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Teritorry of Pancevo city, Odessa region, Ialoveni Rayon) belonging to 8 SEE ... Rovigo, Odessa and Istrian region) and the max 2,493m at Teleorman-Giurgiu-.

   

   

 

TRANSNATIONAL INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE FOR EUROPEAN WATER EMERGENCY CONTROL (EU.WATER) Priority Axis: Protection and Improvement of the Environment Area of Intervention: A.O.L. 1.2 Improve integrated water management and flood risk prevention Project Duration: 36 months

Synthesis of the Vulnerability Reports WP3: Knowledge capitalization and sensitive area maps Act 3.2: Organization / rationalization of data concerning the available information, deliverables and guidelines about water management in agriculture (relevant normative frameworks & agronomic features included)

Leader of the activity Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Professor Dr. Basil Manos

Researchers B. Manos, K. Voudouris, N. Kazakis, A. Tagarakis, O. Papadopoulou, S. Arampatzis, G. Desipris, D. Zioga

Thessaloniki, March 2012

CONTENTS  1.Synthesis the Vulnerability Reports............................................................................ 2  1.1 

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 2 

1.2 

Common methodology .................................................................................... 3 

2. Vulnerability maps ..................................................................................................... 5  2.1 Po River basin (Italy) ........................................................................................... 5  2.1.1 Vulnerability maps (Rovigo) ............................................................................ 6  2.1.2 Vulnerability maps (Ferrara)............................................................................. 8  2.2 Sarigkiol basin (Greece) ................................................................................... 11  2.2.1 Vulnerability maps (Sarigkiol) ....................................................................... 11  2.3 Odessa region (Ukraine) .................................................................................... 14  2.3.1 Vulnerability maps (Odessa region) ............................................................... 15  2.4 Pančevo Territory (Serbia)................................................................................. 18  2.4.1 Vulnerability maps (Pančevo Territory).......................................................... 19  2.5 Arges-Vedea watershed (Romania) ................................................................... 21  2.5.1 Vulnerability maps (Arges-Vedea watershed) ............................................... 22  2.6 Botna river-Ialoveni rayon, (Moldova) .............................................................. 25  2.6.1 Vulnerability maps (Botna river-Ialoveni rayon) ........................................... 26  2.7 Istrian region (Croatia) ....................................................................................... 29  2.7.1 Vulnerability maps (Istria region) ................................................................... 29  3. Usefulness of the maps ............................................................................................ 31 

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1.Synthesis the Vulnerability Reports 1.1 Introduction

EU.WATER, carried out in 9 rural study areas (Po River basin, Province of Rovigo, Sarigkiol basin, Hajdú Bihar county, Teleorman-Giurgiu-Arges region, Istrian region, Teritorry of Pancevo city, Odessa region, Ialoveni Rayon) belonging to 8 SEE Countries (Italy, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine, Moldova) tackles the emergency related to water consumption and contamination in Europe, and aims at spreading, at transnational level, integrated water resource management in agriculture, based on the optimization of water consumption and cutback of groundwater pollution. All partners have collected available data (climate, geomorphological, geological, hydrogeological, land uses, protected areas etc) for each area. The region with the largest area is Odessa covering 33,313 km2 and the smallest area is Sarigkiol covering 469.2 km2. The min altitude is 0 m for the seaside regions (Po River basin, Province of Rovigo, Odessa and Istrian region) and the max 2,493m at Teleorman-GiurgiuArges region (Carpathian mountains). The regions characterized by different climate types. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 245mm (May to October in Sarigkiol basin) to 360mm (November to April in Pancevo area) and the mean annual temperature ranges from 2.7°C (November to April in Odessa) to 19.9°C (May to October in Sarigkiol basin). The most important parameter for the applied methodology is the soil texture.. The agricultural areas coverage ranges from 26,616 km2 (Odessa) to 153.3 km2 (Sarigkiol basin). The largest population is found in Teleorman-Giurgiu-Arges region (1,354,842 people) but the most densely populated area is Pancevo area with population density 172 people/ km2. The water demands in each area are covered by groundwater abstracted by numerous boreholes and surface water. The main aquifer systems are developed in alluvial aquifers except of the karstic aquifer in Istrian region. Nitrates are the main pollutant for surface and groundwater in agricultural land and the pollution sources for nitrates in water bodies are the animal wastes, fertilizers for the crops and septic tanks.

