visual literacy beyond frontiers

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Maria D. Avgerinou. Robert E. Griffin. Editors. Janet Giesen. Patricia Search. Guest Editor. Carla Galvão Spinillo. Associate Editors. Scott Bondurant Chandler.

ivla | 2007

visual literacy beyond frontiers information, culture and diversity selected readings of the international visual literacy association

ivla | 2007 visual literacy beyond frontiers information, culture and diversity

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Maria D. Avgerinou Robert E. Griffin (Editors) Carla G. Spinillo (Guest Editor)

3/24/2008 10:20:46 AM

Official logo of The International Visual Literacy Association

Selected Readings of the International Visual Literacy Association

Senior Editors Maria D. Avgerinou Robert E. Griffin Editors Janet Giesen Patricia Search Guest Editor Carla Galvão Spinillo

Associate Editors Scott Bondurant Chandler Marilyn Terzic

Selected Readings of the International Visual Literacy Association © The International Visual Literacy Association, 2008 ISBN 13: 978-0-9816833-6-2 ISBN 10: 9816833-6-3 iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS Selected Readings Editorial Philosophy.……………………………...…………….…………...vi Editorial…………………….……………………………………….…………...……………...vii Editors & Associate Editors………………………………………….………………………...viii 2008 Guest Editor…………………...…...………………...…………………………………….xi Previous Editors………………………………………………………………………………....xii Editors’ Choice Award…………………………………………………………………………xiii Braden & Beauchamp Visual Literacy Award………………………………………………….xv In Memoriam - Lida Cochran………………………………………………………………….xvii Correction……………………………………………………………………………………..xviii Juried Award Winning Papers Understanding The Visual Language Of Picturebooks…………………………………………...1 Dominic Catalano Editors’ Choice Award Winner A Model Of Perception Useful For Designers And Artist...…………………………………….11 Paula Csillag Editors’ Choice Award Winner Modern Views And Front-Page News: Newspaper Design As A Form Of Visual Communication……………………..………………21 Marilyn Terzic Braden & Beauchamp Visual Literacy Award Juried Papers (listed in alphabetical order by first author) A Visual Method For Teaching Object Oriented Programming To Art And Design Students…………………………………………………………………….33 Leif Allmendinger Exploring The Visual Literacy Landscape Through IVLA’s Selected Readings: A Virtual Panel Discussion With The Graduate Student Editors……..………………………...43 Maria D. Avgerinou Guy Matheson Stacy McKinley Aimee Frank

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Multimedia Research Principles And Considerations For The Design Of Instructionally Effective Vodcasts………………………………………………………………49 Maria D. Avgerinou Rune Pettersson Applying ID Processes To Vodcast Design For Education And Information…………………..55 Maria D. Avgerinou Rune Pettersson Lennart Strand What Happens When There Are No Rules? Exploring Culture And Diversity Through Children’s Photography……………………………63 Ian Brown Roslyn Westbrook Pauline Lysaght Photography And Architecture: What Became From The Image?...............................................73 Cameron T. Campbell Armor Or Adornment: Hi-tech Clothing As A Visual Expression Of Self And A Catalyst For Social Interaction……..81 Annie O. Cleveland M. Barrett Cleveland Teaching Design In Brazilian Primary And Secondary Schools………………………………..87 Solange G. Coutinho Maria Teresa Lopes Visual Literacy And The Comic Book Format In Pre-Service Teacher Education……………..93 Jane Eberle Design For Educational Artifacts: An Evaluation Of The Use Of Images In Young Children’s Workbooks In Brazil…………….97 Verónica E.C. Freire Solange G. Coutinho Before You Produce A Video Podcast………………………………………………………...107 Nancy-Jo Johnson A Visual Inquiry Into A Typical Elementary School Day: A Case Study Of Two Schools In The United States And Japan………………………………111 Harumi Kajihara The National First Ladies’ Library: Making History Visible………………………………….117 Cindy Kovalik Visual Language In Children’s Textbooks…………………………………………………….127 José Fábio Luna da Silva Solange G. Coutinho

