   but  for  providing  statistics  from  the  tourism  industry  and  the  impacts  it  can  have  on   this  region  in  China  and  especially  on  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites.     World  Travel  and  Tourism  Council.  “  Economic  Impact  of  Travel  &  Tourism  2013   Annual  Update:  Summary,”  WTTC.org.  Oxford  Economics  (2013):  1-­‐4.       The  World  Travel  and  Tourism  Council  (WTTC),  accurately  and  regularly  update  their   tourism  statistics  on  their  website  via  reports  and  industry  documents  that  they   122  

tend  to  update  every  few  months  or  so.  This  document  helped  provide  the  most   recent  tourism  statistics  and  trends  for  the  past  year  and  a  look  to  the  future  for   2013  and  beyond.     This  report  helped  provide  information  on  tourism  statistics,  but  was  not  useful  in   providing  them  for  UNESCO  designated  World  Heritage  Sites.  It  was  very  useful  in   providing  recent  and  accurate  tourism  statistics  and  trends  within  and  outside  the   United  States  of  American  that  will  help  provide  information  on  how  UNESCO   designated  World  Heritage  Sites  may  be  able  to  take  advantage  of  these  trends  and   demands  in  tourism  for  the  future  and  what  markets  they  could  look  towards  in   planning  for  marketing  strategies  in  supplying  tourism  products  that  are  site-­‐specific   as  well  as  standard  for  UNESCO  designated  World  Heritage  Sites.     Xiang,  Zheng  and  Bing  Pan.  “Travel  Queries  on  Cities  in  the  United  States:  Implication   for  Search  Engine  Marketing  for  Tourist  Destinations.”  Tourism  Management.  32   (2011):  88-­‐97.     This  article  outlines  the  importance  of  understanding  the  behavior  behind  how   tourists  plan  their  trips,  specifically  using  search  engines.  The  method  used  was  text   analysis  of  user  queries  from  transaction  logs  of  search  engines.  The  authors   recommend  that  destinations  better  position  themselves  in  order  to  distinguish  their   sites  from  their  competitors.       This  article  has  several  limitations,  namely  the  fact  that  the  scholars  used  data  from   1997,  1999,  and  2001,  and  search  engines  such  as  Excite  and  Alta  Vista.  These  search   engines  are  now  extinct,  and  have  been  replaced  with  newer  platforms  such  as   Google  and  Bing.  Again,  this  area  of  research,  Internet  marketing,  is  very  dynamic;  it   needs  to  be  studied  often  because  it  is  constantly  changing.  This  is  especially  true  for   search  engine  marketing,  where  the  rules  and  tactics  are  often  in  flux.       Xiang,  Zheng  and  Ulrike  Gretzel.  “Role  of  Social  Media  in  Online  Travel  Information   Search.”  Tourism  Management.  31  (2010):  179-­‐188.     Xiang  and  Gretzel  discuss  the  highly  important  and  relevant  topic  of  the  role  of  social   media  in  travel  in  their  2010  article.  The  article  focuses  on  search  engines  and  what   social  media  appear  in  search  results  using  different  cities  in  the  United  States  as  a   basis.  The  article  focuses  specifically  on  virtual  travel  communities  such  as  Lonely   Planet,  Trip  Advisor,  and  Zagat.       These  authors  were  researching  this  topic  when  it  was  still  fairly  new.  The  research   is  still  relevant,  but  follow  up  needs  to  be  done  since  it  is  a  few  years  old  at  this   point.  The  research  also  focuses  only  on  cities  in  the  United  States;  while  this  makes   the  scope  reasonable  for  this  article,  more  research  needs  to  be  done  using   international  cities,  as  well  as  specific  destinations  and  sites.     123  