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Furthermore, data for protected areas were collected and delineated in each region (Natura 2000). Based on the collected data presented in regional reports, each country applied the common methodology in order to develop groundwater vulnerability maps and nitrate sensitivity maps using the common methodology developed within the EU-Water project. The results presented in this report. 1.2 Common methodology

Agricultural-dominated systems, where fertilizers and pesticides are extensively used, are the main sources for surface and groundwater pollution. In order to assess the vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses and the pollution potential of groundwater a new methodology was introduced. A set of indices was developed in order to classify the vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses (LOS), setting a basis for the integrated water resources management in agricultural systems. The LOS indices (in mm.year-1) are: LOSW-P=the annual losses due to deep percolation beneath the root zone of the 30 cm, LOSW-R=the annual losses due to surface runoff and LOSW-PR=the sum of annual losses due to deep percolation and surface runoff. The indices are correlated with hydraulic conductivity (mm.day-1), the slope (%), precipitation (mm.year-1), potential evapotranspiration (mm.year-1) and irrigation (mm.year-1). The GLEAMS V3.0 model is a computer program used to simulate water quality events on agricultural fields. GLEAMS has been used internationally and especially in the U.S.A. to evaluate the hydrologic and water quality response of many different scenarios considering different cropping systems, wetland conditions, subsurface drained fields, agricultural and municipal waste application, nutrient and pesticide applications and different tillage systems. To calibrate the indices using multiple regression analysis, the simulation results of GLEAMS V3.0 model for combinations of different soil properties, topography and climatic conditions of a reference field-crop were used as “observed values”. All the simulations to gain the LOS indices were carried out for the same reference fieldcrop, the same nitrogen fertilization and the same irrigation practice, in order to obtain 3

the intrinsic vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses. The LOS indices were also combined to derive nitrogen concentrations in the percolated and in the runoff water. Finally, the connection of LOS indices with the groundwater was performed using an additional equation, which determines the minimum transit time of the percolated water to reach the groundwater table. In order to include the unsaturated zone, an additional index that gives the minimum relative transit time of water and consequently substances losses from the surface to reach the groundwater was used. The relative transit time is a measure of groundwater vulnerability. The less the transit time, the greater the chances of the pollutant to be transported to the groundwater surface (high vulnerability). It is pointed out that, the deeper the water levels are, the longer the pollutant takes to reach the groundwater table (low vulnerability). The required data include: Hydrogeological data, meteorological data (annual rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration etc), depth to groundwater, topography, soil data and land uses. A database was established, in order to input the collected data into GIS, which offers the facilities to store, manipulate and analyze data in different formats and at different scales. The final maps were created using the tools of Arc GIS from the combination of the different parameters. In the frame of the EU WATER project an Information Data Bank was developed (http://www.eu-water.eu/). It is pointed out that the GIS platform is included in the EU WATER wed site and is used as a map viewer and navigation tool for the uploaded GIS data in the Information Data Bank. Using the selection bars of GIS layers, the web visitors can view data concerning: digital boundaries, land use, soil types classes, surface and groundwater, pollution sources, protected areas etc. Finally, guidelines have been prepared by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in order to help the EU-Water partners to standardize the completion process of the questionnaire, the mapping process for the development of the GIS platform and the collection of available data regarding water and nitrogen management in the designated target areas of the project.

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2. Vulnerability maps 2.1 Po River basin (Italy)

Po river basin is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and consists in the Provinces of Ferrara and Rovigo, covering a total area of 4460.2 Km2 . The pilot area covers the basin of the Po river, a single territorial entity ruled by two different administrations, respectively located in the Region of Emilia Romagna and Veneto Region. The territories are flown throught the main italian rivers (Po, Adige and Reno) and is borded to the north by the Province of Padova and Lombardia Region (Province of Mantova) along the Po river, on the west by the Province of Modena and the Province of Verona, on the south.east, along the Reno river, with the Province of Bologna and the Province of Ravenna and on the east by the Adriatic Sea, between the Adige river and the Reno river outlet (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Location Map of Po river basin, Province of Ferrara and Province of Rovigo, Italy.

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2.1.1 Vulnerability maps (Rovigo) Regarding the total water losses (LOSW-PR), the most vulnerable zone is detected along existing rivers or ancient riverbed (paleoalvei) in the central and eastern part of the province: the total surface of these areas is however very small and the related value is 412-445 mm/year. The western part of the target area is characterized by values varying from 277 to 328 mm/year (Fig. 2). The other two maps represented in Fig. 3 Water losses from percolation (LOSW-P) and water losses from runoff.

Fig. 2 Annual total water losses (LOSW-PR) in Po river basin.

Fig. 3 Water losses from percolation (LOSW-P) and water losses from runoff (LOSW-R), in Po river basin.