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How Are Time-Related Concepts Pictorially Represented In Instructional Materials?...................137 Tiago C. Maia Carla G. Spinillo Prescription Medicine Labeling Design: Connecting Stories And Personalizing Information……………………………………………….147 Judith A. Moldenhauer   The Mimetic Aspect Of Children’s Book Illustration……………………………………………..155 Barbara Jane Necyk Cristiane de Oliveira Nathalia Chehab de Sá Cavalcante Visual Literacy And Design Process Representations: An Investigation Onto The Comprehension Of Task Analysis Diagrams By Information Design Students………...163 Stephania Padovani Drawing As An Advent To Design Studio Education……………………………………………..169 Carl Rogers The Importance Of Incorporating Visual Literacy Skills In The Classroom……………………....175 Lilly Ruvolo Kaleidoscope: The Dynamic Discourse Of Visual Literacy In Experience Design……………….185 Patricia Search The Design Of Nazi Election Posters, And American Advertising And Public Relations...………193 Steven A. Seidman

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SELECTED READINGS EDITORIAL PHILOSOPHY IVLA is an eclectic organization of professionals working toward a fuller understanding of how we derive meaning from what we see and how we interact with our visual environment. Its’ members represent a wide range of disciplines including the arts, sciences, education, communication, business, videography, photography, instructional technology, health, and computer applications. What makes the Selected Readings special, like the members of IVLA who have contributed to it, is that it represents this broad range of interests and reflects some of the most diverse thinking in the field of visual communication. Each year, members come together at a conference held in conjunction with a college, university, or organization to present their ongoing work and to share perspectives in a multidisciplinary forum. Characterized by many different voices, and a cross-fertilization of ideas, interests and values, discussion is a lively mix of scholarship, creativity, and applications. Since the founding of the organization in 1968, this dynamic interaction between practitioners and theorists has been IVLA’s greatest strength. This peer reviewed collection of papers is selected from the presentations at the annual IVLA Conference. It is meant to reflect the spirit of the ongoing conversation among its diverse members and to promote new perspectives in its readers. Included in the Selected Readings are creative ideas in the making, works in progress that invite further thought and the results of long-term scholarly research. We are proud to present these multi-faceted works for your consideration. International Visual Literacy Association Publications Committee First stated in 1998 Over the years the Selected Readings have been expanded to include some writings that have not been presented at the IVLA annual meetings. These papers have been deemed by the editors as worthy of publication and are included when space is available. It should be noted that all writing has been reviewed by the editors. The Senior Editors

JURY PROCEDURE This book has been compiled using a peer review procedure to guarantee a high quality publication. The procedure began with planning the International Visual Literacy Association’s annual conference. Part of the conference planning procedure is to appoint a Paper Selection Committee to write the Call for Papers for the conference and subsequently serve as a screening committee for papers to be presented at the conference. Authors that have papers accepted at this stage of the evaluation are permitted to present their papers at the annual conference. All presenters are then permitted to submit their conference papers for possible publication in the book of Selected Readings. These papers are submitted to the Senior Editor of the Selected Readings. The Chairman of the International Visual Literacy Association Publications Committee selects the Senior Editor annually. Individuals who wish to be Editors of the Selected Readings submit a request to the Chairman of the Publications Committee one year in advance of the publication. The Senior Editor of the Selected Readings distributes the collected papers to the editors for review and comment. All papers are reviewed without the author information attached in a blind review. The rejection rate for this year’s publication was 19% based on the number of papers submitted at the second level screening. The rejection rate is considerably higher if you consider the review at the conference level. Please request further information about the review process from: Robert E. Griffin, Senior Editor P.O. Box 600 Saint Francis University Loretto, PA 15940

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EDITORS & ASSOCIATE EDITORS Editor Transition Editorship of the Selected Readings follows a prescribed transition plan. All editors serve for a continuous six years with new editors beginning as Associate Editors and proceeding through four Associate Editor steps. After completing these steps, an Associate Editor will move to Editor status and serve there for the remaining two years of their editorship. The Selected Readings has always had excellent editorial guidance. The Chairman of the IVLA Publication Committee appoints a Senior Editor each year for the Selected Readings. The Senior Editor in turn selects additional editorial assistance to fill vacancies left by editors who have completed their six years of service. In the process of creating this book, each of the Editors reads all of the papers submitted and the Associate Editors read a subset of papers. All papers are reviewed without author identification attached in a blind review. All editors are responsible for identifying possibilities for the Editors’ Choice Award and the Braden & Beauchamp Award. The Selected Readings could not be published without a strong group of Editors and Associate Editors. This year’s editorial group is shown below, listed in order of their seniority in the transition program.