Yan,  Chang  and  Alastair  M.  Morrison.    “The  Influence  of  Visitors'  Awareness  of  World   Heritage  Listings:  A  Case  Study  of  Huangshan,  Xidi  and  Hongcun  in  Southern  Anhui,   China.”  Journal  of  Heritage  Tourism.  2  (2008):  184-­‐195.     Yan  and  Morrison’s  research  and  article  is  a  case  study  on  visitors’  level  of   awareness  at  two  heritage  sites  in  China.  The  results  of  the  case  study  show  that   many  people  there,  visiting  the  sites  themselves,  were  unaware  of  their  UNESCO   World  Heritage  Site  Designation.  The  authors  found  that  of  the  visitors  who  were   aware,  they  were  more  likely  to  want  to  delve  into  the  cultural  aspects  of  the  site,   whereas  the  other  visitors  were  more  interested  in  other  activities,  like  walking   around  or  hiking.     It  is  very  difficult  to  find  studies  on  visitor  motivation  within  the  context  of  cultural   tourism,  especially  when  it  comes  to  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites.  It  is  an  area  of   research  that  should  and  hopefully  will  expand  greatly  within  the  coming  years.  In   the  meantime,  this  article  is  very  useful  for  this  type  of  research  on  brand  awareness   and  UNESCO  sites  since  it  shows  how  unaware  most  visitors  are,  even  when  they  are   visiting  this  kind  of  site.  This  proves  the  point  of  the  paper  that  the  brand  is  not  very   strong  or  well-­‐known.     Yang,  Chih-­‐Hai;  Hui-­‐Lin  Lin  and  Chia-­‐Chun  Han.  “Analysis  of  International  Tourist   Arrivals  in  China:  The  Role  of  World  Heritage  Sites.”  Tourism  Management.  31   (2010):  827–837.     Yang,  Lin,  and  Han  researched  international  tourists  in  China  over  a  five  year  period   and  across  twenty-­‐six  provinces.  The  result  is  a  comprehensive  study  on  why  people   came  to  these  sites  and  the  differences  between  travelers  based  on  demographics.   The  results  show  that  a  majority  of  the  visitors  who  come  to  China  seeking   designated  heritage  sites  are  more  interested  in  cultural  sites  versus  natural,  which   is  not  very  surprising  given  China’s  rich  history.     This  article,  while  extremely  detailed,  is  not  as  helpful  to  the  research  as  other   articles  on  visitor  motivation  and  heritage  sites,  such  as  Yan  and  Morrison’s  work.   This  article  goes  into  depth  about  the  differences  between  Asian  tourists  to  China   and  American  and  Northern  European  tourists.  While  the  points  are  interesting,   many  of  the  differences  are  due  to  concerns  about  crime,  sanitation,  etc.  and  are   not  as  pertinent  to  the  paper.  However,  there  are  some  helpful  morsels  of   information  on  bigger  picture  issues  about  the  impact  of  World  Heritage  Sites  on   tourism  and  international  arrivals.          

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“You  and  JustGive:  A  Partnership  that  Works.”  JustGive.org.    28  April  2013.     .         This  page  on  JustGive.org's  website  illustrates  the  benefits  of  a  partnership  from  a   fundraising  standpoint.         The  sales  pitch  is  well  presented.    It  is  clear,  concise,  specific.         Yuksel,  Atila  and  Olcay  Akgul.  “Postcards  as  Effective  Image  Makers:  An  Idle  Agent  in   Destination  Marketing”  Tourism  Management.  28  (2007):  714-­‐725.       Yuksel  and  Akgul  examine  images  and  the  effect  they  have  on  traveler’s  destination   choice.  The  specifically  look  at  the  effect  of  Holiday  postcards  on  consumption  in  this   regard  as  they  are  one  of  the  most  widely  disbursed  forms  of  destination  image.  In   their  study,  they  found  strong  relationships  between  the  emotions  produced  by   destination  images  on  postcards  and  tourist  travel  desire.       Looking  through  the  specific  lens  of  the  destination  postcard,  the  authors  were   engaging  and  interesting  in  presenting  their  argument  for  the  importance  of  image   in  destination  choice.       Zapata,  Maria  Jose,  C.  Michael  Hall,  Patricia  Lindo  and  Mieke  Vanderschaeghe.  “Can   Community-­‐Based  Tourism  Contribute  to  Development  and  Poverty  Alleviation?   Lessons  from  Nicaragua.”  Current  Issues  in  Tourism.  14  (2011):  725-­‐749.       Zapata  et  al.  use  the  model  of  community-­‐based  tourism  and  apply  it  to  poverty   alleviation.  The  team  was  able  to  determine  that  top-­‐down  approaches  to   development  generally  reflected  the  criticisms  of  the  use  of  tourism  as  an  economic   tool,  and  the  bottom-­‐up  approaches  were  received  in  a  more  positive  light  and   perceived  to  better  benefit  host  communities.  Through  their  research,  however,   Zapata  et  al.  reveal  the  argument  for  a  combination  of  the  two  approaches  to   development.  As  both  have  their  successes  and  weaknesses,  a  strategy   implementing  both  top-­‐down  and  bottom-­‐up  development  would  be  the  most   beneficial  to  tourism  host  communities  in  the  long  term.       Though  Nicaragua  is  home  to  only  two  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Sites,  the  poverty-­‐ stricken  communities  in  the  country  are  similar  to  many  that  are  home  to   designated  properties.  The  lessons  learned  from  the  research  in  Nicaragua  can  be   applied  to  UNESCO  World  Heritage  Site  communities  and  their  efforts  to   development  a  tourist  industry  around  inscription.  The  article  by  Zapata  et.  al  was   fascinating,  resourceful,  and  easy  to  comprehend.                                                                                               125  