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Regarding the total nitrogen losses (LOSN-PRN), the most vulnerable zone is detected, as expected, on the dune belt and some small sandy areas in the Po delta showing values varying from 34 to 43 kg/Ha year. The middle class is not represented and the remaining part of the target area is characterized by the lower indices (18-26 kg/Ha year) (Fig. 4 Annual total Nitrogen losses (LOSN-PRN) in Po river basin.). Nitrogen losses through surface runoff and percolation represented in Fig. 5 Nitrogen losses from percolation (LOSW-PN) and water losses through surface runoff.

Fig. 4 Annual total Nitrogen losses (LOSN-PRN) in Po river basin.

Fig. 5 Nitrogen losses from percolation (LOSW-PN) and water losses through surface runoff (LOSW-RN), in Po river basin. In order to include the unsaturated zone, an additional equation that gives the minimum relative transit time (TT) was calculated. The relative transit time is a measure of groundwater vulnerability. The less the transit time, the greater the 7

chances of the pollutant to be transported to the groundwater surface (high vulnerability). It is pointed out that, the deeper the water levels are, the longer the pollutant takes to reach the groundwater table (low vulnerability). Regarding the TT, even if a ten classes scale as been set, the classes effectively represented in Rovigo Province are only five and vary from 0,28-3 days (first class) to 25-28 days (higher class). In the areas of the first class more studies seem necessary to prevent higher pollution potential (high vulnerability) of the underlying groundwater (Fig. 6). It is pointed out that, the calculated values of transit time are relative and a site of low pollution potential do not mean that it is free form groundwater pollution, but it is relatively less vulnerable to contamination compared to the sites with great TT values.

Fig. 6 Relative transit time of the percolated water to reach the groundwater table in Po river basin. 2.1.2 Vulnerability maps (Ferrara) In Ferrara province the water losses through percolation across the root zone, under the top 30 cm of the soil profile (LOSW-P) are higher in the coastal region, where the soil texture is dominated by the sand of the dunes with high k values (Fig. 8). The water losses through surface runoff (LOSW-R), are higher in the western and in the south central regions. This is due to a combination of higher slopes, lower k values and higher rainfall (Fig. 8). The resulting total water losses (LOSW-PR) show that the 8

most vulnerable zones in FP are the south central part, close to the Reno riverbank and secondly the coastal dunes (Fig. 9). According to the LOSN indices, the nitrogen losses through percolation across the root zone, under the top 30 cm of the soil profile (LOSN-PN) are higher in the coastal dunes as for LOSW-P but, additionally, show medium values along the riverbanks, the paleo-channels and the crevasse splays of the Po and the Reno rivers, characterized by high k values (Fig. 10). The nitrogen losses through surface runoff (LOSN-RN) show an analogous distribution to LOSW-R (Fig. 8). The resulting total nitrogen losses (LOSN-PRN) identify the most vulnerable zone in the coastal region (Fig. 9). Finally, the higher nitrogen concentrations in the runoff water (LOSW-RN) are observed in the western region (Fig. 10), while the higher nitrogen concentrations in the percolated water (LOSW-PN) are observed in the coastal region (Fig. 10), which presents also the lower values of minimum transit time TT (Fig. 11) and consequently is characterized by a higher potential pollution of the underlying groundwater.

Fig. 7 Water losses from percolation (LOSW-P) and water losses from runoff (LOSW-R), for the Ferrara Province. .

Fig. 8 Annual total water losses (LOSW-PR) for the Ferrara Province. 9

Fig. 9 Annual total Nitrogen losses (LOSN-PRN) for the Ferrara Province.

Fig. 10 Nitrogen losses from percolation (LOSW-PN) and water losses through surface runoff (LOSW-RN), for the Ferrara Province.

Fig. 11 Relative transit time of the percolated water to reach the groundwater table for the Ferrara Province.

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2.2 Sarigkiol basin (Greece) Sarigkiol basin is located in the north-west part of the Kozani prefecture territory, with a surface of 469.2 Km2, which are covered by agricultural land (32.7% - 153.3 km2), by forests and semi natural areas (56.9% - 266.8 Km2) and by urban or artificial surfaces (10.4% - 49.1 km2), which includes coal mines and steam electric power plants that cover 31.7 km2 (Corine Land Cover 2000). At the west side there is Askio Mountain, at the east side there is Vermio Mountain, at the south side there is Skopos Mountain. The north border is nowadays the open pit of the south field lignite mines and partly the tectonic horst of Komanos. Important surface waters (e.g. lakes and rivers) are not existed in the study area except Soulou Torrent (non significant flow and small river bed, is used as a drainage pathway), which intersects the basin and was artificially opened up in 1954. The lowlands (elevation