______________________________________ Editors

Dr. Janet Giesen Instructional Design Coordinator Northern Illinois University Janet is the instructional design coordinator in the Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center and teaches courses in the Department of Educational Technology, Research and Assessment, both at Northern Illinois University. Her research interests include the integration of technology and visual skill development in teaching and learning. Janet is an appointed IVLA board member and served as the IVLA president for 2005-2006.

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Dr. Patricia Search Professor Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Patricia Search is a multimedia artist and Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY where she teaches visual literacy and visual design, multimedia interface design, and hypermedia art. Her research includes the development of new multiliteracy models for computer interface design. She was awarded a Fulbright Senior Specialists grant to work on interface designs for online programs in Indigenous Studies with two universities in Australia. She was also awarded a Fellowship in Computer Arts by the New York Foundation for the Arts. She has had 24 solo exhibitions of her art and participated in group exhibitions throughout the world. She received the Selected Readings Editors’ Choice Award in 2003 and 2007. ______________________________________ Associate Editors Dr. Scott B. Chandler Blacksburg, Virginia

Scott Bondurant Chandler is the senior partner of esolutions.com, a design consulting firm that provides live and asynchronous educational experiences to studentmedia, professional newspapers, graphic design firms, advertising agencies, and multimedia creators. Chandler maintains an affiliation with Virginia Tech where he taught interactive design and visual communication design for 15 years. In 2000 Chandler won the Selected Readings Editors' Choice Award and has served on the Selected Readings jury since 1999.

Marilyn Terzic McGill University Marilyn is a Ph.D. candidate in Communication Studies at McGill University. Her educational background includes a Bachelor of Commerce in Marketing and Management Information Systems and a Master¹s in Educational Technology. Marilyn researches and publishes on health communications, marketing communications, media law, media management, and visual communication media aesthetics, and is currently writing her dissertation on the perceptual, cognitive, and compositional bases of television images. She also maintains an interest in the design, production, and evaluation of educational materials. Marilyn serves on the Board of Directors and as the Recording Secretary of IVLA. Marilyn won the Selected Readings Editors' Choice Award in 2004 and was the Graduate Student Editor in 2005.

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__________________________________ Senior Editors

Dr. Maria D. Avgerinou Visiting Associate Professor DePaul University Maria is a Visiting Associate Professor at the School of Education of DePaul University (Chicago, IL), Department of Educational Policy and Research. Her teaching responsibilities include educational research, human development, and educational psychology. Her primary research interests focus on the assessment of Visual Literacy skills, instructional design for web-based and distributed learning, as well as action research for in-service teachers. She has served IVLA from numerous positions since 1996. Maria received the Selected Readings Braden & Beauchamp Visual Literacy Award and the IVLA Student Research Award in 2001.

Robert E. Griffin Assistant Director for Distance Learning Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA) Saint Francis University Bob retired from the College of Business Administration at Penn State University and now works at The Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas at Saint Francis University. At CERMUSA, he is creating distributed learning courses to support the medical professions. His current projects involve developing medical education courses that are offered in distance education for the military, educational, and private sector medical organizations. He has published numerous books and technical reports. He also teaches Managerial Communications and e-Business for the Enterprise in the Saint Francis University MBA Program. Bob has served IVLA in many capacities including Vice President, Board of Directors and other committee positions.