APPENDIX  

PERMISSION  LETTER     Preston  Robert  Tisch  Center  for  Hospitality,  Tourism  and  Sports  Management New  York  University 7  East  12th  Street,  New  York,  NY  10003 [DATE] Dear  [Name], This  letter  is  an  invitation  to  participate  in  a  capstone  project  we  are  conducting  as  part  of  our   Master’s   Degrees   in   Tourism   Management   at   NYU's   Preston   Robert   Tisch   Center   under   the   supervision  of  Dr.  Frederic  Mayo. The   purpose   of   this   capstone   project   is   to   explore   UNESCO’s   approach   to   the   selection,   preservation,   and   realization   of   cultural   sites   on   the   World   Heritage   List.   Through   this   examination,  the  best  practices  for  the  success  of  World  Heritage  Sites,  and  the  benefit  to  the   local  communities  over  the  long  term,  will  be  identified  in  a  white  paper.  Our  focus  will  be  on   present   day   issues   of   economic,   environmental,   and   socio-­‐cultural   impacts   of   tourism   to   UNESCO  World  Heritage  sites.   We   would   like   to   invite   you   for   an   interview   since   you   are   an   expert   in   the   field   of   [the   process/industry/etc].  We  believe  that  your  insight  would  be  an  invaluable  contribution  to  our   white  paper.   We   would   appreciate   your   voluntary   participation,   and   we   propose   that   the   interview   last   approximately  forty-­‐five  minutes  and  occur  either  by  phone,  video  conference,  or  at  a  location   that  is  convenient  for  you.  With  your  permission,  we  would  like  to  either  audio  or  video  record   our  conversation  to  facilitate  the  transcription  process.  After  the  interview  is  complete,  we  will   provide   you   with   a   transcript   to   give   you   the   opportunity   to   review   the   conversation   for   accuracy  and  to  clarify  any  points  you  desire.   It  is  our  goal  to  expand  the  conversation  within  our  industry,  and  bring  additional  awareness  to   the   significance   of   UNESCO   World   Heritage   Sites.   We   believe   that   the   “best   practices”   recommendations   we   make   as   a   result   of   this   investigation   will   be   of   benefit   to   the   global   tourism  community. Should  you  have  any   questions   regarding   the   research  process,   or  about  the  capstone  project  in   general,   please   contact   us   at   [individual   sender’s   phone]   or   by   email   at   [individual   sender’s   NYU   email].   You   may   also   contact   Dr.   Mayo,   the   faculty   sponsor,   at   (212)   998-­‐9107   or   [email protected]      

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    We   look   forward   to   speaking   with   you   and   thank   you   in   advance   for   your   assistance   with   this   research  project.     Sincerely,

[Name  of  Sender] On  behalf  of: Anna  Abelson,  Sarita  Dan,  Emily  Desjardins,  Gabrielle  McGinnis,  Cristian  Pena  Suarez,  Koba   Sebiskveradze,  and  Kristen  Warden M.S.  Candidates    in  Tourism  Management Tisch  Center  for  Hospitality,  Tourism,  and  Sports  Management New  York  University Email:  [individual  sender’s  email] Phone:  [individual  sender’s  phone] Frederic  B.  Mayo,  PhD  (Faculty  Sponsor) Clinical  Professor Preston  Robert  Tisch  Center  for  Hospitality,  Tourism  and  Sports  Management New  York  University 7  East  12th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10003 Email:  [email protected] Phone:  (212)  998-­‐9107 Fax:  (212)  995-­‐4676