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2008 GUEST EDITOR

Carla Galvão Spinillo Adjunct Professor & Researcher Federal University of Paraná

Dr. Spinillo was asked to serve as Guest Editor for the Selected Readings for 2008 because of her efforts with the recent IVLA Conference held in Brazil. Her efforts were tireless. She has agreed to be an Associate Editor of the Selected Readings next year. Dr. Spinillo teaches at the Master Course of the Postgraduate Programm in Design. She is also a lecturer in the Master Course in Design at The Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. She is co-editor of the InfoDesign - Brazilian Journal of Information Design and ad-hoc in Design matters for the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Education in Brazil. Carla conducts studies in visual literacy, graphic language and information design applied to health and social development in Brazil. She has particular interest in visual instructions in print, publishing several articles on this subject. In 2002, she was granted with the Editor’s Choice Award of the Selected Readings of the IVLA -International Visual Literacy Association (USA). In addition to her academic work, she was twice president of the SBDI -Brazilian Society of Information Design, and member of the board of directors of the IVLA.

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PREVIOUS EDITORS Many members of IVLA have served as editors to the Selected Readings. The following is an alphabetical list of those who have served as either an Editor or Associate Editor. The asterisk (*) indicates that the person also served as a Graduate Student Editor prior to serving as an Editor. The date of service as a Graduate Student Editor is not shown in this list. Thank you all for your contribution to IVLA! Editor

Years Served

listed alphabetically

Maria Avgerinou William Armstrong Judy Clark Baca Katie Beauchermin Mikel Breitenstein Scott Bondurant Chandler Darrell Beauchamp Roberts Braden Mary L. Buck Belle Doyle Cowden John Debes Lenora H. Dunker Francis Dwyer Donald Fork William J. Gibbs Janet Giesen* Robert E. Griffin J. Mark Hunter Judith Kenzie Jung Lee* LaVerne W. Miller David M. (Mike) Moore John Newhouse Jean Pett Susan Clayton-Randolph Frankie Rezabek Wonda Riner Jay Roberts Patricia Search Carole B. Schiffman Carla Galvão Spinillo Marilyn Terzic* Nina J. Thayer Alice D. Walker Beth Weigmann Barry O. Williams Clarence Williams Vicki S. Williams

2003- Present 1979 1990 - 1994 1980 2004 – 2005 & 2007 2001 - Present 1985 - 1996 1982 - 1994 1998 2002 - 2006 1968 1984 1981 1980 1997 - 2000 2003 - Present 1993 - Present 1996 - 1997 1981 2001 - 2004 1985 - 1989 1988 1980 1981 1984 2000 - 2001 2002 2000 - 2001 2005 - Present 1996 - 1998 2008 - Present 2006 - Present 1984 1982 - 1984 1999 1998 - 1999 1968 1998 - 2003

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EDITORS’ CHOICE AWARD

Editors’ Choice

Each year the editors of the Selected Readings choose papers that they judge to be exemplary works of research and writing. The guidelines for the Editors’ Choice Award do not obligate the editors to follow any specific subject criteria when they select candidate papers for this award. They are only asked to select papers that hold their interest or that they find memorable. Winning papers are awarded the Editors’ Choice emblem shown at the top of this page. This year we have two winners. One of this year’s winners was written by Dominic Catalano titled Understanding The Visual Language Of Picturebooks. The second winner was Paula Csillag’s paper titled A Model Of Visual Perception Useful For Designers And Artists. We hope you enjoy these two exceptional papers. The decision on the Editors’ Choice Award is one of the most difficult decisions the editors make. I hope you agree with their selection. The author will receive his/her award at next year’s IVLA Conference. Congratulations to our two authors for their excellent papers. Listed below are the previous recipients of this award. Ties occur when the editors can not reach a conclusive decision concerning the best paper. The asterisk (*) denotes the first year the award was given. Year 2008 (tie) 2008 (tie)

Author(s)

Paper Title

Dominic Catalano

Understanding The Visual Language Of Picturebooks

Paula Csillag

2007

Patricia Search

2006 (3 way tie)

Brian H. Cameron Francis M. Dwyer

2006 (3 way tie)

Nancy-Jo Johnson

2006 (3 way tie)

Bob Hoffman Anne White Nicole Aquino

A Model Of Visual Perception Useful For Designers And Artists Digital Storytelling For Cross-Cultural Communication In Global Networking The Effect Of Online Gaming, Cognition And Feedback Type In Facilitating Delayed Achievement Of Different Learning Objectives Looking Through The Mind’s Eye Of Belgian Surrealist Painter René Magritte: Digital Animation Of Magritte’s Eye Imagery Screen Text Readability Ease, Accuracy, And Speed Of Some Common Computer Typefaces

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Year

Author(s)

2005

Luc Pauwels

2004

Marilyn Terzic

2003 (tie) 2003 (tie)

Karen J. Stewart Rhonda S. Robinson

2002

Carla G. Spinillo

2001 2000 (3 way tie) 2000 (3 way tie) 2000 (3 way tie) 1999 (tie) 1999 (tie) 1998 (tie)

Patricia Search

Paper Title Scientific Discourse And Representational Literacy: Elements And Dimensions Of An Integrated Theoretical Framework Unfiltered Uncovered: Effective Message Design Strategies To Promote Tobacco Nonuse To Teens The Metastructural Dynamics Of Interactive Electronic Design Visual Imagery, Cultural Transformation And Higher Education Rituals: Lessons For Professional Practice Are Visual Instructions Successful Messages? Some Considerations In The Analysis Of Procedural Sequences

Elizabeth (Betty) Cramton Beverlee R. Kissick Scott Bondurant Chandler Peter E. Doolittle Elizabeth (Betty) Cramton Beverlee R. Kissick

Practical Constructivism: Teaching Multimedia With A Hybrid Approach

Rune Pettersson

Graphic Symbols – Design And Meaning

Rolf J. Gaede D. Michelle Hinn

Symbols Of Unity: World War II Home Front U.S.A.

Photographs: Outliving Memory And Closing The Distance Of Time

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Phatic Function Of Newspaper Photographs Of Violence The Impact Of Visual Information In Web-Based Instruction On Students With Disabilities

Carol Stockdale

1998 (tie)

Punyashloke Mishra Kim Nguyen-Jahiel

1997

Dennis M. Dake

1996*

John J Cochenour Landra Rezabek

A Window To Learning Multiple Visual Representations Of The Periodic System Of Elements: Epistemological And Pedagogic Implications A Personal Vision Quest: Learning To Think Like An Artist Life Visions for the Future: Converging Ideas and Images from Sepulchral Visuals

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BRADEN & BEAUCHAMP VISUAL LITERACY AWARD

Visual Literacy Award

The Braden & Beauchamp Visual Literacy Award began with the 1999 edition of the Selected Readings and is meant to foster the theoretical work of the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA). The award is dedicated to two previous editors of the Selected Readings. While the Selected Readings have been blessed with many quality editors over the years, Dr. Roberts Braden (editor from 1982-1994) and Dr. Darrell Beauchamp (editor from 1985-1996) pushed this publication to significant heights during the many years they were wielding their editors’ pens. Along with many other contributions to IVLA, they are credited with increasing the stature of the Selected Readings. They elevated it from a collection of papers presented at the annual International Visual Literacy meeting, to a publication of papers selected by an editorial jury. As editors, they pushed the quality of the publication to a new level; their contributions to the Selected Readings have been extensive. The Braden & Beauchamp Visual Literacy Award is designed to honor papers that add to the theoretical foundation of the discipline of visual literacy. This foundational type of writing is reflected in Braden and Beauchamp’s own work, much of which was published in previous editions of the Selected Readings. Winning papers are awarded the Visual Literacy emblem shown at the top of this page. The editor’s are not obligated to give this award every year, it can be given sporadically. It is given only when exemplary papers are submitted for publication. This year’s winner is Marilyn Terzic from McGill University. Marilyn has an extensive history with IVLA. Marilyn has severed on the editorial board of the Selected Readings since 2006, was the recipient of the Editors’ Choice Award in 2004, and was the Graduate Student Editor of the Selected Readings in 2005. This award is another honor for her resume. Her paper is titled Modern Views And Front-Page News: Newspaper Design As A Form Of Visual Communication. We hope you enjoy reading it. The author will receive a certificate of recognition at the next IVLA Annual Conference. Congratulations on this excellent paper. Listed on the following pages are the recipients of these awards. This list does not show this year’s award winners. The asterisk (*) denotes the first year the award was given. Year