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    INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  1     Interview  Protocol:  Opening  Script  (Draft) Hello  [Insert  interviewee  name]. [Pause] My  name  is  [Insert  name]  and  I  am  here  with  my  other  group  members  [insert  names].  Thank   you  for  taking  the  time  out  of  your  busy  schedule  to  be  interviewed  today. [Pause] We  are  graduate  students  at  the  NYU  Tisch  Center’s  Tourism  Management  program,  and  we  are   working  on  a  white  paper  for  our  capstone.  Our  topic  is  focused  on  UNESCO’s  approach  to  the   selection  and  preservation  of  cultural  heritage  attractions  and  implementation  of  viable   management  practices  for  sites  on  the  World  Heritage  List. [Pause] We  recognize  that  time  is  of  the  essence  so  I’ll  quickly  run  through  the  process.  The  interview   should  take  about  45  minutes.  We  will  be  recording  the  interview  and  taking  notes  to  ensure   that  we  obtain  accurate  information.  The  information  gathered  today  will  contribute  to  our   overall  body  of  knowledge  and  contribute  to  our  recommendations. We  would  like  the  opportunity  to  quote  you  for  our  paper  or  presentation.  If  you  would  like  to   keep  this  information  confidential,  then  we  can  include  your  quote  and  reference  you  as,   “[Insert  industry]  expert.”  Please  indicate  your  preference.    We  will  check  any  quotes  we  use   with  you  prior  to  presenting  the  paper. [Pause] Do  you  have  any  questions  before  we  begin? [Pause] Great.  Let’s  begin.

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Interview  Questions:     INTRODUCTION/OVERVIEW     1.      How  would  you  describe  your  role  in  your  organization?     2.      What  is  your  personal  experience  with  WHS  and  UNESCO  in  general?           DESIGNATION/APPLICATION  PROCESS     1. What  do  you  know  about  the  designation  and  application  process?    What  is  it  like?   a. What  is  the  voting  process  like?     2.  What  do  you  think  of  the  designation  process?   a.      What  are  the  challenges?   b.      What  are  some  possible  solutions?     3.      In  your  opinion,  why  did  all  of  this  start  in  the  first  place  (WHS  and  designation)?     4.      Why  did  UNESCO  get  involved  in  heritage  designation  in  the  first  place?   a.      Do  you  think  that  UNESCO  is  carrying  out  its  mission/original  purpose?   b.      If  no,  do  you  think  they  have  lost  their  way?       POLICY     1.      What  do  you  think  are  the  biggest  challenges  to  implementing  policy  changes  to  UNESCO?       TBL  (People  Planet  Profit)     1.      What  are  the  advantages  for  countries  to  having  WHS  designation?  What  are  the  impacts?     2.      What  ideas  might  you  have  in  terms  of  generating  revenue  streams?    How  can  expenses  be       offset?       3. A  number  of  sites  are  supported  by  corporate  partnerships.  In  your  experience  have  these   been  effective?   a. If  yes,  how  so?  

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b. If  no,  how  could  these  relationships  be  better  leveraged?     4.      People  say  that  sustainability  is  a  problem  with  WHS-­‐  what  does  this  mean  to  you?       5.    What  are  the  main  challenges  facing  UNESCO  WH  sites?   a. In  terms  of  economics   b.      In  sociocultural  terms   c.      In  environmental  terms       CONCERNS  &  OPPORTUNITIES     1.      What  do  you  think  the  biggest  threats  are  to  UNESCO  WHS?     2.      What  is  the  biggest  challenge  facing  UNESCO  WHS  as  an  organization/as  a  whole?     3.      What  is  the  greatest  strength  of  UNESCO  as  an  organization  re:  WHS?     4.      In  your  opinion,  what  are  the  differences  between  UNESCO  sites  in  developing  countries   versus  developed  countries?   a. Management  plans,  environmental  standards,  how  much  the  community  is   involved...’       SUCCESS  &  THE  FUTURE     1.    How  do  you  measure  success  in  terms  of  heritage  sites?  How  do  you  think  it  should  be   measured?       CLOSING     Thank  you  for  your  time.       Is  there  anything  you  feel  we  did  not  cover?   Is  there  anyone  else  that  you  recommend  we  speak  with?  

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