Author(s)

2008

Marilyn Terzic

2007 2006

Dr. Ian Brown Dr. Lori Lockyer No award given

Paper Title Modern Views And Front-Page News: Newspaper Design As A Form Of Visual Communication Don’t Mention The “T” Word: Value And Validity In Testing Visual Literacy

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Year

Author(s)

2005

Emma Jefferies

2004

M. Barrett Cleveland

2003

Petronio Bendito

2002 (tie) 2002 (tie)

Janet Giesen Rhonda S. Robinson

Paper Title Devising A Method For Improving Design Education Of Digital Visual Skills Seeing The Light Teaching Interactive Multimedia Design From A Visual Communications Standpoint: Curriculum And Assessment Strategies Expanding Our Influence: Examining Visual Literacy In Related Disciplines

Rune Pettersson

Visual Literacy In Message Design

2001 (tie)

Jennifer M. Brill Dohun Kim Robert Maribe Branch

Visual Literacy Defined: The Results Of A Delphi Study Can IVLA (Operationally) Define Visual Literacy

2001 (tie)

Maria Avgerinou

Towards A Visual Literacy Index

2000

Dennis M. Dake

1999*

Rachel Shalita

A Natural Visual Mind: The Art And Science Of Visual Literacy A New Method Of Visual Text Analysis: Configuration-Context-Conflict

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IN MEMORIAM Lida Cochran

Lida Weed Myers Cochran November 22, 2007 Another friend has left our midst. My friend, Lida Weed Myers Cochran, died on November 22, 2007 in Iowa City, Iowa. She was a a pioneer in the field of Visual Literacy. She was a colleague, advocate, adversary and a good friend. I first met Lida at AECT’s Okoboji Conference in 1974 and from that moment she included me in her family. I will miss her. She was born April 27, 1911. She graduated from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas in 1934 with a degree in History and French. In 1933 she married Harry A. Myers. When Harry joined the army in World War II, she studied photography and, as a professional photographer, won recognition in numerous photographic exhibitions. After the war, Harry, Lida and their son moved to Washington where Harry practiced dentistry and Lida opened a photographic studio. In 1956, Lida was hired to develop the first audiovisual program for the Grays Harbor County, Washington schools. After Harry died in an automobile accident in 1957, Lida continued her studies and earned a Masters degree in Education from Central Washington State University. She was hired to teach photography and established the first audiovisual services unit at the University. While attending the Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference in the summer of 1960, Lida visited the University of Iowa and met Lee W. Cochran, a pioneer in the audiovisual field. They were married in December 1960. For twenty years, Lida served as an Assistant Professor in the College of Education at the University of Iowa. She taught classes at the forefront of educational design including a Systems Approach to Instruction and Visual Literacy. In May 1975, Lida was awarded a $400,000 grant by the Eastman Kodak Company to establish the Iowa Visual Scholars Program. With a colleague they created an interdisciplinary advisory board with faculty from Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Audiology, Communications and Art. This program became one of the most influential programs in the history of visual literacy. After retiring in 1980, Lida provided support for a new Public Access channel on the Hawkeye TV Cable channel in Iowa City. She represented Willowwind School on the Education channel and served for six years on both the Public Access TV Board and the Board for United Action for Youth. In 1981, Lida and Jack Debes from Eastman Kodak launched a refereed publication, The Journal of Visual Literacy. She continued to present at the International Visual Literacy Association and at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology conferences until 2000. For the rest of her life, Lida continued to work on a theory describing how visual language fits in with other language systems of human communication. To recognize her professional contributions, Lida was awarded the Jack Debes Award from the International Visual Literacy Association, and the Distinguished Service Award from the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Bob Griffin Senior Editor

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CORRECTION In the previous edition of the Selected Readings: History, Community, & Culture, an error was made on page 177. For the paper Using A Diorama To Teach Visual Literacy In An Interior Design Studio, Elizabeth Pober was omitted as an author of the paper. Ms. Pober cotaught the interior design studio course and helped develop the diorama project of which the description and analysis was the paper's subject.

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